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# Scientific method (1)

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### Scientific method (1)

1. 1. Scientific Method<br />Stella<br />Jason<br />
2. 2. What distinguishes science from non-science is a distinctive method.<br />
3. 3. Inductivism:the traditional scientific method<br />Observation<br />Hypothesis<br />Experiment<br />Law<br />Theory<br />
4. 4. Observation<br />Observe and classify the relevant data<br />
5. 5. Hypothesis<br />Look for a pattern in the data and formulate a hypothesis<br />
6. 6. Experiment<br />Make a prediction<br />
7. 7. A good experiment should have following features:<br />Controllability: vary only one factor at a time<br />Measurability: measure the relevant variables<br />Repeatability: the experiment can be repeated<br />
8. 8. Law<br />Experimental results confirm the hypothesis<br /> Discover a scientific law<br />Experimental results disconfirm the hypothesis<br /> Think again<br />
9. 9. Theory<br />Develop a theory which explains and unifies various laws <br />Explain why the laws are the way they are and provide a focus for further research<br />
10. 10. Problems with observation<br />Relevance: we have overlooked a factor that later turns out to be relevant<br />Expectations: our expectations can influence what we see<br />Expert seeing: the use of scientific equipment make observation further complicates things<br />The observer effect: the act of observation can sometimes affect what we observe<br />
11. 11. Confirmation Bias<br />People tend to look for evidence that confirms their beliefs and overlook evidence that goes against them<br />
12. 12. Scientific Method Example:The Doppler Effect<br />
13. 13. The Doppler Effect<br /><ul><li> Proposed in 1842 by Christian Doppler
14. 14. Describes the change in frequency for an observer who is observing any type of waves</li></ul>(Light, Sound, etc.) <br /><ul><li>Everyday examples of Doppler effect: sirens, trains, engines, stars</li></li></ul><li>Observation<br />Doppler observed natural phenomena<br />Theorized that any ship which is moving toward oncoming waves has to receive, in the same period of time, more waves than one which is not moving<br />
15. 15. Hypothesis<br />He theorized that, since the pitch of sound from a moving source varies for a stationary observer, the color of the light from a star should alter according to the star's velocity relative to Earth. <br />All stars emit white light and that the color of some of the stars was owing to their motion toward or away from us<br />
16. 16. Experiment<br />Doppler set up an experiment using two groups of trumpeters<br />One group set up at a train station while the other set up on a train car that was to be pulled past the station.<br />Both groups were to play the same note and Doppler's theory stated that the notes would be dissonant (that the frequencies would be different). <br />This turned out to be true; the notes were audibly different, even though both groups of musicians were playing the same note<br />
17. 17. Law/Theory<br />The change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave<br />As the source of frequency emission (E.g. a train) moves toward the observer, there forms a compression for the frequency between the source and the observer reducing the length of the waves which in effect increase the frequency and in turn the pitch.<br />
18. 18. Works Cited<br />Erim, Han. "Doppler Effect." Alice In Physics. 8 Aug. <br /> 2010. Web. 15 Nov. 2010.<br />Lagemaat, Richard Van De. Theory of Knowledge for the <br /> IB Diploma. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. Print.<br />Roguin, A. "Christian Johann Doppler: the Man behind the Effect <br /> -- Roguin 75 (895): 615." The British Journal of <br /> Radiology (2001). The British Journal of Radiology. 15 Apr. 2002. Web. 15 <br /> Nov. 2010.<br />