Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Information System (CH.4)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Information System (CH.4)

289
views

Published on

Information System Ch. 4 // Uploaded By Hakam ..

Information System Ch. 4 // Uploaded By Hakam ..


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
289
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • * 07/16/96 * ##
  • Transcript

    • 1. Computers Are Your Future Twelfth Edition Chapter 4: System SoftwareCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 2. System SoftwareCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 3. Objectives • List the two major components of system software. • List the five basic functions of an operating system. • Explain why a computer needs an operating system. • Explain what happens when you turn on a computer.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 4. Objectives• List the three major types of user interfaces.• List the three categories of operating systems.• Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the most popular operating systems.• List the system utilities that are considered essential.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 5. Objectives• Discuss data backup procedures.• Understand troubleshooting techniques and determine probable solutions to any operating system problems you may encounter.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 6. System Software • System software o Consists of all the programs that enable the computer and its peripheral devices to function smoothly o Divided into two main categories: o The operating system o System utilities (utility programs)Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 7. The Operating System• Five basic functions o Starts the computer o Manages applications o Manages memory o Handles input and output device messages o Provides a user interface for communication Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 8. The Operating System • Operation system (OS) o Set of programs that coordinates: o Interactions of hardware components to each other o Interaction between application software and computer hardwareCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 9. The Operating System• Starting the computer o Booting—loading the OS into RAM o Cold boot: Starting computer when it has not yet been turned on o Warm boot: Restarting a computer that is already onCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 10. The Operating System The Six Steps of Booting a System • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 11. The Operating System• Step 1: Activate the BIOS and Setup Program o BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) instructions provide the computer with descriptions of the internal equipment o Bios is encoded on ROM (read-only memory) o Does not control external devices o Adjustable energy settings o Setup program o Includes settings that control computer hardware o Do not alter—making incorrect changes to a BIOS device will cause the system not to bootCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 12. The Operating System• Step 2: Initiate the Power-On Self-Test o Power-on self-test (POST) —to confirm that both the computer and its peripheral devices are working properly o If the POST fails: o A beep will sound. o An error message will appear on the monitor. o The computer will stop.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 13. The Operating System• Step 3: Load the Operating System o BIOS o Looks for the operating system o Loads the kernel into memory—the central part of the operating system o The operating system loads the system configuration information.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 14. The Operating System• Step 4: Configure the System o Operating system o Checks the registry • Database that stores information about software and peripherals choices, for configuration information o Checks the configuration for drivers • Utility programs containing instructions for the proper functioning of peripheral devices. o Automatically detects plug-and-play (PnP) devices o Checks for conflicts between devices o Installs and loads needed driversCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 15. The Operating System• Step 5: Load System Utilities o Antivirus software o Speaker volume control o Power management optionsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 16. The Operating System• Step 6: Authenticate a User o Verifies authorized users o Enter an authentication/login user name and password o Profile—a record of a specific user’s preferences for the desktop theme, icons, and menu styles o Account—for multiuser computer systems each user has an account o Consists of user name, password, and storage space o Created by server/computer administratorCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 17. The Operating System• Managing applications o Single-tasking operating systems —run only one application at a time o Multitasking operating systems—permit more than one application to run at the same time o The foreground application is the active one. o Background applications appear inactive. o Preemptive multitasking —ensures all applications have fair access to the CPUCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 18. The Operating System • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 19. The Operating System• Managing memory o Buffer o Area that holds data and instructions temporarily o Makes programs run faster o RAM memory functions as the buffer. o OS gives each program a portion of RAM memory and keeps them from interfering with each other.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 20. The Operating System• Managing memory (con’t.) o Virtual memory—uses portion of hard disk to extend RAM o Pages—units of fixed size, contain program instructions and data o When RAM is full, copies of pages are temporarily stored in a swap file, a special hard disk file. o Transferring files between RAM and the hard disk— paging o Excessive paging—thrashingCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 21. The Operating System• Managing memory (con’t.) o Adding more RAM—best way to improve computer performance: o Paging slows computer. o Accessing data from hard disk is slower than accessing from RAM. o Windows Vista and Windows 7 come with Windows ReadyBoost o Allows allocation of space on removable memory devices such as USBs that can be used to increase the size of RAM o Better performance than hard disk virtual memory because accessing files on flash memory is quicker than accessing the hard driveCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 22. The Operating System • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 23. The Operating System “canceled”• Coordinating tasks o Device drivers—enable communication between computer and devices o Interrupts—signals created by input and output devices o Notify the OS when actions are taken o Interrupt handlers (also called interrupt service routines)—miniprograms that immediately respond when an interrupt occurs o Interrupt vector table —holds responses from multiple interrupts in RAM, where the OS processes them in highest to lowest priority order o Interrupt request (IRQ) —actual interrupting of an event by an interrupt signalCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 24. The Operating System• Providing the user interface – Allows the user to: – Start application programs – Manage storage devices – Safely shut down the computerCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 25. The Operating System• Types of user interfaces o Graphical user interface (GUI) o Menu-driven user interface o Command-line user interfaceCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 26. The Operating System• Types of user interfaces (con’t.) o Graphical user interface (GUI) o Uses icons—small images that: • Represent computer resources used to initiate actions • Appear on the desktop oWork area created after the OS loads into memory o Sidebar—invisible 1-inch vertical strip on the right side of the desktop, holds user designated gadgets o Programs you open will appear in the center of the desktop.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 27. The Operating System • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 28. The Operating System• Windows 7 is the most recent Microsoft OSCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 29. The Operating System• Types of user interfaces (con’t.) o Menu-driven user interface o Provides text-based menus o Displays available user options o Command-line user interface o Requires the user to type commands to instruct the OS to perform the desired actions o Uses complicated rules of syntaxCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 30. Exploring Popular Operating Systems• Three categories of operating systems o Stand-alone operating systems—used by single users o Server operating systems—used in client/server network environments o Embedded operating systems—found on ROM chips in portable or dedicated devicesCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 31. Exploring PopularOperating Systems “read”Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 32. Stand-AloneOperating Systems “read”• Windows Operating Systems TimelineCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 33. Stand-AloneOperating Systems “read”Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 34. Stand-AloneOperating Systems “read”Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 35. Stand-AloneOperating Systems “read”• Microsoft Windows 7 o Six versions o Starter o Home Basic o Home Premium o Professional o Enterprise o Ultimate o More efficient than previous versions o Compatibility issues resolved o New features o Jump list o Pin o Snap o Windows Search Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 36. Stand-AloneOperating Systems “read”• Microsoft Windows Vista o Five versions o Basic o Home Premium o Business o Ultimate o Enterprise o Replaced Windows XP o Supports tablet PCs and other mobile devices o New and improved features, such as: o Search o Networking tools o Integrated speech recognition o Gadgets—applications that appear as iconsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 37. Stand-Alone Operating Systems • Mac OS o Used on Macintosh personal computers o Stable, simple to use o Latest version is Mac OS X Snow LeopardCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 38. Stand-Alone Operating Systems • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 39. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• UNIX o Features preemptive multitasking o Has many versions that are not compatible o Hard to use—defaults to a command-line user interface o Mac OS X is based on UNIXCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 40. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• Linux o Developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991 o Open source software —source code is available to users o Powerful, free o Features such as o Multitasking o Virtual memory o Internet support o GUI o Gaining acceptance for Web servers o Disadvantages o Lack of technical support prevents adoption in corporate environments o Difficult to run Microsoft Office applicationsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 41. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• PC Versus Mac Versus Linux o Platform—determined by combination of microprocessor chip & OS o PCs o Dominate marketplace o Windows OS o Intel or AMD chip o More software available o Macs o Mac OS o Motorola or IBM chip o Most current OS can run Windows software o Creative fields are almost exclusive to Mac o Linux o Can be installed on PC or Mac o More secure—fewer virusesCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 42. Stand-Alone Operating Systems • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 43. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• Server operating systems o Microsoft Windows Server 2008 o Used in corporate environments to support client/server systems o Benefits include: • Security • Web server • Administration • Virtualization o Other server operating systems o Unix o Linux o Netware by Novell o Solaris o Mac OS X ServerCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 44. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• Embedded operating systems o Designed for specific applications o Compact and efficient o Eliminate many unneeded features of OSs o Used in PDAs, cell phones, kitchen appliances, point-of-sale devices, industrial robots, etc.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 45. Stand-Alone Operating Systems • Microsoft Windows Mobile o Designed for smartphones and PDAs o Includes simplified versions of Windows programs o Supports handwriting recognition and voice recording o Supports synchronizing with corresponding programs on desktop computersCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 46. Stand-Alone Operating Systems• More embedded operating systems o Window CE o Used in devices such as hand-held PCs, video game players, digital cameras, and industrial products such as barcode readers o Palm OS o Developed for PDAs—currently used in smartphones such as Palm Pixi o Symbian OS o Open industry standard operating system for data-enabled mobile phones with many add-on devicesCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 47. Stand-Alone Operating Systems • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 48. Stand-Alone Operating Systems • More embedded operating systems o Android o Supports CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) and more screen resolutions o iPhone OS o Features • Genius Mixes • Genius Recommendations • Saving video from mail and MMS into Camera Roll • Save a New Clip optionCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 49. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools• System utilities (utility programs) o Software programs—essential to effective management of the computer system o Perform tasks such as: o Backing up files o Providing antivirus protection o Searching for and managing files o Compressing files o Providing accessibility utilities to individuals with special needsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 50. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools• Backup software—copies data found on the hard disk to a backup device o Full backups—include all files and data o Incremental backups —include only those files changed or added since the previous backup o Drive imaging software —creates a mirror image of the entire hard drive Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 51. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 52. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools• Antivirus software —protects the computer from viruses o Popular antivirus programs: o BitDefender Antivirus o Kaspersky Anti-virus o Webroot AntiVirus wit SpySweeper o Norton AntiVirus o ESET Nod32 Antivirus Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 53. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools• Searching for and managing files o File manager—utility software that organizes and manages data o Copy files o Determine how and where files are stored o Delete files o Search utility—enables you to locate filesCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 54. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 55. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools • Click to edit Master text styles o Second level o Third level • Fourth level o Fifth levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 56. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools• Scanning and defragmenting disks o Disk scanning programs —find and resolve disk file storage problems o Bad sector—irregularity on the disk’s surface that renders a portion of the disk unable to store data reliably o Disk cleanup utilities —remove unnecessary files to save space o Fragmented disk—results from computer creating and erasing files on hard disk o Causes disk access to slow while system looks in several locations to find all file segments o Disk defragmentation programs —reorganize stored data in a more efficient mannerCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 57. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools• File compression utilities o Decrease the size of files, resulting in faster downloads o Create archives by storing files in a special formatCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 58. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools• Accessibility utilities o Designed to make computing easier for individuals with special needs o Magnifier o On-screen keyboard o Speech recognition o Narrator Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 59. System Utilities: Housekeeping Tools • Systems update o Windows Update for Windows 7 and Vista automatically downloads and installs updates. o Includes service packs, version upgrades, and security updatesCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as
    • 60. System Utilities:Housekeeping Tools “read” • Troubleshooting o Keep a boot disk (emergency disk) —to load the operating system for emergencies o Use the Windows Help and Support utility o Shut down the system properly. o Use correct procedure; don’t just turn the power off. o Put in sleep mode, a low-power state, as an alternative. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 61. System Utilities:Housekeeping Tools “read” • Safe mode o Windows loads a minimal set of drivers known to function correctly o Use Control Panel to discover devices that are causing the problem Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 62. System Utilities:Housekeeping Tools “read” • Reliability and Performance Monitor o Helps determine when system’s performance began to degrade o Gives details about events that may have caused the problem • Help and Support o Available from Start menu o Includes several ways to manage and maintain the computer Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 63. Summary • List the two major components of system software. • List the five basic functions of an operating system. • Explain why a computer needs an operating system. • Explain what happens when you turn on a computer.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 64. Summary • List the three major types of user interfaces. • List the three categories of operating systems. • Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the most popular operating systems. • List the system utilities that are considered essential.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 65. Summary • Discuss data backup procedures. • Understand troubleshooting techniques and determine probable solutions to any operating system problems you may encounter.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing
    • 66. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.   Publishing as Prentice HallCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as