2 – 1 AREAS OF DATA PROCESSING Business Data Processing Scientific Data Processing 2 – 2 DATA PROCESSING OPERATIONS Recording Verifying Duplicating Classifying Calculating
Calculating Summarizing and Reporting Merging Storing Retrieving Feedback
2-3 METHODS OF PROCESSING DATA Batch Processing On-line Processing Real-time Processing Distributed Processing
2-1 AREAS OF DATA PROCESSING Business Data Processing ( BDP) It is characterized by the need to establish , retain, and process files of data for producing useful information. It involves a large volume of input data ,limited arithmetical operations and relative large volume of output.
2-1 AREAS OF DATA PROCESSING Scientific Data Processing ( SDP) In science, data processing involves a limited volume of input and many logical or arithmetic calculations.
2-2 Data Processing Operations Recording – refers to the transfer of data unto some form or document. It relates to the documentation of intermediate figures and facts resulting from calculations Verifying – the checking of any possible errors in the recorded data.
2-2 Data Processing Operations Duplicating – reproducing the data unto many forms of documents. Classifying – identifying and arranging items with like characteristics into groups or classes . Sorting – arranging data in a specific order Calculating – the arithmetic manipulation of data. Summarizing and Reporting
Summarizing – reducing masses of data to a more usable form.
Merging – this operation takes two or more sets of data and puts them together to form a single sorted set of data. Storing – placing similar data into files for future reference . Retrieving – recovering stored data and / or information when needed. Feedback – is the comparison of the output and the goal set in advance; any discrepancy is analyzed, corrected and fed back to the proper stage in the processing operation.
2- 3 Methods of Processing Data Batch Processing – is a technique in which data to be processed or program to be executed are collected into groups to permit convenient, efficient and serial processing. On-line Processing - in one which uses devices directly connected to the CPU either for data entry or inquiry purposes.
2- 3 Methods of Processing Data Real-time processing is a method of data processing which has the capability of a fast response to obtain data from an activity or a physical process , performs computations and return a response rapidly enough to affect the outcome of the activity or process. Distributed Processing is the most complex level of computer processing which generally consists of remote terminals linked to a large central computer system to help the user conduct inquiries about accounts , process jobs or other data processing operations
Advantages of distributed processing system Central processor time is reduced Sophisticated computers and a growing library of applications program may be immediately available to end users whenever needed Skilled professionals are available to help users develop their own specialized applications Managers may be able to react rapidly to new development and interact with the system in order to seek solutions to unusual problems.
Possible disadvantages are: The reliability and cost of the data communications facilities used and the cost and quality of the computing service received , ay be disappointing in some cases. Input / output terminals are often rather slow and inefficient. Provisions for protecting the confidentiality and integrity of user programs