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  • 1. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Youth Ministry Internship Scheme Diploma of Youth Work (CHC50502) UNIT FOUR Learning & Assessment Portfolio Manage Service Response to Young People in Crisis (CHCYTH8B) & Respond to Critical Situations (CHCYTH7C) This portfolio belongs to: Jose Cortizo Due Date: Monday, 6th October, 2008 Page 1
  • 2. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Student Details Student Name: Jose Cortizo Home Phone: 55451530 Work Phone: Mobile Phone: 0428451531 Email Address: info@theorgcon.com Postal Address: 11-15 Siganto st Mt Tamborine qld 4272 Workplace Details Name of Organisation: Your Role Description: Phone: Mob: Fax: Email Address: Postal Address: Page 2
  • 3. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 CONTENTS What is a Learning and Assessment Portfolio? 4 CHCYTH8B Unit Descriptor 6 CHCYTH7C Unit Descriptor 8 UNIT FOUR Suggested Unit Study Guide 12 Student Checklist 13 Assessment Task AT1 Online Tasks 14 AT2 Risk Management for Activities 15 AT3 Critical Incident Management Planning 21 AT4 The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention 27 Assessor’s Marking Sheet 34 Page 3
  • 4. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 What is a Learning and Assessment Portfolio? The Learning and Assessment Portfolio is a central recording tool for you as a student to collate and record components of this course, which will serve as evidence in a judgment of your competence in the various aspects of this course. The material recorded and compiled in this document will be drawn from your experiences across all aspects of this course, from your workplace through to in-class activities and homework tasks. It also serves as a structured and reflective journal for your various experiences throughout your youth work training. Each Unit within the course has a related Portfolio to serve as a record; therefore, by the end of your training you will have completed all the required portfolios. This is an important document that should be kept safe and you as the trainee are responsible for the care of this document and all material that is recorded in it. In short the answer to this question is ‘a collection of an extensive range of tasks’. Each Portfolio is quite different and will contain activities that are relevant to the various knowledge and skills focused on in each Unit. Some of the components of the portfolios include:  Personal diary like entries about your place of work and other training experiences  Planning or Report forms for you to complete in relation to specified tasks  Self-assessment or Peer assessment recordings  Case-studies  Homework tasks  Examples of work or materials collected  Third Party Reports for your work peers or senior staff to complete It will be very clear for each page of the portfolio what is required of you so there should be little confusion as to what you are required to complete and when. How do I use this Portfolio? Page 4
  • 5. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 At times you may be directed to your portfolio by a specific lecture requiring you to complete a task or a homework exercise that is contained within the portfolio. At other times you will be completing personal entries in reflection on experiences from everyday aspects of your training. Though there will be some clearly dictated activities at prescribed times throughout the term of your training, you are alone responsible for directing the completion of each component of the portfolio and its safe handling. It is highly recommended that you read through this portfolio in detail when you receive it and plan how it will be completed, especially when there are specified activities that require organisation within the period of your training for the given Unit. Beyond that, the best way to ensure its completion is to weekly peruse the portfolio, reflect and write about your experiences, and of course complete relevant reports and tasks. Additionally, you should plan a regular time to reflect with your peers, senior staff and trainers and give them opportunity to also write in the sections that are relevant to them. Important Note – Completion of all activities, questions, reports and reflections in this portfolio is mandatory. You may not select to complete some pages and not others. If you do not submit a completed portfolio you cannot be deemed Competent for this unit. CHCYTH8B Unit Descriptor Developing an agency approach to young people in crisis: Page 5
  • 6. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Implement a framework for 1.1 A framework which addresses prevention and preventing crisis situations response to critical situations is developed and reflects consideration of beliefs, rights and needs of the client and responsibilities of the organisation within a legislative and statutory context 1.2 Appropriate resources and mechanisms are established to assist workers deal with crisis situations 1.3 Details of the organisation’s responsiveness to crisis situations is defined and articulated to relevant personnel 1.4 All information related to crisis situations is stored and maintained to maximise accessibility, accuracy, currency and legibility 1.5 Procedures are implemented to ensure clients have ready access to information which may assist in resolving crisis situations 2. Support staff in responding to 2.1 Appropriate protocols are established for a crisis managing potential and actual crisis situations 2.2 Procedures for the management of crises are drafted, regularly updated and communicated to staff and other relevant personnel 2.3 Crisis management procedures which are developed are consistent with legal and organisational obligations and constraints 2.4 Resources are allocated for the prompt and effective response to crisis situations 2.5 Appropriate crisis response training and update briefings are provided to workers on a regular basis Page 6
  • 7. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 2.6 Appropriate advice is formulated for the upgrade of organisational procedures including those related to occupational health and safety and other industrial and legislative requirements 3. Follow up crisis situations 3.1 All required reporting is completed and is comprehensive, accurate and consistent with the organisation’s policies and procedures 3.2 Debriefing procedures are defined and implemented routinely 3.3 Opportunity is provide for participation in review and evaluation of organisational responsiveness 3.4 Needs of all specific parties which arise from a crisis situation are identified and strategies developed to ensure they are addressed CHCYTH7C Unit Descriptor This unit is concerned with the competencies required to provide guidance and role models to young people and their families to maintain positive and supportive relationships while identifying problems and establishing goals for change based on maintaining support from family and the general community Page 7
  • 8. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 ELEMENTS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA 1. Establish effective 1.1 Use interaction with young people to encourage personal rapport with young reflection on relationships and personal responsibility people and families 1.2 Use a range of communication strategies to gather information about the background and circumstances of young people and their families 1.3 Information provided to young people and their families is factual, clear and designed to promote positive responses 1.4 Identify issues arising from the circumstances of young people and their families and the need for changes to behaviour and relationships 1.5 Maintain clear, ethical and honest relationships with young people and their families 1.6 All information relevant to intervention contact with young people and their families is recorded and reported according to the organisation's procedures and consideration of confidentiality and discretion 2. Assess the needs 2.1 Identify and respond to the immediate needs of young and circumstances people according to nature and degree of urgency of young people 2.2 Provide young people and their families with information which is tailored to their capacity to absorb and which is designed to calm and reassure 2.3 Observe and note any signs of distress, anxiety, aggression and apathy 2.4 Observe and note signs of impairment of functioning in individuals and relationships Page 8
  • 9. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3. Facilitate goal 3.1 Emphasise and negotiate clients' responsibility for setting and action determining and achieving their goals planning 3.2 Assess options for clients' goals and outcomes for change and negotiate agreements based on realistic goals and purpose 3.3 Check and confirm the information and resources required by clients to set their goals 3.4 Negotiate suitable and available resources and support 3.5 Encourage clients to identify and prioritise long and short term goals based on individual responsibility and personal choice 3.6 Encourage clients to identify and analyse the factors which have contributed to past behaviour and the obstacles to achieving individual and family goals 3.7 Identify unrealistic expectations challenge negative attitudes and unacceptable objectives and re-negotiate plans when required 4. Provide targeted assistance and 4.1 The type and nature of services available to clients are referral identified and clearly communicated 4.2 Appropriate work is undertaken to ensure assistance provided: Is in an appropriate manner Meets client needs Is consistent with legal and statutory provisions Meets resource and time constraints Complies with organisational policy Encourages young people to access alternative services and resources and to be self managing as possible Page 9
  • 10. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.3 Systems are established to ensure information and referral sources within the organisation are up to date, comprehensive, accurate, accessible and relevant to clients 4.4 Procedures are implemented to ensure workers have access to additional advice, expertise and support from others as required 4.5 The effectiveness of service delivery is continually monitored and problems of access, services or resources are resolved as appropriate 4.6 All reporting is in accordance with organisational procedures 5. Minimise the 5.1 Respond to incidents confidently, effectively, appropriately impact of critical and in accordance with agreed processes incidents 5.2 Identify the possible causes of incidents and assess these for relevance to the safety and welfare of young people and the service environment 5.3 Identify and provide information on potential responses to the appropriate team members for action and support 5.4 Request assistance clearly and promptly 5.5 Use protective strategies according to instructions and procedures 6. Prevent escalation 6.1 The persons behaviour pattern is routinely monitored to of violent ensure aggressive or abusive behaviour is minimised behaviour 6.2 A plan of care outlining ways to prevent, and respond to clients expressions of violence against self or others, is developed, communicated to relevant personnel, and implemented 6.3 Individual response to crisis situations promotes calm and reassurance 6.4 Procedures used to protect clients from endangering themselves or others, are consistent with legal, ethical and organisation requirements, and safety considerations 6.5 Appropriate judgements, in relation to physical restraint, based on the balance of risk and the safety of all, are enacted 6.6 First aid and other assistance is administered as necessary Page 10
  • 11. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 7. Secure the safety 7.1 Anticipate potential causes of conflict and harmful of clients behaviour and make appropriate responses to prevent escalation 7.2 Use calm, confident and assertive communication to establish positive personal interaction and exchange information 7.3 Provide information designed to promote positive decision making based on the relationship between actions and consequences 7.4 Provide information to all relevant individuals in a clear, accurate and comprehensive manner. 7.5 Select response and action designed to minimise risk, prevent escalation and to preserve the safety and security of all involved 7.6 Responses and emergency action give priority to the protection of individuals from severe harm. 7.7 Use of force for the maintenance of safety complies with procedures and is applied with minimum force to establish control Page 11
  • 12. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 UNIT FOUR Suggested Unit Study Guide Week One  Online Task One.  Reading for Assessment Task Two Week Two  Online Task Two.  Complete Assessment Task Two Week Three  Online Task Three.  Reading for Assessment Task Three Week Four  Online Task Four.  Complete Assessment Task Three Week Five  Online Task Five.  Reading for Assignment Task Four Week Six  No Online Task  Complete Assignment Task Four School Holidays  No Online Task  Complete any Outstanding Assessment Tasks  Submit Unit Portfolio for Assessment Page 12
  • 13. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Student Checklist This page has been provided for student use only as desired. It provides you with a guide to help you manage the completion of the portfolio. As you plan and Assessment Planned date to complete Complete complete each assessment task in the portfolioactivities use this document to you can track your progress; it should provide a useful organizational tool for you.  & details of any AT1 - Online Tasks AT2 – Risk Management for Activities AT3 – Critical Incident Management Planning AT4 – The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention Page 13
  • 14. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task One Online Tasks OLT1 – SU Qld Chaplaincy and Suicide Prevention Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT2 – Crises Come in All Shapes and Sizes Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT3 – Does Debriefing Trauma Victims Really Work? Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various OLT4 – Negotiation Skills for Crises Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C – 6.1; 6.2; 6.3; 6.4; 6.5; 6.6; 7.2; 7.3; 7.4; 7.5; 7.6; 7.7 OLT5 – Funerals and Memorial Services Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTTH8B - Various  CHCYTH7C - Various Task Two Risk Management for Activities Page 14
  • 15. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Introduction to the Task For an organisation like SU Qld, it is important that safe environments for children and young people are created in all activities (EG - through chaplaincy services, camps or community outreach programs etc). If SU Qld is not able to do this, it will not be able to achieve its vision and mission with children and young people; will lose the confidence of the parents and caregivers of children and young people; as well as lose its reputation in the community for providing high quality child and youth programs and services. Having said that, all activities carry some kind of risk and not all risks can be controlled. But the aim of any organisation, particularly those that work with children and young people, should be to minimize the risks and to manage them as best as they can. Risk Management then, is the process by which an organisation identifies, analyses, evaluates and treats the potential and actual risks they face in their activities. The goal of risk management is to avoid a critical incident; to make the levels of risk acceptable so that the organisation can carry out its functions, and achieve its vision and mission. The Task In this task, you are to design a Risk Management Plan for the activity outlined in the scenario below, by following the process outlined below. This will involve:  Reading the scenario  Reading up on Risk Management Planning processes  Responding to the questions in the various planning stages outlined below 2.1 Read the Following Scenario: Day Trip Bush Walk: You are the SU Qld school chaplain in the local high school and you have been asked to run a program that supports the year 9 and 10 boys in the school who are “at risk” of disengaging from school (eg they have been either truanting or receiving suspensions from school for various behaviour issues). The group has been meeting weekly with you over the last four weeks during Wednesday afternoon sport time, and you think its time for the group to do a novel team building activity. The activity is aimed to be fun, but challenging, with an emphasis on learning individual skills and working cooperatively as a group. You have decided to take the boys on a day trip bush walk, with the boys back packing 5 km up to the higher reaches of the YMIS River. The terrain around this river system often has occasional drops of 100 metres down steep slopes (cliffs) and into gorges where the river runs. The walk is an off track expedition that requires each student to follow a compass bearing given to them by the leader. To limit rock hopping, the group will follow a course that keeps them up off the river for most of the hike. The bush walk also includes swimming in a water hole along the river. The boys need to supply and carry their own supplies and lunch. 2.2 Read Up on Risk Management Processes (all readings on Moodle): Page 15
  • 16. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 1. “CCYPCG Safe Environments for Young People – Child Protection – Managing the Risks Resource Book”: (Part A: Section 3 – Risk Management & Part B: 3.2 Activities; 3.3 Special Events; 3.6.5 Sample Risk Management Template 2. “CCYPCG Safe Environments for Young People – Child Protection – Managing the Risks (Fact Sheet)” 3. “Queensland Government Risk Management Training Program” (8 Booklets including Introduction; Steps 1 to 5; Review; and Summary) 2.3 Risk Management Planning Process Write your responses to the bullet pointed questions in the boxes provided at each stage of the Risk Management Process. You can respond to each bullet point specifically or by writing in your own words. 2.3.1 - Step One: Establish the Context The first step in the risk management process is to focus on the environment in which your event operates. Consider this environment to establish the boundaries within which the risks must be managed, and to guide your decisions on managing the risks:  What is the youth work context of this event?  What are the objectives or proposed outcomes of the event?  What is the actual environment that the event takes place in?  What are the strengths of the young people involved?  What are the needs of the young people involved?  Who are the stakeholders who need to be involved?  What activities make up the event?  What is the youth work context of this event?  Is to take year 9 and 10 boys in the school who are “at risk” of disengaging from school (e.g. they have been either truanting or receiving suspensions from school for various behavior issues). After meeting for the last four weeks it is thought to create a challenging but enjoyable situation.  What are the objectives or proposed outcomes of the event? The aim is to move a step further and create a team building experience, and helping them develop self reliance.  What is the actual environment that the event takes place in? The actual environment is in nature, and covers a 5 km up the source of the YMIS river, including 100mts drops, swimming in a water whole along the river. Most of the walk is on the borders of the river.  What are the strengths of the young people involved? The strengths of the young people involve, range from being determine, friendly, physical strength and sporty, curious. Page 16
  • 17. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502  What are the needs of the young people involved? The needs are family issues, lack of healthy self image, aggressiveness, lack of self control, anger, sense of rejection, lack of positive reinforcement, issues with authority, lack of direction.  Who are the stakeholders who need to be involved? Students, Parents and carers, school management, SU, teachers, local ranger, Chaplain  What activities make up the event? Walking, tracking, climbing, swimming, rock hoping, carrying on food and water, following leader directions, reading compass. 2.3.2 - Step Two: Identify the Risks The second step is to identify the risks of the event, and to consider when and where the risks may arise. A risk is anything that can cause harm, either physically, psychologically or emotionally. In this stage, it is recommended that key stakeholders get together to discuss the risks and the potential responses.  Brainstorm with stakeholders: What are the risks? What can happen? How can it happen?  Environmental Factors  Human Factors  Equipment Factors  Brainstorm with stakeholders: What are the risks? The possible Risks are physical , psychological or emotional injury. What can happen? For physical injury –falling, cut and bruises, broken limbs, snake poisoning, twisting ankles,, dehydration, sun burnt, blisters, and death. Psychological—and emotional injury can came come from a sense of failure, rejection from group, not being able to make the walk unaided, an accident that could permanently damage child’s future. How can it happen? From walking, climbing, rock hoping, falling from cliffs, being attacked by snake, running out of water, not using sun screen, wrong type or new shoes, by being pick on by others. Environmental Factors The walking track is unmarked, uneven terrain, 100mts drop in areas, river depth and water speed, sun and heat, rain, wind, rocks, types of trees(some drop branches unexpectedly), away from build up areas. Page 17
  • 18. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Human Factors Physical challenge, issues when relating with others, personalities clashes, emotional strength, state of mind, attitude to authority, lack of team building attitude, individual reaction and management of the challenges. Equipment Factors Running out of water, loss or broken compass, loss or damage of topography map, not enough food, damage of carry bags, walking shoes, first aid equipment, mobile phone not working, either no signal or flat battery, not carrying insect repellent, loss or forget to take prescribe medicine. 2.3.3 - Step Three: Analyze the Risks For the risks identified, assess the level of risk based on the likelihood they will occur and consequence for children, young people and the organization (see CCYPCG templates on p17 for help with last three boxes of template below / NOTE – these templates appear under the heading of “Evaluating the Risk”, not “Analyze the Risks”, but they belong here for our purposes)  List the activities making up the event  Description of Risks  Existing Controls  Likelihood of Risk Occurring – Almost Certain; Likely; Possible; Unlikely; or Rare  Consequences – Catastrophic; Major; Moderate; Minor; or Insignificant  Level of Risk – Extreme; High; Moderate; or Low (You can use a template like this and the box provided over the page, or just the box provided) Page 18
  • 19. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Activity Risks Control Likelihood of Consequences Level of risk risks Falling, cuts Must follow Almost moderate moderate Walking and bruises, leader, certain broken bones appropriate shoes Anger, clashes Set rules of Likely moderate moderate Peer , rejection how to relationship relate Snake bite poisoning Taking unlikely Poss. major Low risk care, advised others Swimming Drowning Supervise, unlikely catastrophic low swing together Falling, broken Follow possible Catastrophic, high Climbing, bones, death leader, major rock hoping distance from cliff Page 19
  • 20. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 2.3.4 - Step Four: Evaluate the Risks Priorities the risks to minimise the impact, to focus efforts in treating identified risks and to guide action planning and allocation of resources  Is the risk acceptable or unacceptable?  What is the criteria for determining the risk’s acceptability?  What priority will be given to what risks and their management? Is the risk acceptable or unacceptable? The risks are unacceptable. What is the criteria for determining the risk’s acceptability? The criteria is the level of risk, if the risk is high or to high then the risk taken is not acceptable. What priority will be given to what risks and their management? Priority should be given to the high risk situation, how it is manage and action should be put in place to minimize and remove the risk. This could include the change of area so that the walk goes in a challenging area but so high risk. 2.3.5 - Step Five: Treat the Risks Consider the options for reducing the likelihood and / or consequences of each risk (EG - Stop the activity; Eliminate the risk; Minimise the harm; or Transfer the liability)  Brainstorm all possible solutions to treat the risks  Select the most feasible and cost effective solution  Develop and implement a strategy to implement that solution – What, How, Who, When? Brainstorm all possible solutions to treat the risks Falling, cuts and bruises, broken bones—Make sure all have proper shoes, chose best path to walk, set clear safety rules to be follow, Peer relationship—To avoid issues set rules of relationship what is allow and what is not allow, maybe small groups or two by two helping each other, have exercises or games to develop trust in each other. Snake bite – Every one must may sure to look where they walk, practice action to be taken if a snake is spotted, like not allow to chase or provoke in any way. All must walk in line following each other. Swimming – Swimming is only allow as a group in a determine area as per the leader, no allowing any one to play or physically handle any other student while in the water. Any body breaking the rules misses out in swimming, not diving allow. Leader or helpers must know first aid. Page 20
  • 21. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Climbing, rock hoping—Rock hoping must be minimized by choosing safer path to walk, minimal distance must be kept from cliff, leader or assistant must stand between students and cliff at a safe distance. Ropes might be taken in case of accident, mobile to call for assistance. 2.3.6 - Step Six: Review and Revise Risks and Control Measures The strategies used to mange risks need to be constantly monitored and evaluated, as the factors that contribute to risks are constantly changing.  How might some of the risks change over time?  How could a review of the risks be best done? How might some of the risks change over time? Risks may change by different weather conditions, the group may get lost, students do not follow instructions, walking shoes get damage, a member of the group may get sick or injure. Water or food has run out, creating a risk of dehydration, first aid kit is lost or damage got wet or has been dropped. A student gets lost, students may fight and push or punch each other. Unexpected obstacles, meet wild dogs, map get lost. How could a review of the risks be best done? Review potential threats when the group stops or if a safety issue arises, ask questions based on safety to refresh and emphasis safety, clarify along the way what is expected and what could be ahead. Remind all their responsibilities. Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – 1.1; 1.5; 2.1; 2.2; 2.3; 2.6; 3.1; 3.3; 4.3;4.4; 4.5; 4.6  CHCYTH7C – 3.6; 4.2; 4.3; 4.4; 5.2; 5.3; 5.5; 6.2; 6.4; 7.1; 7.3; 7.4; 7.5 Page 21
  • 22. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task Three Critical Incident Management Planning Introduction to the Task A critical incident can be defined as a traumatic event which causes or is likely to cause extreme physical and/or emotional distress to the people involved and to the surrounding community and may be regarded as outside the normal range of experience of the people affected. It is any event or series of events that is sudden, overwhelming, threatening or protracted. Some examples of critical incidents that affect a community or school are:  Fire  Bomb threat or explosion  Gas or chemical hazard  Natural disaster – flood, earthquake, tsunami  Transport accident  Death  Destruction of the whole or part of the school, church, workplace or town  Break-in accompanied by major vandalism  Person lost or injured on an excursion or event  Person being taken hostage  Person witnessing serious injury or death  Robbery, violence or assault on a person  Child sexual assault  Suicide Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) or Critical Incident Management (CIM) is a comprehensive series of strategies that organizations can put in place to assist in the recovery of people experiencing distress after a critical incident. There are a number of stages to a CIM process and they can be outlined in a few different ways, but essentially, the stages of CIM involve:  Preparation and prevention of critical incidents  Managing a critical incident and the immediate response  Follow up of a critical incident (including – demobilization, debriefing and defusing)  Review of CIM At each stage, there are a number of important activities and tasks that need to be completed. The completion of these tasks at each stage increase the likelihood of a more positive response from people to a critical incident, although there are other factors involved in this that are difficult if not impossible to control. As in all Risk Management processes, it is important to go through the process of doing all that is possible to identify the risks and effectively respond to them. The Task In this task, you are being asked to:  Read up on CIM  Define the different stages of CIM and give 5 examples of strategies for each of these stages  Write a student journal account of your involvement in one of these stages of responding to a critical incident  Describe how that involvement fit into the other stages Page 22
  • 23. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3.1 Read Up on CIM (all readings on Moodle) Essential Reading (you should read all of these): 1. Critical Incidents Management Guide for Newcastle University (Factsheet) 2. Workplace Health – Coping with a Critical Incident (Factsheet) 3. Resource Guide for Critical Incident Stress and Debriefing for Human Service Agencies 4. School Matters – pp 29 – 32 School Policy and Critical Incidents & pp 63 – 65 Tool 7 Critical Incident Management Plan 5. Educating for Life – pp 29 – 33 Critical Incident Management & pp 42 – 45 Responding to the Student who is Suicidal or Self Harming Going Deeper Reading (you should read at least one of these): 6. Traumatic Incidents Affecting Schools 7. Responding to Traumatic Incidents: Supporting Documentation for Schools 8. Emergency / Disaster Planning for Principals 9. Crisis Management – Student Services Competencies – Appendix XVI (p63) onwards 3.2 Stages and Activities of CIM Stages 3.2.1 Preparation & Prevention of Critical Incidents: Definition of Stage At this stage the basis of preparation and prevention are set out to deal with a possible emergency. The critical incident management team meets at set times to review and plan identified and required changes The purpose is to reduce the likelihood of any actual emergency happening, by taken basic practical measures much risk can be reduce. This is also achieved by educating the student body in identifying and prevention of potential dangers. 5 examples of what can happen at this stage and a brief description of each example Page 23
  • 24. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 1) Those in charge of such event meet, to identify and source potential threats, and decide the steps to be used to prevent the different emergencies. 2) Identify and establish contact with those that may become debriefers in case of an emergency, this is done to establish procedure to be follow in case of an emergency. 3) Extend the consultation process to students, staff, volunteers, etc, this is done by way of feed back, reporting identified issues and set out regular meetings. 4) identifying all the required emergency services, having the numbers handy and in the possession of a number of staff, and those engage in everyday activities. 5) Have a list of basic emergency equipment, and regular checks are conducted to made sure the required items are present and in working order. 3.2.2 Managing a Critical Incident and the Immediate Response Definition of Stage In the event of an emergency the set procedure are followed and the planed actions are apply, at this stage those involve directly and indirectly in the emergency are affected by the events. At this stage many might be experiencing physical and psychological symptoms and or are victims in which case requires immediate action. 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example 1) Those who are able to come together, should be brought together to inform, clarify, encourage and to be able to identify those requiring help immediately 2) While all are together encourage those with questions to be able to inform further as to the events. 3) Drawing a plan of the steps to be follow from now onwards, no forgetting the needs and present mental situation of those involve. 4) Short term arrangements, calling parents, chaplains and all those that can play a very important roll at this time. So that care and support is abundant. 5) Setting a way of communication so that all those involve can have up to date information as to the issues and needs of those affected. . Page 24
  • 25. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 3.2.3 Follow Up (including demobilization, defusing and debriefing) Definition of Stage This stage is define as the stage where the issues are confronted and dealt with, it is endeavour to bring normality soon as possible and this implies the restoration of services, and peoples life as much as possible. 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example 1) Defusing is administered by a qualify staff member and is designed to take the experience of the incident to a conclusion and provide immediate personal support. The goal is to normalised the responses of workers involved in the incident and allow an opportunity for them to express any immediate concerns. 2) Recovery is a way of returning to a normality as soon as is possible, this is done by way of restoring much of the way things where before the event. In practical terms, materials things can be restore very quickly but the physical or emotional scars are much more difficult to bring to normality. 3) Set up a place where those involve are able to meet, ask and gather information, including services offered. 4) Qualify staff is available for those who need them, and lists of contacts of all possible services and support agencies appropriate to this event’s outcome. 5) Supply actual physical requirements to all those affected by the event, such as food, blankets, areas to rest, transport, access to phones, or any other element that will make this stage easier to handle. 3.2.4 Review of CIM Procedures Definition of Stage At this stage a review of procedures is conducted to determine the progress or otherwise made by the action taken. This should a least be done within a few weeks of the event, so that the input is relevant and critical to improve future actions. Page 25
  • 26. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 5 examples of what happens at this stage and a brief description of each example 1) A review should be conducted close to the event to make the necessary adjustments, the idea is to go over what action was taken, what was relevant, what did’t work, who was missing. 2) An annual review should also be conducted so that the possible change of staff, facilities, new circumstances, and any other change is taken into account. 3) An Operational review meeting is also valuable, in which situation those directly involve in the event can contribute first hand and therefore making the plans more relevant when dealing with such events. 4) A Stock take should be carried out to determine the needs, and restoration of items used or missing. 5) An updated list of emergency services, and all those contributing to the different stages should be created, along with drills to tune everyone’s areas of responsibilities. 1 3.2.5 – Student Journal Account of Participating in a Response to a Critical Incident Write 250 words on a time when you participated in a response to a critical incident, with particular reference to your involvement in one of the 4 CIM stages outlined. (If you haven’t participated in a critical incident then consider how you might be involved in your current role as SU Qld Chaplain in your school and community) In the case of a possible event I see my self involve in the stage of immediate response. Is at this time that great help is needed as the event just happen and there will be many affected either physically or emotionally. There will be a need of showing care and support to those affected, it is possible that first aid might be the first thing is needed to be administered until the specialized people arrived. After this there will be a need to call parents, support staff, and other available chaplains. The situation will required a place and the need of communicating with those gather, updating the information as it comes available. Identifying path and actions to be taken from now on, specially catering for those in great need at this time. The situation will also required that those still under shock are taken care of by providing hot drinks, blankets or any thing that will make the experience a little more easily to deal with. It might be required to secure some areas depending on the nature of the event and the people involve. It might also include the visitation of hospitals to see those affected by the event, contacting relatives or driving people to and fro. It may also involve talking to the emergency services the police or rescue unit, or the ambulance services. This stage is a crucial one, specially as we are dealing with a recent occurring event, that has impacted many lives, so the action taken now will affect for good or bad the life of many students. Page 26
  • 27. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Write 250 words on how your contribution fit in to what was going on or had gone on in the other 3 stages, making references to the other 3 stages of the CIM process. 1)The first stage of CIM is preparation and prevention of critical incidents. My contribution at this early stage, could be in brain storming for ideas necessary to contribute in the formation of plans and times to build the necessary structure to deal with potential issues. Putting forward ideas that can help reduce the likelihood of incidents. As part of that committee it will be possible to suggest elements that can be consider dangerous, help identify the support network that will contribute in case of emergency. Gather information from all those in the school, as to what they consider as potential threats for all those at the school. Maintaining records of equipment needed, people involve, and much needed liason between interested parties. Those in charge of such event meet, to identify and source potential threats, and decide the steps to be used to prevent the different emergencies. A responsibility that could be to perform at this stage is the checking on the condition of emergency equipment. 2) Managing a critical incident and the immediate response(above 250 word exercise) 3) Follow up of a critical incident (including – demobilization, debriefing and defusing) In the area of managing a critical incident and the immediate response the possible activities I could contribute are in the area of quick response in helping those affected. Immediately after an emergency event there is a great need of safely dealing with those that required first aid, then those that have been affected emotionally. This is follow by the required back up by professional staff, therefore they need to be advice so that the back up plan goes ahead. Also there will be a need of calling parents, other chaplains,SU,Parents groups and other that may play an important roll is this critical moment. 4)Review of CIM In this review process there will be a great need of going over the events leading to and the events during and after the emergency. It is necessary at this stage to understand how effective the plans worked, what didn’t work and what should be done to improve the whole approached to CIM in the future. I could play a part in the updating of information and experiences to the new staff at the school. Participating in such a meeting will also allow me to contribute to my particular experience in the event so that I can contribute to changes if necessary. There will be a need of making sure stock has been order and restored for future emergencies, including any new equipment consider important for the future. Checking and updating the list of emergency services, and other support staff, so that the telephone number of every one is properly store. Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – all criteria covered in this task  CHCYTH7C – 2.1; 2.3; 3.1; 3.2; 4.1; 4.2; 4.3; 4.4 Page 27
  • 28. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Task Four The 5 Stages of Suicide Intervention Introduction to the Task Suicidal behaviours are those that revolve around the desire and intention to end one’s own life. The reasons why people think suicidal thoughts and engage in suicidal behaviours are complex and interrelated with other broader societal factors. Many people who die by suicide are affected by mental disorders, often combined with an adverse family situation and / or other social disadvantage. Some suicides are impulsive and many who attempt it are not motivated by a desire to embrace death, but to escape pain in life. There are many, many good arguments for providing programs for the prevention and intervention of suicide, and the full scope and nature of these interventions need to be as broad and interrelated as the causal factors. The intervention strategies for suicidal behaviour can be divided into 5 stages: 1. Primary Prevention – General activities that enhance the protective factors and reduce the risk factors for children and young people in the area of suicidal behaviour 2. Early Intervention – Activities that identify and support children and young people who are “at risk” of engaging in suicidal behaviour 3. Intervention – Activities that assess the vulnerability of children and young people to suicidal behaviour and provide immediate crisis support to those exhibiting suicidal behaviours 4. Treatment – Activities that treat the underlying mental health issues associated with suicidal behaviours 5. Post-vention – Activities that provide support to those affected by a death by suicide or an attempted death by suicide, seeking to minimise the potential for suicide contagion and to support the personal and community grieving process Any effective prevention and intervention planning process in the area of suicidal thoughts and behaviours needs to take into consideration these 5 stages. The Task In this task, you will be reading up on suicidal behaviour and then writing a short paper (1000 words minimum) on how the 5 stages of intervention for suicidal behaviour apply in your role as an SU Qld Chaplain in a Queensland state school. The paper will include:  An introduction / overview on suicidal behaviour in children and young people  Your own definition of each of the 5 stages of intervention for suicidal behaviour, a description of each stage and 5 examples of activities that could take place at each of the stages  Your understanding on how these activities might relate to the CIM process in your school  A reflection on which stage or stages your SU Qld Chaplaincy role is most likely to be involved in during an intervention, and how this would fit into the work being done in the other stages of intervention Page 28
  • 29. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.1 Read Up on Suicidal Behaviours and the 5 Stages of Intervention 4.1.1 Websites on Suicide  Reach Out! - Wanting to End Your Life – A range of fact sheets: EG - “Wanting to Take Your Own Life”, “If a Friend Threatens to Take Their Own Life”, “If a Friend Has Taken Pills or Hurt Themselves” etc)  Rethink - Suicide – A range of fact sheets: EG – “Suicide and Mental Illness”, “Helping a Suicidal Friend or Relative”, “Myths about Suicide”, “If You Are Thinking of Suicide”  www.suicidehelpline.org.au – home – (A range of headings: EG – “Understanding Suicide”, “Helping Someone Who’s Suicidal”, “Coping with Suicidal Death” etc)  itsallright : The Facts : Suicide – “Suicide” fact sheet  www.kidshelpline.com.au – home – info about KHL – resources and research – info sheets – “Suicide-Related Issues 2006” AND / OR home – info about KHL – resources and research – publications – “Lives on the Line”  Ybblue: A youth depression awareness campaign – Click on “download now” for “Fact sheet 19 – Suicide” 4.1.2 Readings on Suicide (on Moodle under “Unit 4 / Resources / AT4”) Shorter Documents / Fact Sheets  LIFE – Australian Suicide Statistics, 2004 – Key Findings  Response-ability – (a range of fact sheets on suicidal behaviour and responses at the bottom of the page) (Essential Reading)  SANE – Suicide and Self Harm Fact Sheet  Lifeline - Just Ask – Tool Kit  Mind Your Mind – Suicide Fact Sheet Longer Documents / Research Papers and Reports  LIFE – Learnings About Suicide (Essential Reading)  Mind Matters – Educating for Life Resource (Essential Reading)  Understanding Youth Suicide – Information Kit  Qld State Government – Suicide Prevention Strategy for 2003 to 2008  Qld State Government – Reducing Suicide Action Plan 4.2 Short Paper on “The 5 Stages of Intervention for Suicidal Behaviours” Page 29
  • 30. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.2.1 Introduction to the Paper on Suicide Write 350 words (minimum) by way of introduction to your paper that includes:  A definition of suicidal behaviour  Suicide and young people in Australia  Individual and environmental risk factors  Individual and environmental protective factors  Why we need to understand the “5 stages of intervention” Suicide has become a word that has the power to impact more today then it did a generation ago. Even though suicide has been around for generations, in today’s world it has become a common word and event, touching many more lives then ever before. It is perhaps the fact that young and very young people are following victims to this 21 century curse that it has become a concerning issue for all of society. Many are the reason of why young people are going down this road, there are today many challenges that were not experience before. Young people seem to be facing numerous situations that put unbearable pressure on their lives, some of this situation are from outside a person others are from the inside of each individual. There seem to be a great number of young people with mental disorders, including personality, anxiety and schizophphrenia. The abundance of legal and illegal drugs, the emptiness of today’s young people sexual experiences, the break down of the family structure and the consequences it brings to all. As the family breaks down in turn it creates trauma, situations of abuse, lack of a support network and the sense that no one cares. Inherited traits can also delivered a road that is hard to be avoided by young people, such as psychological, emotional and personal scars lead young inexperience young people to destruction. Access to information and the glamorous use of the internet gives young people the sense that Is a good thing to commit suicide, finding easy access to ways and means to achieved the desire ends. Some times these young people are immature, lonely, confused and hurt by life experiences and unexpected events that break the delicate balance of reality. Therefore events of major significance tip over the scales of desperation, leading many to commit suicide. Some of the events are the loss of recognition in the immediate community group, a sense of failure, the loss of a love one through the break down of relationships, death, or suicide. The loss of a job, an income, of an accident that leads to physical challenges, young teen pregnancy and the new consequences. Some times young people feel totally alone and rejected, and is not cool to ask for help, the social, cultural and economical background also plays a major part in the outcome of suicide. Unfortunate through the easy access of the internet and the glorification of suicide many have committed suicide as seen in Japan recently. Page 30
  • 31. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 While the reasons are many never the less the challenge remains to reduce suicide, and create a sense that all issues are manageable in people’s lives. Protective factors can play an important role in curving the number of suicide incidents. These are perhaps opposite to the risk factors in that they help prevent and gives a positive attitude to those facing challenges. A stable home, where families member care, friends are supportive, where young people have a healthy view of themselves and feel accepted. Where there is no mental illness, and physical disabilities the challenges faced are dealt with in a more manageable manner. The rejection of drugs, legal or otherwise cuts back the dangers of following into despair and contemplating suicide. A normal self image and acceptance by peers, activities that bring emotional and physical rewards, future plans and the desire to take challenges gives strength to the character of a young person. In fact external and internal factors that develop resilience in young people so that they are able to face challenges without feeling overcome. The understanding of the five stages allow us to identify, act, and prevent incidents of suicide in young people. These stages are actual elements present in people contemplating suicide so they give us a warning to take quick and appropriate action. Without clear understanding of theses stages many lives where lost in the past, the aim is to identify those in risk so that action is appropriate to each stage. The different signs within the stages need to be taken seriously as they are a least a call for help, and they can develop into real crisis if ignore. 4.2.2 Primary Prevention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Page 31
  • 32. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Primary prevention speaks of all those elements that play an important part in young peoples lives that will strengthen character and reduces the tendency of viewing reality as a hopelessness that can’t be escape from. Five activities that can take place at this stage and are gear to build resilience in the life of a young person could be: 1) Activities that presents self worth through sharing and listening to others. 2) Some one cares, an activity where participants make a list of people they can go when in trouble, a good listener who is not judgmental. 3) Conflict resolution classes, teaching young people how to deal with inner and outer conflict, including ways of communicating. 4) Ways that we can help each other, by reporting to those who care friends that are talking about suicide, the different between what is confidential and what should be share with someone. 5) Understanding what happens after a young person commits suicide, how are family and friends affected, an activity that people can reason through and realized how much has been lost. This stage could in relation with CIM be use to prevent possible incidents of suicide by developing a programme that will strengthen young people understanding and managing issues. Primary prevention belongs to the “Preparation and prevention of critical incidents” 4.2.3 Early Intervention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Early intervention is a stage that has identified young people at risk and therefore action must be taken to prevent it. At this stage I would see as essential the following activities. 1) An activity to identify the source of the threat. 2) Identify and contact a support net work, in other words find those that care. 3) Set out regular meetings with the students concern as Chaplains 4) If necessary removed students from possible threats and further damage to the students wellbeing. 5) Set out regular meetings with qualify staff in reference to the issues faced by student. These should in fact be part of the CIM to the extent that they are implemented as part of the CIM plans. They should be part of the process of “Preparation and prevention of critical incidents” which is the first stage of CIM. 4.2.4 Intervention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage Page 32
  • 33. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Intervention: In this stage children are identify as high risk and given immediate help in dealing with the issues at hand. Five possible activities be: 1) A way or process of identifying those in danger of suicide by teaching students the warning signs in others 2) The contacting those closes to the student that really care for the student and are identify as such by the student. 3) The removal of the student from the immediate threat that may be causing the desire of escape by suicide. 4) Refer to a qualify counselor 5) Maintain student under supervision and support If the student is consider to be in danger in view of CIM this should come under Managing a critical incident and the immediate response. As this stage clearly determines there is a need of managing the threat and immediate action needs to be taken. This should be part of the overall part of CIM planning. Page 33
  • 34. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Case Study: You are an SU Qld School Chaplain at the local primary school. A Year 7 girl comes to see you in your office and says to you that she can’t stop crying and she doesn’t know why. She says that if this doesn’t stop, then she doesn’t want to live any more… Think about this interaction: What knowledge and skills regarding suicidal behaviour will you need to be mindful of to help her? What counselling skills will you need to apply to encourage trust and safety? The need to understand the stage in which she is and elements that speak clearly about her state of mind and needs. Perhaps she is at the stage of “Early Intervention” and action is required immediately. First of all the indication that she has been crying determines that there is an emotional issue, which could have the roots in other not yet seen circumstances. She says she doesn’t know why she is crying and either she doesn’t want to say or there is a mental health issue that needs to be investigated. Secondly she has seek help, therefore this is also a sign that she needs help and is asking for it, she has consider suicide as a solution therefore this needs to be taken seriously. Thirdly to encourage trust and safety action needs to be taken to find people who care that will be able to keep an eye on her, then it needs to be consider the possibility that she is under the threat of harm and needs to be remove from it. The main action is to show care and don’t dismiss her feelings and situation, so apart from following procedure in reporting immediate action needs to be taken. The specific skills to develop her trust are, listening without being judgmental, use emphatic responding to share care, find people she identify as caring, take action straightaway, and give assurance that she has done the right thing. 4.2.5 Treatment  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Page 34
  • 35. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 Treatment This are the actions taken to deal with the actual issues identify under the umbrella of mental health issues. The consequences of the challenges faced by the student have either created or aggravated the mental health of the student in question. These issues could take a range of areas within the mental health of an individual. Activities here could range between early treatment, standard, ongoing and long term 1) This could involve the first point of contact with specialized help, at this point a direction is determine, and further help sought. 2) A number of professional help are selected to view, identify and treat the underlying issues affecting the student 3) The building of a positive future for the student and endeavouring to move him to the next stage and the continuation of specialized treatment. 4) The activities here could be in the area of building a stronger person, that is able to handle new challenges, where the crisis have pass and is able to plan and look into the future. 5) In this particular activity I would like to see, those that have recover take on helping other young people, so that have been le is reinforce for one and share with others. arn The stage that applies here is the “Follow up of a critical incident” would go alone with a revision of the progress made by the student receiving treatment and support in the way for recovery. 4.2.6 Post-vention  Write your own definition and brief description of this stage  Five examples of activities that could take place at this stage of intervention  Where these activities might fit into the CIM process in your school Post-vention Is seen as the action and support taken to help those directly involve in an attempted or suicide event, the goal is to minimize the damage cause to all those affected by the actual event. As the nature of the event would cause much grief it is important to deal with it as a community immediately. Some of the activities needed in this level could be 1) To bring immediate support and counselling to all those affected 2) Identify all those affected including students and staff 3) Identify all the aspects relating to a particular social/cultural group so that the appropriate approach is use in dealing with those groups 4) Once identify it is important to provide long term support by the most needed and affected 5) Address the issues as a community when appropriate so that there is a healing as community and as individuals when appropriate. Once the action of supporting and helping those affected has commence it is important to review the approach and action taken so far and this should be part of the final stage of CIM review Page 35
  • 36. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502 4.2.7 Reflections on the Chaplaincy Role and the “5 Stages” Given the nature of your role as an SU Qld Chaplain, it is likely that you will be involved somewhere in a school’s response to the prevention and intervention of suicidal behaviors. In this last section, reflect on which stage or stages you think your chaplaincy service would make the most valuable contribution to and outline your thinking on behind that. As a chaplain perhaps we can contribute at all stages and make a difference in the life of people but the most valuable contribution will be at the levels of primary prevention, early intervention and intervention. Primary prevention because we can enhance the protective factors and reduce the risk factors young people in the area of suicidal behavior. We are set in a position that we can build a great number of foundations where young people can benefit and develop resilience when facing challenges. Positive models are missing from the life of young people because of the breaking down of families and the disappearance of roll models such as absent fathers. Early intervention is also crucial in managing the events of suicide and bringing down the number of affected people. As we relate to students at a different level then those professionals serving them we have the opportunity to identify and support those affected by the thought of suicide Here we need to develop the sense of where our young people are at, secondly the fact that as Chaplains we are seen as supportive and non judgmental therefore students will feel able to approach us to share their concerns and challenges. This is perhaps develop over time, by building trust and friendship, soon others students will share the fact that we are caring people and therefore opening the gates for support and encouragement of those in need. Intervention also plays an important part in the roll of a chaplain, as we are also able to be where students are and identify those most at risk. While we are not totally qualify to deal with all aspects of suicide, we are at the right place to be supportive and at a crucial place where we can make the difference and show a very much missing element today which is that “we care”. Performance Criteria Covered  CHCYTH8B – 1.1; 2.3; 3.1; 3.4 Page 36
  • 37. Scripture Union Queensland: CHC50502  CHCYTH7C – all criteria covered in this task UNIT FOUR Assessor’s Marking Sheet Assessor Name: Date: Signature: Comments: Results Unit of Competency Outcome CHCNET4A CHCYTH3C Feedback Feedback given: yes no Feedback verbal mechanism: written Notes: Page 37