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Conole score

  1. 1. Theory and methodology <br />Gráinne Conole<br />SCORE presentation, 27th January 2011<br />
  2. 2. Impact<br />Changes<br />Organisational<br />structures<br />Learning & teaching<br />Technology <br />Roles and skills<br />Funding<br />Initiatives<br />New technologies<br />Drivers<br />
  3. 3. Linking research to theory, practice and policy<br />Research<br />Theory<br />Practice<br />Policy<br />
  4. 4. Practice<br />Resources<br />Development<br />Learning<br />Theory<br />Develops<br />Enhances<br />Shapes<br />Builds<br />Policy<br />Networks<br />Guides<br />Improves<br />Consolidates<br />Informs<br />Strategy<br />Research<br />
  5. 5. Contextual factors<br />Funding and policy drivers<br />Cultural dimensions<br />Subject-specific aspects<br />Current hot topics<br />Accessibility and social inclusion<br />Widening participation<br />Lifelong learning<br />Open Educational Resources<br />Learning Design<br />Personalised Learning Environments<br />Use of new social and participatory media<br />New business models<br />Plagiarism, digital rights, IPR<br />Digital scholarship<br />
  6. 6. Underpinning technologies<br />New and emerging technologies<br />mobile and ubiquitous<br />intelligent agents<br />social and participatory media<br />Understanding the media<br />multiple forms of representation<br />different characteristics of media<br />A distributed electronic environment<br />standards and interoperability<br />infrastructure and architectures<br />Access to information<br />structuring and distributing information<br />integrating different portals, gateways and resources<br />exploiting the different communication mechanisms<br />
  7. 7. Pedagogical aspects<br />Student and staff experiences<br />Best methods of <br />representing information<br />designing and accessing resources and learning activities<br />encouraging communication and collaboration<br />integrating with other learning and teaching methods<br />Development issues<br />new forms of literacy needed (Jenkins et al., 2006)<br />mechanisms for skills updating and development<br />Understanding the affordances of technologies<br />Exploring the potential for new forms of pedagogy<br />
  8. 8. Organisational issues<br />Developing models for<br />mapping institutional structures<br />supporting institutional processes<br />sharing knowledge<br />distributing information<br />supporting change<br />engaging different stakeholders<br />Awareness of external factors<br />Understanding changing roles and identities<br />Linking strategy and practice<br />
  9. 9. Common characteristics<br />Change<br />Political dimension<br />Interdisciplinary<br />Access and inclusion<br />Convergence and interoperability<br />Interactivity<br />
  10. 10. Reality check on OER research<br />Vision: free resources for education<br />Significant investments (UNESCO, Hewlett, JISC)<br />Focus to date mainly on developing repositories<br />Now many high quality resources available<br />BUT: Not much evidence of uptake and little reuse<br />Evaluation given us deeper understanding of barriers and challenges<br />Olnet and OPAL projects<br />
  11. 11. Discipline issues<br />Variety of feeder disciplines<br />education research, cognitive psychology, instructional design, computer science, business and management, philosophy, semiotics, critical discourse analysis<br />Benefits <br />wealth of methods and approaches<br />different perspectives<br />Drawbacks<br />no shared language and understanding<br />lack of cohesion to the area<br />
  12. 12. Research questions<br />Most effective ways to develop OER?<br />Intellectual property issues?<br />Barriers and enablers to development and use?<br />Models of production, QA etc?<br />Sustainable business models?<br />Accessibility, inclusion and cultural issues?<br />Pedagogical models?<br />How to evaluate?<br />Conole and McAndrew, 2010<br />
  13. 13. Theoretical frameworks<br />Drawing on broader theoretical frameworks from Social Sciences<br />Socio-cultural perspective dominate<br />Activity Theory, Actor Network Theory, Communities of Practice, Systems Thinking, Distributed Cognition<br />New learning theories: constructivist, situative and connectivism<br />
  14. 14. Key names<br />In the field: Laurillard, Salmon, Mayes, Oliver, Reeves, Luckin, Duval, Goodyear, Cantoni, De Laat, Hawthornthwaite, McConnell, Anderson, Wiley, Siemens, Downes<br />More broadly: Vygotsky, Engestrom, Laurillard, Collins, Patton, Lave, Wenger, Rogoff, Boden, Gardener, Wertsch, Cole, Schon, Becher and Trowler, Salomon, Suchman, Kay, Dowling and Brown, Strathern, Daniels, Latour, Nardi, Salomon<br />
  15. 15. Methodological approaches<br />Ethnography and virtual ethnography<br />Case studies<br />Action research<br />Evaluation<br />Design-Based Research<br />
  16. 16. Methods<br />Surveys<br />Interview<br />Learning analytics<br />Focus groups<br />Content analysis<br />Audio and video logs<br />Diaries<br />
  17. 17. Choice of research methods<br />Tension between <br />Focus on evaluation or research<br />Quantitative vs. qualitative approaches<br />Choice of methodologies <br />Has an impact on outcomes<br />Tends to be based on previous experience, favoured methods<br />Approaches<br />Exploring individual case studies<br />Developing generic models<br />Undertaking systematic reviews<br />Applying specific theoretical perspectives<br />Active involvement and action research <br />Accounting for context - Activity theory, Actor Network Theory<br />
  18. 18. Discussion - additional questions<br />What additional OER research questions are there?<br />What other theoretical perspectives are OER researchers drawing on?<br />What other methodologies are OER researchers using?<br />What other methods are OER researchers using?<br />
  19. 19. Themes<br />The good and the bad of ICT<br />Speed of change<br />New collaborations and discourses<br />User focussed<br />Changing practice<br />Wider impact<br />
  20. 20. Theme I<br />The good and the bad of ICT<br />Institutional vs. loosely coupled systems<br />The affordances of technologies<br />Appropriateness, fit for purpose<br />Ownership vs. open source<br />Simplifying the complex<br />Balance of content and activity<br />
  21. 21. Theme II<br />Speed of change, the Web in 2011<br />Explosion of Web 2.0 (and 3.0 and…)<br />Immense amounts of information <br />New tools and resources <br />The Web for nomads<br />Predicting the unpredictable<br />Researching where the light is <br />A world beyond the Web<br />Conole and Alevizou, 2000<br />
  22. 22. Theme III<br />Supporting new collaborations and discourses<br />New distributed Communities of Practice <br />Self-sustaining Communities of Practice<br />Interacting with the media <br />Tailored and contextualised <br />Making sense of it all - new forms of digital literacy and the power of narrative<br />
  23. 23. Theme IV<br />Harnessing needs, understanding end users<br />Adaptive and personalised <br />Ethnographic approach to users <br />The (semantic) web of meaning <br />Supporting the whole learning cycle<br />The perpetual beta<br />Developing for the unknowable<br />
  24. 24. Theme V<br />Changing practice<br />Reflective research/practitioner<br />Changing roles <br />Passive to interactive technologies<br />The need for new organisational structures and processes<br />How do you motivate people to do this? <br />New methodologies for design and evaluation <br />
  25. 25. Theme VI<br />Wider impact<br />New models for society <br />Blurring of boundaries <br />Distributed cognition <br />‘Compelling’ experiences<br />A changing world<br />Technology is here and will continue to have an impact <br />
  26. 26. Changing context of research<br />Changing nature of academic discourse<br />Increasing influence of the blogosphere<br />Wikis for collaborative co-construction<br />The power of social and participatory media<br />Twitter<br />facebook<br />LinkedIn<br />Sykpe<br />Audio and video conferencing<br />
  27. 27. Implications for research<br />Reaching a larger audience, higher profile<br />Harnessing Web 2.0 technologies<br />Tension between open & traditional publishing<br />If it’s not online people won’t read it<br />What are the new indicators of esteem? <br />New forms of distributed collaboration<br />Making raw data openly available<br />
  28. 28. Open practices<br />Collective intelligence<br />The wisdom of the crowds<br />Peer critiquing and dialogue<br />Collective aggregation<br />User generated content<br />Distributed cognition<br />Multiple postings & communication channels<br />Community formation<br />Digital personas<br />Digital scholarship<br />The network effect<br />
  29. 29. Paradoxes created by the digital<br />Death of expertise/<br />everyone an expert<br />Expansive knowledge domain<br />Multiple pathways/lost in cyberspace<br />Hierarchy & control less meaningful<br />Beyond ‘digital space’/New metaphors <br />Increasingly complex digital landscape<br />Multiple (co-)locations/<br />loss of content integrity<br />Content distributed, everything is miscellaneous<br />Social collective/digital individualism<br />Collective intelligence<br />Issues re: ownership, value, business models<br />Free content & tools, open APIs and mash ups<br />Conole, 2009, Keynote, ASCILITE conference<br />
  30. 30. References<br />Conole, G. and McAndrew, P. (2010), A new approach to supporting the design and use of OER: Harnessing the power of web 2.0, M. Edner and M. Schiefner (eds), Looking toward the future of technology enhanced education: ubiquitous learning and the digital nature.<br />Conole, G. (2010), Theory and methodology in networked learning, available online<br />Conole, G. (2010), Review of pedagogical models and frameworks, report for the HEFCE e-learning task force, available online<br />Conole, G. , Scanlon, E., Mundin, P. and Farrow, R. (2010), Technology enhanced learning as a site for interdisciplinary research, report for the TLRP TEL programme, April 2010. <br />Conole, G. (in progress), Designing for learning in an open world, draft chapters available<br />Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (2010), Review of Web 2.0 tools and practices, <br />
  31. 31. Blog:<br />