From Kafka to MOOCs: Disruptive Innovation in Globalized Rehabilitation Education


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Overview of global changes in labor market and impact on rehabilitation education systems. Discussion on innovation, access and MOOCs.

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From Kafka to MOOCs: Disruptive Innovation in Globalized Rehabilitation Education

  1. 1. Alan Bruce, PhD, MIABCPsych Universal Learning Systems Michelle Marme, PhD, CRC Northeastern Illinois University Gina Oswald, PhD, CRC, PC (OH) Wright State University NCRE Spring 2014 Manhattan Beach, California
  2. 2. 1. The Origins of Labor Laws 2. Impact of Globalization 3. Innovation in Learning 4. Disruptive Innovations 5. Advancement of Rehabilitation Education 6. Conclusions 7. Implications
  3. 3. Emerging from the impact of industrialization Struggles around responsibility, insurance and liability Focus on security for workers Development of role of State Social guarantee and protection
  4. 4. Dense network of regulations, principles, procedures and obligations • Legislation and Policy  Working Conditions  Job Analysis  Workers’ Insurance • 1887 Austrian work-related compensation law  Labor relations, social security, and social assistance  Professionals within the system required  Knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values  Instruction on how to facilitate integration and inclusion
  5. 5. Family, language and religion Outsider as observer and artist Multiple contradictions and identities Writer and artist Literary Work • Alienation • Bureaucracy • Obfuscation
  6. 6. Law on Industrial Accidents 1887 Intersection of labor relations, social security and social assistance Workers’Accident Insurance Institute • 1908 to 1917 produced:  Factory visits, vocational assessments, accident reports, forensic testimony and job evaluations  Wrote annual reports  Concept of Justice
  7. 7.  Impact of change, work and a sense of justice  A sense of alienation and loss  Mindless bureaucracy  System controlling not liberating people  Birth of the rehabilitation-employment matrix  Kafka as chronicler of the early profession
  8. 8. In the midst of chaos and anomie: lives lived and systems maintained Shaping elements of modern system:  Technology  War  Law  Social justice  State as stakeholder  Private/public spheres
  9. 9. Patterns of constant change Permanent migration mobility Outsourcing Flexible structures and modalities End of job norms Knowledge economy Instant and pervasive communications Structural inequalities
  10. 10. Planet of Slums (Mike Davis) Informal economies Demographic transformation Hypercities The normalization of brutality
  11. 11. Multidisciplinary Approach • Economics • Psychology • Sociology • Management Innovators • Individuals • Businesses • Organizations • Networks
  12. 12. How does learning sustain innovation? Necessary focus on inherited structures and delivery mechanisms Access and validation of knowledge have become central concerns What is now the role of the University?
  13. 13.  Commodification of knowledge  Impact on education systems (Freire, Illich, Field)  Impact on work (Braverman, Haraszti, Davis)  Impact on community - alienation and anomie  From community to networking  Knowledge and learning now centrally linked as product and process dimensions in the generation of innovation
  14. 14.  Miller (2003) fundamentally optimistic about transformational potential of new knowledge architectures  Carneiro (2007) identifies Paradigm shifts (industry-globalization-utopia) Delivery modes (role-access-customized) Driving forces (State-market-community)
  15. 15.  Dialogic learning: interaction and dialogue of equals - foundations of trust  Expansive learning: goes beyond existing to imagine alternatives  Collaborative learning: universities-companies- governments-communities  Activity theory andYrjo Engestrom
  16. 16.  At the core of innovation is an ability to assess critically and express freely  Fundamental to innovation is the ability to ask questions that challenge existing relations  Innovation re-examines existing reality while posing viable alternatives
  17. 17. Figueiredo (2009): Incremental: builds on existing thinking, products, processes, organizations or social systems Disruptive: addressed to people who do not have solutions - compete with nothing since no other solutions exist
  18. 18. Evolves very rapidly Replaces traditional solutions Rooted in simple applications Personal computer Internet Mobile technologies
  19. 19. Innovation beyond technologies, products, services, and processes Individual and collective learning • Individual and Organizational Skills • Work-based learning • Within the work context • Recognizes cultural-historical activity theory • Application in knowledge transfer
  20. 20. Global Rehabilitation Education requires: • Rich historical debate on disability, inclusion and legacies of institutionalization • Meaningful Inclusion and Mainstreaming • Participation of those with disabilities at all levels • Creation of competences
  21. 21.  A multidisciplinary approach drives innovation in: • Adaptive and assistive technologies • Vocational evaluation • Assessment • Counseling • Materials design • Environmental design • Software design • Medical supports • Legislation • Innovative pedagogy
  22. 22. Strong focus on Linkages between: • Academic inquiry • Practical applications • Community benefit Resulting in: • Culture of quality and excellence • Contributions of historically excluded groups (people with disabilities) to strategies • Services considered an investment not cost
  23. 23. eLearning provision • Open universities, e-learning departments, and media labs MOOC phenomenon Current Challenge: • How will rehabilitation education be impacted by non-distance-expert educators?
  24. 24.  MOOCs: symptom not cause of re-appraisal of role of the University in 21st century  Issues pre-date MOOCs  Reform of structure, governance, ownership and transparency increasingly important  Priorities in a competitive and globalized world  International imperatives and comparative pressures  Quality, reliability and standards in the storm of technological transformation
  25. 25.  Debate reflects a more general uncertainty about the traditional role of HEIs in era globalization  MOOCs are not an isolated issue – connect also to society, economy, CPD environment, training  Current university issues: responding to not ignoring MOOCs, sustainability, pedagogy, credit, capacity  Impact on lifelong systems and structures  Impact of disruption in labor market outcomes  Innovation may occur in the periphery – geographic and social
  26. 26. Conducting a demonstration project with employer to test the effectiveness of learning delivered on mobile devices, in the workplace. The Project Research Questions How do learners perceive the effectiveness of the learning activity, in each group? Is there a perceived improvement in application of learning to practice where it has been delivered in the workplace? Does the technology used facilitate or obstruct learning? Do learners retain more of their learning using the TEL situated approach as opposed to the classroom – based approach? Do the use of elearning and a mobile delivery platform ameliorate the logistical difficulties of engaging employees in learning and development? Technology Enhanced Situated Learning and Virtual Skills Rehearsal in Workforce Development
  27. 27. Uses pre-defined icons to trigger audiovisual content Enhancing printed materials: adding rich content to provide complementary learning material Augmented Reality: displaying learning materials overlaid on the learners environment. What is “Second Sight”? Technology Enhanced Situated Learning and Virtual Skills Rehearsal in Workforce Development
  28. 28. Technology Enhanced Situated Learning and Virtual Skills Rehearsal in Workforce Development Findings: TEL approach at least as effective as training centre approach Learners (and their managers) reported increased ease of application of learning to practice Technology reported as beneficial/ supportive of learning: users very positive about their control of the pace of learning TEL approach marginally better in retention measure Use of mobile technology seen as having very positive impact on logistics of training
  29. 29. Rehabilitation competence linked to wider social needs Use of advanced technologies as norm Radical and continuous upskilling Facilitating learning Rehabilitation connected to wider world Imperative to avoid being crushed by accreditation Learning: nimble, relevant and quality
  30. 30. How can we incubate creativity? How can we develop capacity for innovation? How can we expand expertise and competence? How can we access and integrate cutting edge technologies? Why have we progressed so little in formal terms?
  31. 31.  Identity and creativity: eLearning to eMeaning  Learning processes no longer controlled by traditional knowledge institutions  Creativity now facilitated by platforms and infrastructures that encourage large-scale production and challenge old hierarchies  Process of profound institutional re- structuring comparable to European 19th century  E-learning redefines learning
  32. 32. Increased application of new knowledge Open and distance learning technologies facilitating learners and staff competence Transforming traditional teaching role to mentoring, guiding and facilitation Development of network of innovative best practice at international level WHO Report 2011 Rehabilitation as a framework for creativity, not a labyrinth of rules
  33. 33. Dr. Alan Bruce, ULS Dublin Dr. Michelle Marmé Dr. Gina Oswald
  34. 34.  Supiot, A. (2013) The Grandeur and Misery of the Social State, Paris: Collège de France.  Davis, M. (2006) Planet of Slums, London:Verso  Freire, P. (1970), Pedagogy of the Oppressed,New York: Continuum.  Illich, I. (1971) Deschooling Society, Harmondsworth: Penguin.  Braverman, H. (1974), Labor and Monopoly Capital, New York: Monthly Review Press.  Haraszti, M. (1978) AWorker in aWorker’s State, London: Universe.  Carneiro (2007),‘The Big Picture: understanding learning and meta- learning challenges’, European Journal of Education,Vol. 42, No. 2.  Engestrom,Y. (1999) Activity Theory and Individual Social Transformation, Helsinki: University Press.  Figueiredo (2009) Innovating in Education,Educating for Innovation,Porto: EDEN.  Bruce, A. (2012), ‘Supporting ICT situated learning and virtual skills rehearsal in workforce development’, in Landeta, A., Global e-Learning, Madrid: UDIMA.