The impact of e-learning on organisations, individuals and the curriculum Professor Gráinne Conole The Open University [em...
Outline <ul><li>E-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
The demise of UKeU “ It is clear that virtual learning is an industry  which is striding forward all around us”  (Blunkett...
ICT promises <ul><li>Q  What technological promises were made 10+ years ago? </li></ul><ul><li>Q  How many have come true?...
Promises, promises…. <ul><li>A   Predicted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paperless office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distributed u...
Impact of e-learning Organisational  level Tutor skills &  changing roles Virtual learning  environments Interactive & eng...
Growth of e-learning tools Communication tools Email, discussion boards, chat Assessment tools TOIA, QuestionMark Integrat...
Increasing impact of ICT ICT as mission critical National initiatives ICT catalysts - VLEs Funding drivers Drivers Organis...
Beyond the web… The Grid New methods  of online  data collection Adaptivity Virtual  networks Intelligent  tools Internati...
Learning by  doing In the company of others Through  experience Through  dialogue Socially  situated Through  reflection M...
Policy and practice Early ’90s Kennedy and Dearing reports Late ’90s Emergence of VLEs <ul><ul><li>Recently </li></ul></ul...
The holy grail of e-learning New forms  of learning Pedagogical  re-engineering A global connected  society Learning  anyw...
Negative aspects Patch use of  communication tools Stilted collaborations VLEs for admin  and as content  repositories Inf...
Positive aspects Critical mass of  mediating  tools and resources Shift from individual  to socially situated Learning in ...
Framework for e-learning <ul><li>Reasons for using e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of tools and resources  </li></ul><...
Why use e-learning? <ul><li>Reasons cites for needing e-learning are wide ranging  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical benef...
Tools and their impact: Word 2 Sharing Creating and  sharing resources Presentations Generating  ideas Changing  roles Use...
ICT affordances  Access  to wealth of resources Information  overload , quality issues New forms of  dialogue Literacy  sk...
Understanding the context <ul><li>Large-scale technological implementations common in Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Bus...
 
Understanding organisations <ul><li>Understanding organisational context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External environment and cu...
External context <ul><li>External drivers  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National policy and funding opportunities  </li></ul></ul...
External factors <ul><li>A  Changing nature of education  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lifelong learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Mapping external  factors to the local context Research Practice Strategy Funders Policy Widening   participation L&T HR C...
Institutional profile <ul><li>A  Mission, focus, values </li></ul><ul><li>A  Strategies and policies </li></ul><ul><li>A  ...
Organisational structures Collegial Bureaucratic Enterprise Corporate McNay 1995 Loose Tight Policy definition Loose Tight...
Profiling an institution Widening  Participation Audit and quality assurance Local and regional agendas Globalisation Part...
“ No one representation alone provided a complete description of the domain” Holyfield (2002) Machine Structural aspects O...
Students and staff <ul><li>Changing roles  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional roles and structures are changing </li></ul><...
Students <ul><li>A  Students have a changing skills base </li></ul><ul><li>A  New forms of e-literacy needed </li></ul><ul...
Staff <ul><li>A  Conflict between teaching and research </li></ul><ul><li>A  New forms of e-literacy needed </li></ul><ul>...
Interventions <ul><li>Educational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funds for experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff develop...
The curriculum lifecycle 4 Design Assessment Resources Activities Approach Integration Evaluation Quality  Assurance
The gap between potential & reality <ul><li>Gap between the </li></ul><ul><li>potential   of the technologies  </li></ul><...
 
 
 
Evaluation purposes 5 Selecting Validating Improving Researching Justifying Monitoring
Evaluation process 5 <ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul></ul>Questions Data analysis Dissemination Data collection Stakeholders
Evaluation benefits Reflection and identifying  areas for improvement Way of documenting  and providing evidence Makes pro...
Embedding Process for project  to institutional embedding Integrate with institutional  strategies  and policy initiatives...
Future gazing…. New forms  of media  Increasingly mobile  and ubiquitous More sophisticated  tools and resources Increasin...
References <ul><li>Conole and Oliver (Eds) (forthcoming),  Contemporary perspectives on e-learning research ,  Routledge F...
The impact of e-learning on organisations, individuals and the curriculum Professor Gráinne Conole The Open University [em...
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The impact of e-learning on organisations, individuals and the curriculum

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The impact of e-learning on organisations, individuals and the curriculum

  1. 1. The impact of e-learning on organisations, individuals and the curriculum Professor Gráinne Conole The Open University [email_address] CUC conference, Falmouth 6 th April 2006
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>E-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived benefits and disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A six-step framework for e-learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why use e-learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curriculum design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embedding </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The demise of UKeU “ It is clear that virtual learning is an industry which is striding forward all around us” (Blunkett, 2000) Five years later, Sheerman suggested the investment had been “a disgraceful waste of public money” (Sheerman, 2005)
  4. 4. ICT promises <ul><li>Q What technological promises were made 10+ years ago? </li></ul><ul><li>Q How many have come true? </li></ul><ul><li>Q What’s arisen that was unforeseen? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Promises, promises…. <ul><li>A Predicted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paperless office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distributed university </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>universal on demand access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>home workers, tele-cottages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ sage on the stage’ ‘guide on the side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>artificial intelligence and personalised agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-books </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Not predicted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rise and impact of the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile technologies - mobile phone, text messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singing cards! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards and interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nintendo generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDAs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Impact of e-learning Organisational level Tutor skills & changing roles Virtual learning environments Interactive & engaging materials Unintended consequences
  7. 7. Growth of e-learning tools Communication tools Email, discussion boards, chat Assessment tools TOIA, QuestionMark Integrated learning environments Blackboard, WebCT Online information tools Gateways and portals
  8. 8. Increasing impact of ICT ICT as mission critical National initiatives ICT catalysts - VLEs Funding drivers Drivers Organisational structures Roles, skills and practice Teaching and learning Impact
  9. 9. Beyond the web… The Grid New methods of online data collection Adaptivity Virtual networks Intelligent tools International collaboration Information explosion
  10. 10. Learning by doing In the company of others Through experience Through dialogue Socially situated Through reflection Mercer Vygotsky Laurillard Papart Kolb Dewey Lave Jarvis Paiget Wenger Constructivism Communities of practice Social learning Cognition Theories of learning Key characteristics of learning
  11. 11. Policy and practice Early ’90s Kennedy and Dearing reports Late ’90s Emergence of VLEs <ul><ul><li>Recently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DfES and HEFCE e-learning strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile and wireless technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of designing for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PLEs and focus on the student experience! </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The holy grail of e-learning New forms of learning Pedagogical re-engineering A global connected society Learning anywhere anytime Rich multimedia representation Smart, adaptable, personalised To what extent is this true? What is the link between the pedagogy and the technology?
  13. 13. Negative aspects Patch use of communication tools Stilted collaborations VLEs for admin and as content repositories Information overload Not pedagogically informed -ve
  14. 14. Positive aspects Critical mass of mediating tools and resources Shift from individual to socially situated Learning in context or through problem solving New innovative uses of e-learning +ve
  15. 15. Framework for e-learning <ul><li>Reasons for using e-learning </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of tools and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding the context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The wider context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisational context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills and perceptions of staff and students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective curriculum design </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding </li></ul>1 2 3 4 6 5
  16. 16. Why use e-learning? <ul><li>Reasons cites for needing e-learning are wide ranging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fundamental impact at all organisational levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting across and effecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>existing structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>teaching, research and administration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>roles and functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>support and administration processes </li></ul></ul></ul>1
  17. 17. Tools and their impact: Word 2 Sharing Creating and sharing resources Presentations Generating ideas Changing roles Used ubiquitously Distributed cognition Collaborative working Changing the way we create knowledge <ul><ul><li>Quality vs content </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. ICT affordances Access to wealth of resources Information overload , quality issues New forms of dialogue Literacy skills issues New forms of community Learner identity and confusion Speed of access, immediacy Lack of permanency, surface Virtual representations Lack of reality, real is fake Accessibility Speed of change Diversity Communication & collaboration Reflection Multimodality Risk Immediacy Monopolisation Surveillance Conole and Dyke, 2004
  19. 19. Understanding the context <ul><li>Large-scale technological implementations common in Business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation of banking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tesco’s online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-tickets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer expectation of online shopping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education sector has been slower </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will explore why and consider importance of organisational context </li></ul></ul>3
  20. 21. Understanding organisations <ul><li>Understanding organisational context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External environment and current drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current institutional drivers and initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alignment of e-learning developments with other institutional activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Institutional profile and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Changing functions and roles </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational interventions </li></ul>
  21. 22. External context <ul><li>External drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National policy and funding opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current agendas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widening participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifelong learning </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. External factors <ul><li>A Changing nature of education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lifelong learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>widening participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Changing nature of work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple career histories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>growth and increased importance of ‘new professionals’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Increasing impact of globalisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge dispersal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A New emergent issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardisation/surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital and economic divides </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Mapping external factors to the local context Research Practice Strategy Funders Policy Widening participation L&T HR Catalysts
  24. 25. Institutional profile <ul><li>A Mission, focus, values </li></ul><ul><li>A Strategies and policies </li></ul><ul><li>A Stakeholders and their perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>A Current initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>A Range of factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size, sector, management style, profile of students, funding, subject areas, culture, partners </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Organisational structures Collegial Bureaucratic Enterprise Corporate McNay 1995 Loose Tight Policy definition Loose Tight Control of implementation
  26. 27. Profiling an institution Widening Participation Audit and quality assurance Local and regional agendas Globalisation Partnerships Innovation Consultancy ICT Research Institution with a primary focus on teaching and learning
  27. 28. “ No one representation alone provided a complete description of the domain” Holyfield (2002) Machine Structural aspects Organism Living, ecoystem Brain Information processing system Culture Mini-society, different social realities Political Conflicts and power Morgan’s metaphors
  28. 29. Students and staff <ul><li>Changing roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional roles and structures are changing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New support units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of ‘learning technologists’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q How have staff roles changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Q How have students changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Q What new skills do staff and students need to utilise e-learning? </li></ul>
  29. 30. Students <ul><li>A Students have a changing skills base </li></ul><ul><li>A New forms of e-literacy needed </li></ul><ul><li>A Students need ICT support and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>A Employers see ICT skills as basic requirements </li></ul><ul><li>A New forms of communication and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>A Students expect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>access to quality e-learning resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similar standards across courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tutor available online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile and wireless connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Emergent issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plagiarism, copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impact of monitoring and surveillance </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Staff <ul><li>A Conflict between teaching and research </li></ul><ul><li>A New forms of e-literacy needed </li></ul><ul><li>A Students need ICT support and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>A More collaboration in teaching and research </li></ul><ul><li>A Shifting roles and institutional structures </li></ul><ul><li>A Link between teaching and research never more important! </li></ul><ul><li>A New forms of academic discourse and peer validation </li></ul>
  31. 32. Interventions <ul><li>Educational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funds for experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VLE and MLE implementations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless and mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down and bottom up </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. The curriculum lifecycle 4 Design Assessment Resources Activities Approach Integration Evaluation Quality Assurance
  33. 34. The gap between potential & reality <ul><li>Gap between the </li></ul><ul><li>potential of the technologies </li></ul><ul><li>(confusion over how they can be used) </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>application of good pedagogical principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(confusion over which models to use) </li></ul></ul>Plethora of tools and resources Enormous potential but underused Wealth of knowledge about learning Didactic/behaviourists models predominate
  34. 38. Evaluation purposes 5 Selecting Validating Improving Researching Justifying Monitoring
  35. 39. Evaluation process 5 <ul><ul><li>Reasons </li></ul></ul>Questions Data analysis Dissemination Data collection Stakeholders
  36. 40. Evaluation benefits Reflection and identifying areas for improvement Way of documenting and providing evidence Makes process explicit: part of quality assurance processes Understanding the teaching and learning process 5
  37. 41. Embedding Process for project to institutional embedding Integrate with institutional strategies and policy initiatives Pedagogical and organisational issues not just technical one Align e-learning with external funding 6
  38. 42. Future gazing…. New forms of media Increasingly mobile and ubiquitous More sophisticated tools and resources Increasingly global and interconnected
  39. 43. References <ul><li>Conole and Oliver (Eds) (forthcoming), Contemporary perspectives on e-learning research , Routledge Falmer </li></ul><ul><li>Conole (forthcoming), ‘An international comparison of the relationship between policy and practice in e-learning’ in Andrews and Haythornthwaite (Eds), Handbook of e-learning research , Sage </li></ul><ul><li>Conole (2006), ‘What impact are technologies having and how are they changing practice?’, in McNay (ed), Beyond Mass Higher Education: Building on Experience , The Society for Research into Higher Education, Open University Press/ McGraw-Hill Education , 81-95. </li></ul><ul><li>Conole, Dyke, Oliver, and Seale, (2004), ‘Mapping pedagogy and tools for effective learning design’, Computers and Education </li></ul><ul><li>Conole and Dyke, (2004), ‘What are the affordances of Information and Communication Technologies?’, ALT-J , 12.2 </li></ul><ul><li>Conole (2003), ‘Understanding your organisation’ in the ‘Creating a Managed Learning Environment infoKit’, www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk </li></ul>
  40. 44. The impact of e-learning on organisations, individuals and the curriculum Professor Gráinne Conole The Open University [email_address] CUC conference, Falmouth 6 th April 2006

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