Poor Indoor Air Quality


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Poor Indoor Air Quality

  1. 2. Causes of Poor Indoor Air Quality <ul><li>Presence of indoor air pollution sources </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly designed, maintained or operated ventilation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Building being used in ways not anticipated in its original design </li></ul>
  2. 3. Sources of Pollutants <ul><li>Building materials </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning products </li></ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Copy machines </li></ul><ul><li>Damp or wet carpet </li></ul><ul><li>Furnishings. </li></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Poor ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Radon </li></ul><ul><li>Wood </li></ul>
  3. 4. Facts About Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) <ul><li>People spend an estimated 90% of their time indoors </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor air can be 10 times more toxic than the air that we breath outside </li></ul><ul><li>Energy consumption trends of the 70’s caused the design and rehab of many buildings decreasing their ventilation and contributing to indoor air quality issues </li></ul>
  4. 5. Facts about IAQ (Cont.) <ul><li>Poor ventilation is the main cause of poor air quality </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated that 30% of new and remodeled buildings worldwide are subject to excessive complaints related to indoor air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Age and pre-existing medical conditions are two important influences </li></ul>
  5. 6. Causes of Poor IAQ <ul><li>In approximately 500 indoor air quality investigations in the last decade, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) states that the primary sources for IAQ problems are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate ventilation (52%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination from inside the building (16%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination from outside the building (10%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial contamination (5%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination from building fabric (4%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown sources (13%) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Effects of IAQ <ul><li>Sick Building Syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discomforts include headaches, nausea, dizziness, eye, nose and throat irritation, difficulty in concentration, muscle pain, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Building Related I llnesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinically defined infections such as legionellas, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Health Effects <ul><li>Poor IAQ has been linked to a number of illnesses such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legionnaire’s Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory Issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other symptoms such as headaches, sore throats, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Economic and Legal Implications <ul><li>Reduce attendance and productivity at work </li></ul><ul><li>Can quicken building deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in liability issues and lawsuits </li></ul>
  9. 10. Sources of Air Contaminants Contaminant: Sources: <ul><li>Acetic Acid </li></ul>X-rays, silicone & caulking compounds <ul><li>Carbon Monoxide </li></ul>Engines, fuel appliances & tobacco <ul><li>Formaldehyde </li></ul>Insulation, plywood, paneling, carpeting & fabric , glues & adhesives <ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul>Gas appliances, human respiration <ul><li>Nitrogen Oxides </li></ul>Welding and appliances
  10. 11. Sources of Air Contaminants Contaminant: Sources: <ul><li>Ozones </li></ul>Copy machines, electrical arcing, smog <ul><li>Radon </li></ul>Ground under buildings, groundwater, building materials <ul><li>VOC’s </li></ul>Cleaning chemicals, alcohols, pesticides, etc. <ul><li>Misc. Inorganic Gases </li></ul>Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide <ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul>Insulation and building products <ul><li>Microorganisms & other biological contaminants </li></ul>Viruses, fungi, mold, bacteria, pollen, dander and mites
  11. 12. Fact <ul><li>Drapes, fabrics and carpets absorb these chemicals along with mites and other allergens </li></ul>
  12. 14. What Mold Needs to Grow
  13. 15. Carpet Components Susceptible to Microbial Growth Include: <ul><li>Natural Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Latex Coatings </li></ul><ul><li>Jute Backings as well as Foam Backing Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Binders and Adhesives </li></ul>
  14. 16. Improving Air Quality <ul><li>Eliminate sources of pollution and/or reduce their emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Improve ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize air cleaners </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce mold </li></ul><ul><li>Control moisture </li></ul>
  15. 17. Work Practice Recommendations <ul><li>Preventative Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid Microbial Contamination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control areas of moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove damp building materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean and disinfect non-porous surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain humidity below 60% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control intake of outdoor air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolate areas of renovation or cleaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply adequate ventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specify an EPA registered antimicrobial for susceptible interior products </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Ceiling Tiles/Microbial View
  17. 19. Natural Fibers Rhizopus sp. on carpet backing
  18. 20. Indoor Air Quality Standards <ul><li>“ Who sets and monitors the standards?” </li></ul><ul><li>OSHA – OSH ACT – “General Duty Clause” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employers must furnish to each of his employees a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Green Organizations/Green Movement <ul><li>Green Seal </li></ul><ul><li>EPA </li></ul><ul><li>The GreenGuard Environmental Institute </li></ul>Most companies are self certifying themselves as Green Chemistries
  20. 22. What does Green Mean? How Should Cleaning Solutions Measure GREEN? <ul><li>Environmental Impact and Footprint </li></ul><ul><li>Are the cleaning products rapidly biodegradable? </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor Air Quality </li></ul><ul><li>The cleaning process should make the indoor environment Green by removing soil, allergens and pollutants in addition to cleaning the surface of the carpet/floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Renewable Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Do the raw materials of your cleaning products require the use of renewable resources such as oil? </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Are the products housed in recyclable packaging? </li></ul>
  21. 23. What does Green Mean? (Cont.) <ul><li>Reducing Use of Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Is the solution concentrated – the more concentration, the less resources needed to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any Health Impacts associated with the cleaning products? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they safe to use for technicians as well as building inhabitants? </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on the cleaning surface </li></ul><ul><li>Does it have a negative impact on the surface being cleaned? </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Does it completely remove soils, allergens, pollutants and particulates effectively without having to add more? If it does then it is a “Green” cleaning process. </li></ul>
  22. 24. Indoor Air Claims No Human Health Care Claims
  23. 25. Ensuring Superior Indoor Air Quality <ul><li>The 3 C’s of Sanitizing Cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Chemistry: biodegradable, substrate compatible, residual activity, single active or blend mode of action </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration: RTU or dilute, ratio, specific instructions for certain environments or target organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Time: Critical for effective kill or denaturing. Too little contact time = poor sanitization </li></ul>
  24. 26. Sanitizing Maintenance <ul><li>Sanitizing is using an agent that reduces microbial contaminants to safe levels as set by public health requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of Sanitization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stops the spread of microbes that negatively impact human health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents premature bio-deterioration </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Two Types of Maintenance <ul><li>“ Cleaning for Looks” – removal of surface soils to make an interior look aesthetically pleasing. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cleaning for Health” – procedures that address the removal of deeply embedded soils, contaminants and allergens. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Benefits of Grab? <ul><li>The Grab line consists of Low Moisture products that encapsulate soil and debris and effectively remove it from carpet and fabric fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Its formulation, technology and cleaning methodology ensures that the product does not become airborne, thereby eliminating indoor air quality concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>It is made from sustainable chemistries </li></ul><ul><li>It has low VOC’s </li></ul>
  27. 29. To further the Green Cleaning Process <ul><li>Use the correct equipment to ensure that all of the debris is being removed. </li></ul><ul><li>Consult the CRI approved equipment list to ensure maximum efficiency. </li></ul>
  28. 30. New Product - Vital Oxide - <ul><li>Vital Oxide is an EPA registered disinfectant that can be used on both hard surfaces and fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>It kills 99.99% of tough bacteria such as MRSA, Legionella, Norovirus, E Coli, Salmonella and Aspergilles Niger to name just a few. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a long-term mold preventative. </li></ul>Nature’s Alternative to Bleach
  29. 31. Why Vital Oxide <ul><li>Quaternary vs. Non-Quaternary cleaners </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine Dioxide is the only chemical that effectively eliminates threats such as super bugs, viruses and Anthrax. </li></ul><ul><li>Vital Oxide is a stabilized Chlorine Dioxide compound that doesn’t have to be mixed in two parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike other Chlorine Dioxide based cleaners it can be stored in a bottle for up to 2 years and maintain its effectiveness. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Conclusions <ul><li>A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to ensure good IAQ during construction or routine building operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction specifications and practices which minimize moisture exposure and control helps prevent mold colonization. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitization helps ensure that contaminated substrates do not become problem sources. </li></ul>