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Poor Indoor Air Quality
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  • 1.  
  • 2. Causes of Poor Indoor Air Quality
    • Presence of indoor air pollution sources
    • Poorly designed, maintained or operated ventilation systems
    • Building being used in ways not anticipated in its original design
  • 3. Sources of Pollutants
    • Building materials
    • Carbon dioxide
    • Cleaning products
    • Coal
    • Copy machines
    • Damp or wet carpet
    • Furnishings.
    • Gas
    • Oil
    • Poor ventilation
    • Radon
    • Wood
  • 4. Facts About Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
    • People spend an estimated 90% of their time indoors
    • Indoor air can be 10 times more toxic than the air that we breath outside
    • Energy consumption trends of the 70’s caused the design and rehab of many buildings decreasing their ventilation and contributing to indoor air quality issues
  • 5. Facts about IAQ (Cont.)
    • Poor ventilation is the main cause of poor air quality
    • It is estimated that 30% of new and remodeled buildings worldwide are subject to excessive complaints related to indoor air quality
    • Age and pre-existing medical conditions are two important influences
  • 6. Causes of Poor IAQ
    • In approximately 500 indoor air quality investigations in the last decade, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) states that the primary sources for IAQ problems are:
      • Inadequate ventilation (52%)
      • Contamination from inside the building (16%)
      • Contamination from outside the building (10%)
      • Microbial contamination (5%)
      • Contamination from building fabric (4%)
      • Unknown sources (13%)
  • 7. Effects of IAQ
    • Sick Building Syndrome
      • Discomforts include headaches, nausea, dizziness, eye, nose and throat irritation, difficulty in concentration, muscle pain, etc.
    • Building Related I llnesses
      • Clinically defined infections such as legionellas, etc.
  • 8. Health Effects
    • Poor IAQ has been linked to a number of illnesses such as:
      • Legionnaire’s Disease
      • Asthma
      • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
      • Respiratory Issues
      • Other symptoms such as headaches, sore throats, etc.
  • 9. Economic and Legal Implications
    • Reduce attendance and productivity at work
    • Can quicken building deterioration
    • Can result in liability issues and lawsuits
  • 10. Sources of Air Contaminants Contaminant: Sources:
    • Acetic Acid
    X-rays, silicone & caulking compounds
    • Carbon Monoxide
    Engines, fuel appliances & tobacco
    • Formaldehyde
    Insulation, plywood, paneling, carpeting & fabric , glues & adhesives
    • Carbon Dioxide
    Gas appliances, human respiration
    • Nitrogen Oxides
    Welding and appliances
  • 11. Sources of Air Contaminants Contaminant: Sources:
    • Ozones
    Copy machines, electrical arcing, smog
    • Radon
    Ground under buildings, groundwater, building materials
    • VOC’s
    Cleaning chemicals, alcohols, pesticides, etc.
    • Misc. Inorganic Gases
    Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide
    • Asbestos
    Insulation and building products
    • Microorganisms & other biological contaminants
    Viruses, fungi, mold, bacteria, pollen, dander and mites
  • 12. Fact
    • Drapes, fabrics and carpets absorb these chemicals along with mites and other allergens
  • 13.  
  • 14. What Mold Needs to Grow
  • 15. Carpet Components Susceptible to Microbial Growth Include:
    • Natural Fibers
    • Latex Coatings
    • Jute Backings as well as Foam Backing Systems
    • Binders and Adhesives
  • 16. Improving Air Quality
    • Eliminate sources of pollution and/or reduce their emissions
    • Improve ventilation
    • Utilize air cleaners
    • Reduce mold
    • Control moisture
  • 17. Work Practice Recommendations
    • Preventative Maintenance
    • Avoid Microbial Contamination
      • Control areas of moisture
      • Remove damp building materials
      • Clean and disinfect non-porous surfaces
      • Maintain humidity below 60%
      • Control intake of outdoor air
      • Isolate areas of renovation or cleaning
      • Supply adequate ventilation
      • Specify an EPA registered antimicrobial for susceptible interior products
  • 18. Ceiling Tiles/Microbial View
  • 19. Natural Fibers Rhizopus sp. on carpet backing
  • 20. Indoor Air Quality Standards
    • “ Who sets and monitors the standards?”
    • OSHA – OSH ACT – “General Duty Clause”
      • Employers must furnish to each of his employees a place of employment which is free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees.
  • 21. Green Organizations/Green Movement
    • Green Seal
    • EPA
    • The GreenGuard Environmental Institute
    Most companies are self certifying themselves as Green Chemistries
  • 22. What does Green Mean? How Should Cleaning Solutions Measure GREEN?
    • Environmental Impact and Footprint
    • Are the cleaning products rapidly biodegradable?
    • Indoor Air Quality
    • The cleaning process should make the indoor environment Green by removing soil, allergens and pollutants in addition to cleaning the surface of the carpet/floor.
    • Use of Renewable Resources
    • Do the raw materials of your cleaning products require the use of renewable resources such as oil?
    • Packaging
    • Are the products housed in recyclable packaging?
  • 23. What does Green Mean? (Cont.)
    • Reducing Use of Resources
    • Is the solution concentrated – the more concentration, the less resources needed to produce.
    • Are there any Health Impacts associated with the cleaning products?
    • Are they safe to use for technicians as well as building inhabitants?
    • Impact on the cleaning surface
    • Does it have a negative impact on the surface being cleaned?
    • Cleaning Effectiveness
    • Does it completely remove soils, allergens, pollutants and particulates effectively without having to add more? If it does then it is a “Green” cleaning process.
  • 24. Indoor Air Claims No Human Health Care Claims
  • 25. Ensuring Superior Indoor Air Quality
    • The 3 C’s of Sanitizing Cleaning
    • Chemistry: biodegradable, substrate compatible, residual activity, single active or blend mode of action
    • Concentration: RTU or dilute, ratio, specific instructions for certain environments or target organisms
    • Contact Time: Critical for effective kill or denaturing. Too little contact time = poor sanitization
  • 26. Sanitizing Maintenance
    • Sanitizing is using an agent that reduces microbial contaminants to safe levels as set by public health requirements.
    • Benefits of Sanitization:
      • Stops the spread of microbes that negatively impact human health
      • Prevents premature bio-deterioration
  • 27. Two Types of Maintenance
    • “ Cleaning for Looks” – removal of surface soils to make an interior look aesthetically pleasing.
    • “ Cleaning for Health” – procedures that address the removal of deeply embedded soils, contaminants and allergens.
  • 28. Benefits of Grab?
    • The Grab line consists of Low Moisture products that encapsulate soil and debris and effectively remove it from carpet and fabric fibers.
    • Its formulation, technology and cleaning methodology ensures that the product does not become airborne, thereby eliminating indoor air quality concerns.
    • It is made from sustainable chemistries
    • It has low VOC’s
  • 29. To further the Green Cleaning Process
    • Use the correct equipment to ensure that all of the debris is being removed.
    • Consult the CRI approved equipment list to ensure maximum efficiency.
  • 30. New Product - Vital Oxide -
    • Vital Oxide is an EPA registered disinfectant that can be used on both hard surfaces and fabric.
    • It kills 99.99% of tough bacteria such as MRSA, Legionella, Norovirus, E Coli, Salmonella and Aspergilles Niger to name just a few.
    • Acts as a long-term mold preventative.
    Nature’s Alternative to Bleach
  • 31. Why Vital Oxide
    • Quaternary vs. Non-Quaternary cleaners
    • Chlorine Dioxide is the only chemical that effectively eliminates threats such as super bugs, viruses and Anthrax.
    • Vital Oxide is a stabilized Chlorine Dioxide compound that doesn’t have to be mixed in two parts.
    • Unlike other Chlorine Dioxide based cleaners it can be stored in a bottle for up to 2 years and maintain its effectiveness.
  • 32. Conclusions
    • A multi-disciplinary approach is needed to ensure good IAQ during construction or routine building operation.
    • Construction specifications and practices which minimize moisture exposure and control helps prevent mold colonization.
    • Sanitization helps ensure that contaminated substrates do not become problem sources.
  • 33.