Bombay National History Society (1883) – Nature Conservation research, NGO, founded by 2 Indian & 6 Englishmen. Received the Global 500 award by UNEP for Environmental Protection. ASHRAE members are individuals – volunteers & professional staff who share ideas, identify the need for support and research and write the industry's standards for testing and practice .
Sick Building Syndrome Iaq Hvac
Sick Building Syndrome - Indoor Air Quality<br />How To Deal With<br />S B S<br />Sick Building Syndrome<br />A Guide for <br />Employers, Facility Managers, <br />Building Owners, Building Managers<br />An Introduction <br />Indicators of Sick Building Syndrome<br />Causes of Sick Building Syndrome<br />Investigation Procedure<br />Solutions to Sick Building Syndrome<br />Effective HVAC, Primary for IAQ<br />SBS, IAQ is a FM responsibility <br />Q & A<br />1<br />A Presentation<br /> SBS<br />Sanjay Chaudhuri<br />
Sick Building Syndrome – The Definition<br />The term "sick building syndrome" (SBS) is described in a situation where building occupants experience the following:<br />Acute health and comfort upsets due to the time spent in a building, but no specific illness or disease can be identified. <br />This condition is usually temporary but some buildings have long-term problems due to design constraints. <br />The intensity of this problem tends to magnify or repeat when the building maintenance is inconsistent or deviated from it’s stipulated operating procedures or original design. <br />Indoor air problems can not only be caused due to poor building design but also due to the nature of activities by the occupants.<br />In 1984, a WHO Committee Study reported 30 percent of new and redesigned buildings worldwide complaint of the indoor air quality.<br />2<br />
Sick Building Syndrome - Indicators<br />Building occupants complain of typical symptoms like general physical discomfort, headache, eye, nose, or throat irritation, dry cough, dry or itchy skin, dizziness and nausea, difficulty to concentrate, fatigue, chest tightness, fever, chills, muscle aches and re-actions to odors.<br />While most people report relief soon after leaving the building, such illness caused due to prolonged occupation requires long recovery period, even after leaving the building.<br />Discomforts may result from other causes also and include an illness contracted outside the building, high allergies level, job stress, dissatisfied work environment and other psychosocial factors. <br />All these symptoms are medically defined and the causes can be identified for a therapy or cure. <br />How ever, studies show that all symptoms may be caused or aggravated by the indoor air quality problem that percolates in the human system.<br />3<br />
Sick Building Syndrome – Primary Causes<br />Inadequate Ventilation<br />Chemical Contamination from Indoor sources<br />Chemical Contamination from Outdoor sources<br />Biological Contaminants<br />4<br />
IAQ - Inadequate Ventilation<br />Inadequate ventilation may occur if heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems do not effectively distribute air to people in the building. An important factor in SBS. <br />Till about mid 1900's, building ventilation standards defined approx. 15 cubic feet per minute (cfm) of outside air per building occupant, primarily to dilute & remove body odors. <br />As a result of the 1973 oil embargo, national energy conservation measures called for a reduction in the amount of outdoor air provided for ventilation to 5 cfm / occupant. <br />In an effort to achieve acceptable Indoor Air Quality while minimizing energy consumption, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) recently revised its ventilation standard to provide a minimum of 15 cfm of outdoor air per person (20 cfm /person in office spaces). <br />Up to 60 cfm/person may be required in some spaces (smoking lounges, etc) depending on the activities that normally occur in that space (ASHRAE Standard 62-1989).<br />5<br />
Chemical Contamination - Indoor sources<br />Most indoor air pollution comes from sources inside the building. They are 2 to 5 times higher than out door sources.<br />For example, adhesives, carpeting, upholstery, manufactured wood products, copy machines, pesticides, and cleaning agents may emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). <br />Combustion products such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide can come from unvented kerosene and gas heaters, woodstoves, fireplaces and gas stoves. <br />Even environmental tobacco smoke contributes to high levels of VOCs and other toxic compounds that we breathe in every day. <br />Research shows that some VOCs can cause chronic and acute health effects at high concentrations and are known Carcinogens. <br />6<br />
Chemical Contamination - Outdoor Sources<br />The outdoor air that enters a building can be a source of indoor air pollution. <br />For example, pollutants from motor vehicle exhausts, plumbing vents and building exhausts (e.g., bathrooms and kitchens) can enter the building through poorly located air intake vents, windows, and other openings. <br />In addition, combustion products can enter a building from a nearby garage.<br />7<br />
IAQ – Biological Contaminants<br />Bacteria, molds, pollen, and viruses are types of biological contaminants. They breed in stagnant accumulated water in ducts, humidifiers, drain pans, ceiling tiles, carpets or AC insulation. <br />Sometimes insects or bird droppings can be a source of biological contaminants. <br />Sickness through bio - contamination <br /> cough, chest tightness, fever, chills, muscle aches, and allergic responses such as mucous membrane irritation and upper respiratory congestion .<br />These elements may act in combination, and may supplement other complaints such as inadequate temperature, humidity or lighting. <br />8<br />
SBS – Building Investigating Procedure<br />Objective - Conduct building investigation to identify and resolve permanently, recurring indoor air quality complaints that may lead to other problems. <br />Mission - To discover whether a complaint is actually related to Indoor Air Quality, (IAQ) identify the cause of the complaint and determine appropriate corrective actions.<br /><ul><li> Action - Conduct an indoor air quality investigation procedure.
Methodology – </li></ul>Prepare for Walk through, Conduct an initial walk through, Collect air Test samples. <br /><ul><li> Result - Remedy / Containment</li></ul>10<br />
Sick Building Syndrome – Solutions to IAQ<br />Pollutant Source removal/ modification<br /> This is controllable & offers effective resolution IAQ problems. Routine maintenance of HVAC, Health checks, smoking restrictions, proper storage and use of paints, adhesives, solvents, and pesticides in well ventilated areas, usage of pollutant sources during non-occupancy. Allowing sufficient drying & de fuming time for building materials in new or remodeled areas before occupying. <br /><ul><li>Air Cleaning </li></ul>Auseful method to control ventilation but has limitations. All filters do not effectively capture small particles. Only high performance air filters capture the smaller, respirable particles but are relatively expensive to install & operate. <br />Mechanical filters do not remove gaseous pollutants. Usage of gaseous pollutants adsorbent beds is expensive and require frequent replacement. <br />Air cleaners are useful with limited application.<br /><ul><li>Education & Communication</li></ul>Important elements in both remedial and preventive IAQ management. <br />Maintenance personnel must periodically communicate and educate the Building occupants and to the management, causes and consequences of IAQ problems. <br />Periodic audits & release reports.<br />11<br />
Environment Protection - Global Initiatives<br />ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigeration & Air-conditioning Engineers (1894). An international organization of more than 55000 people, representing 163 chapters across 126 nations. <br />SEPA – Scottish Environment Protection agency (1784)<br />ACIAR – Australian Center for International Agricultural Research (1960). <br />NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act (1969) <br />EQIA -Environmental Quality Improvement Act (1970)<br />EPA - Environmental Protection Agency (1970)<br />Environment Protection Act 1986 7th Five year plan.<br />ISHRAE (1989) - Indian Society of Heating, Refrigeration & Air-conditioning Engineers. (Dr. Prem Jain)<br />EPTRI – Environmental Protection Training & Research Institute, Hyderabad (1991) a JV with Govt. of Sweden.<br />12<br />Objective of these Institutions - Ensure that the environment is protected against both public & private actions that failed to take account of costs or harms inflicted on the eco-system.<br />
Effective HVAC – Primary IAQ Factor<br />Why is it important to have air systems cleaned?<br />Clean HVAC systems perform more efficiently to decrease energy costs.<br />Well-maintained mechanical components last longer, reducing costly HVAC system repairs.<br />Building tenants with employees affected by indoor air pollution may see a reduction in employee downtime/sick days. Increases productivity.<br />Tenant retention is higher with good indoor air quality.<br />Building value increases with proper air system maintenance.<br />The process of air duct cleaning involves four steps:<br />Clean the furnace/air conditioner.<br />Test system for proper operation.<br />Disconnect the power before opening the unit for safety.<br />Vacuum the interior surfaces of the Furnace/Air Conditioner.<br />Clean the cooling coils with a HEPA vacuum and a coil cleaner.<br />Clean the Blower unit.<br />Clean the supply and return registers and grills.<br />Remove wall, ceiling and Floor registers.<br />Wash Register with Detergent cleaner and rinse dry.<br />Clean the supply and return ducts.<br />Clean all air ducts using powerful duct cleaning equipment.<br />Decontaminate cleaned ducts with Soot set sealant & Odor Kill Deodorizer.<br />Install electrostatic air filter and odor control products.<br />Install Solid Odor Kill in the return to control odors for up to 3 months.<br />13<br />
Internal Air Quality - A FM Responsibility<br />Conducive work environment is the key to a healthy occupant and it’s well being. It becomes a FM priority to maintain a healthy building and acceptable levels of IAQ. <br />The real challenge lies in achieving a healthy indoor environment . The regulations are often ill defined, unenforceable and the burden gets annulled due to lack of accepting responsibility. <br />Acceptable levels of air pollutants must be determined through scientific health investigations periodically, based on government guidelines & other set standards that are internationally accepted. <br />Attention to work place design, healthy construction & building operation standards at work place will eliminate Sick Building Syndrome. This leaves you with lesser challenges on sickness caused at workplace other than IAQ.<br />14<br />