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Wikimapping for DDD

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Presented at ESSAP2007

Presented at ESSAP2007

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  • 1. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Wikimapping for DDD Tools for the establishment of a ubiquitous language Federico Gobbo federico.gobbo@uninsubria.it Dipartimento di Informatica e Comunicazione Universit` degli Studi dell’Insubria, Varese a (cc) Some rights reserved. 1/41
  • 2. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions The agility software life cycle: requirement modelling sponsors developers XP coaches domain Brainstorming, experts domain knowledge elicitation customers user stories requirement modelling & software development 2/41
  • 3. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions The need of a ubiquitous language A ubiquitous language is a lexicon of keywords shared by every actor of the software life cycle (Evans 2003): the model is the backbone of a language used by all members. Because of the binding of model and implementation, developers can talk about the program in this language. They can communicate with domain experts without translation. And because of the language is based on the model, our natural linguistic abilities can be turned to refining the model itself. The relation between language and the model is an expanding circle which permit people involved in software to augment their shared knowledge. It is central to avoid frictions between developers and customers. 3/41
  • 4. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Official reference about DDD and ubiquitous language 4/41
  • 5. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions A traffic monitoring project 1/2 A fictional dialogue about a ubiquitous language establishment • Developer: We want to monitor air traffic. Where do we start? • Expert: Let’s start with the basics. All this traffic is made up of planes. Each plane takes off from a departure place, and lands at a destination place. • Developer: That’s easy. When it flies, the plane can just choose any air path the pilots like? Is it up to them to decide which way they should go, as long as they reach destination? • Expert: Oh, no. The pilots receive a route they must follow. And they should stay on that route as close as possible. 5/41
  • 6. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions A traffic monitoring project 2/2 Ubiquitous language is a conversational convention • Developer: I’m thinking of this route as a 3D path in the air. If we use a Cartesian system of coordinates, then the route is simply a series of 3D points. • Expert: I don’t think so. We don’t see route that way. The route is actually the projection on the ground of the expected air path of the airplane. The route goes through a series of points on the ground determined by their latitude and longitude. DDD Quickly, InfoQ.com 6/41
  • 7. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions DDD and XP user stories: my claim How the ubiquitous language enters design in a XP team User stories describe something that is understandable by the customer or a proxy, e.g. a domain expert. If the ubiquitous language is externalized during the design process my claim is that ubiquitous language evolution and change is easier to maintain. 7/41
  • 8. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions DDD and XP user stories: my claim How the ubiquitous language enters design in a XP team User stories describe something that is understandable by the customer or a proxy, e.g. a domain expert. If the ubiquitous language is externalized during the design process my claim is that ubiquitous language evolution and change is easier to maintain. They risk to fail if the ubiquitous language is not at least partially established before starting to write down user stories. 7/41
  • 9. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Ubiquitous language is to be put in the exploration phase! W rite a S tory (C ustom er) quot;d o n 't kn o w h o w quot; quot;to o b i gquot; E stim ate a S tory (P rogram m er) S plit a S tory S pike a S tory (C ustom er) (P rogram m er) P h a se 1 : E xp lo ra tio n P h a se 2 : P la n n in g S ort S tories by V alue and R isk (C ustom er and P rogram m er) D eclare V elocity (T racker) C hoose S cope (C ustom er) 8/41 William C. Wake (2000:103)
  • 10. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Cognitive mapping and ubiquitous language Customers and domain experts usually say that user stories fail to capture the “big picture”. On the contrary, cognitive mapping techniques proved well in make the “big picture” (Gestalt) clear and shared in groups, hence they can be used as an effective tool to establish the ubiquitous language. Wikimaps are an evolution of cognitive mapping, where definitions into the cognitive mapping nodes are wiki pages (we see them later). 9/41
  • 11. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Why cognitive mapping? Cognitive mapping considers thinking as a self-organizing information system, i.e. informations grow and change, while it maintains accuracy and relevance. 10/41
  • 12. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Why cognitive mapping? Cognitive mapping considers thinking as a self-organizing information system, i.e. informations grow and change, while it maintains accuracy and relevance. Empirical evidences. Our brain process complex information conveyed visually in a very effective way, we typically identify visual patterns easier than not-visual (e.g. words as concepts). Forthermore, visual images can overcome language barriers. 10/41
  • 13. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Why cognitive mapping? Cognitive mapping considers thinking as a self-organizing information system, i.e. informations grow and change, while it maintains accuracy and relevance. Empirical evidences. Our brain process complex information conveyed visually in a very effective way, we typically identify visual patterns easier than not-visual (e.g. words as concepts). Forthermore, visual images can overcome language barriers. Knowledge elicitation. Information visualization doesn’t merely communicate ideas but it actively, organizes, concises, and clarifies info chunks (Dawkins’ memes) revealing hidden patterns, gaining insights and discovering new ideas and relations. 10/41
  • 14. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Please tell your experiences in cognitive mapping, if any 11/41
  • 15. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Three different paradigms for cognitive mapping Cognitive mapping became popular in the 1980s-90s, where it was uses esp. for educational and self-coaching purposes, e.g. note-taking, brainstorming, time management, etc. 12/41
  • 16. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Three different paradigms for cognitive mapping Cognitive mapping became popular in the 1980s-90s, where it was uses esp. for educational and self-coaching purposes, e.g. note-taking, brainstorming, time management, etc. • Concept mapping. Initiated by J. D. Novak (and Ca˜as, n 2006) and developed in the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) over Ausubel’s works on psychology. 12/41
  • 17. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Three different paradigms for cognitive mapping Cognitive mapping became popular in the 1980s-90s, where it was uses esp. for educational and self-coaching purposes, e.g. note-taking, brainstorming, time management, etc. • Concept mapping. Initiated by J. D. Novak (and Ca˜as, n 2006) and developed in the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) over Ausubel’s works on psychology. Official software: CmapTools (free). 12/41
  • 18. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Three different paradigms for cognitive mapping Cognitive mapping became popular in the 1980s-90s, where it was uses esp. for educational and self-coaching purposes, e.g. note-taking, brainstorming, time management, etc. • Concept mapping. Initiated by J. D. Novak (and Ca˜as, n 2006) and developed in the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) over Ausubel’s works on psychology. Official software: CmapTools (free). • Mind mapping. Discovered and spread by Tony Buzan (2007) and his own international associations. 12/41
  • 19. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Three different paradigms for cognitive mapping Cognitive mapping became popular in the 1980s-90s, where it was uses esp. for educational and self-coaching purposes, e.g. note-taking, brainstorming, time management, etc. • Concept mapping. Initiated by J. D. Novak (and Ca˜as, n 2006) and developed in the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) over Ausubel’s works on psychology. Official software: CmapTools (free). • Mind mapping. Discovered and spread by Tony Buzan (2007) and his own international associations. Official software: MindManager (proprietary). 12/41
  • 20. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Three different paradigms for cognitive mapping Cognitive mapping became popular in the 1980s-90s, where it was uses esp. for educational and self-coaching purposes, e.g. note-taking, brainstorming, time management, etc. • Concept mapping. Initiated by J. D. Novak (and Ca˜as, n 2006) and developed in the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) over Ausubel’s works on psychology. Official software: CmapTools (free). • Mind mapping. Discovered and spread by Tony Buzan (2007) and his own international associations. Official software: MindManager (proprietary). • Dialogue mapping. Fully explored by Jeff Conklin (2006) through the CogNexus Institute and the Open University. 12/41
  • 21. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Three different paradigms for cognitive mapping Cognitive mapping became popular in the 1980s-90s, where it was uses esp. for educational and self-coaching purposes, e.g. note-taking, brainstorming, time management, etc. • Concept mapping. Initiated by J. D. Novak (and Ca˜as, n 2006) and developed in the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) over Ausubel’s works on psychology. Official software: CmapTools (free). • Mind mapping. Discovered and spread by Tony Buzan (2007) and his own international associations. Official software: MindManager (proprietary). • Dialogue mapping. Fully explored by Jeff Conklin (2006) through the CogNexus Institute and the Open University. Official software: Compendium (free). 12/41
  • 22. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Meaningful vs. rote learning Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps n 13/41
  • 23. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Maps, concepts, propositions and tagged arcs Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. • A concept is a ‘perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label’ (Novak-Ca˜as 2006). n • A proposition is meaningful statement obtained connecting two or more concepts using linking words. • Linking words are represented by tagged arcs. 14/41
  • 24. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Hierarchical fashion and cross-linking In concept maps, general concepts are at the top of the map and less general concepts are arranged hierarchically below. Cross-links are links that put into relations concepts in different segments or domains. Note that in the previous map there were no cross-links, and the map itself was very simple indeed. 15/41
  • 25. A concept map on concept mapping
  • 26. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 17/41
  • 27. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 2. Then build a list of concept as a parking lot, as a set of Post-its. Avoid “sentences in the boxes”. 17/41
  • 28. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 2. Then build a list of concept as a parking lot, as a set of Post-its. Avoid “sentences in the boxes”. 3. Organize your concepts in domains (horizontal axis) and in generality (vertical axis) and define the relations between them. 17/41
  • 29. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 2. Then build a list of concept as a parking lot, as a set of Post-its. Avoid “sentences in the boxes”. 3. Organize your concepts in domains (horizontal axis) and in generality (vertical axis) and define the relations between them. 4. Refine your concept map adding cross-links. 17/41
  • 30. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 2. Then build a list of concept as a parking lot, as a set of Post-its. Avoid “sentences in the boxes”. 3. Organize your concepts in domains (horizontal axis) and in generality (vertical axis) and define the relations between them. 4. Refine your concept map adding cross-links. 5. Eventually link your concept map with previous ones, so to demonstrate that your understanding is not limited to a single concept map, i.e. build a Knowledge Model (Ca˜as 2003). n 17/41
  • 31. First phase: a parking lot spread from a focus question...
  • 32. Second phase: ..and its refinition
  • 33. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Advantages of paper-and-pencil mind mapping It’s easy. Take a A3 sheet of paper landscape and write the topic, problem or subject in the center. Then place the BOIs and go along. They are perfect for single-user mapping, where you don’t share the map itself – they may be even confusing to others, but clear for you. 20/41
  • 34. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Disadvantages of paper-and-pencil mind mapping It’s not easy to copy and share. It’s not easy to correct errors – more important ideas should be close to the center. In fact, you often don’t recognize BOIs at the first glance. On the contrary, electronic maps may even be route maps to resources as well (other maps, music, videos, etc.) 21/41
  • 35. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Radiant thinking • Mind mapping begins from a central idea. 22/41
  • 36. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Radiant thinking • Mind mapping begins from a central idea. • Then related ideas radiate out from the center as branches. They are called Basic Ordering Ideas (BOIs). 22/41
  • 37. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Radiant thinking • Mind mapping begins from a central idea. • Then related ideas radiate out from the center as branches. They are called Basic Ordering Ideas (BOIs). • Some branches give birth to minor branches, as minor themes or particular and detailed ideas. 22/41
  • 38. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Radiant thinking • Mind mapping begins from a central idea. • Then related ideas radiate out from the center as branches. They are called Basic Ordering Ideas (BOIs). • Some branches give birth to minor branches, as minor themes or particular and detailed ideas. • Like neurons. 22/41
  • 39. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Mind mapping is fast and easy A mind map is a tree structure of keywords and they relations. It has a radiant shape and is much more rich in colours, pictures, and drawings compared with concept or dialogue maps. Human brains recognize shapes and drawings better than words and numbers, so if you want to remember ideas give them a good look. 23/41
  • 40. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Mind mapping is fast and easy A mind map is a tree structure of keywords and they relations. It has a radiant shape and is much more rich in colours, pictures, and drawings compared with concept or dialogue maps. Human brains recognize shapes and drawings better than words and numbers, so if you want to remember ideas give them a good look. Be evocative. 23/41
  • 41. Mind mapping is a “human universal” (Brown, 1999) A mind map by Charles Darwin on evolution (Buzan-Buzan, 2000
  • 42. Kent Beck explained XP with a mind map at XP2007
  • 43. Kent Beck explains Developer Accountability
  • 44. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions The risk with mind mapping is information noise! A mind map has a loose syntax and semantics. Unlike concept and dialogue maps, nodes hasn’t any a-priori type and their position in the map is meaningless. Moreover, arcs are not taggable, and relations are nodes as well. The risk of mind mapping is to add useless informations in the map itself, e.g. colours that have more than one meaning. This is particularly true in collective maps. 27/41
  • 45. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Dialogue maps as solutions to wicked problems Compendium is based on the conversational or dialogue mapping approach and derived from Issue-Based Information System (IBIS). Horst Rittel developed IBIS in the 1970s as a method to solve wicked problems. Unlike tame problems, in the case of wicked problems the problem solving approach doesn’t fit. Links (arcs) may be tagged as in the concept map approach. 28/41
  • 46. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Dialogue maps as group support Dialogue mapping is particulary useful in groups, i.e. supporting the continous dialogue among stakeholders in the problem in order to reframe. Every misunderstanding or disagreement should be reframed as an issue or in an inquiry, avoiding the Answer Reflex (the loop question-justification). 29/41
  • 47. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions How to reframe Questions... As in the concept map approach, conversations in IBIS start from a root Question, which may be decomposed in sub-Questions. Questions should be: 1. clear, short, neutral (no “not”), unique (no “and” and “or”); 2. of the “wh” type or “how” (no “yes/no” questions); 30/41
  • 48. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions ...placing Ideas... Ideas are proposals for resolution of Questions. They should be practical and small (Ideas Network). They are linked to Questions. 31/41
  • 49. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions ...in order to obtain Arguments Arguments may either support (Pros) or object (Cons) Ideas. Arguments are linked to Ideas. 32/41
  • 50. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Questions, Idea, Arguments “The Bohr model of the rhetoric atom” • Questions • Ideas • Arguments • Pros • Cons 33/41
  • 51. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Dialogue mapping made easy Before every node content, write: • “?” if it is a Question; • “:” if it is an Idea; • “+” if it is an Idea Pro; • “-” if it is an Idea Con; • “!” if it is a Decision. 34/41
  • 52. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Putting together cognitive maps and wikis: demo wikimaps.rubyforge.org 35/41
  • 53. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Known mistakes made by beginners in mapping More than one. The main mistake – in every cognitive mapping approach – is not to analyse ideas, i.e. put more than one ideas in a single node (for example, put a whole sentence in a node, instead of chunking). 36/41
  • 54. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Known mistakes made by beginners in mapping More than one. The main mistake – in every cognitive mapping approach – is not to analyse ideas, i.e. put more than one ideas in a single node (for example, put a whole sentence in a node, instead of chunking). Class error. A common mistake in concept maps is to put a node either too high (abstract) or too low (concrete) in the map itself. 36/41
  • 55. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Known mistakes made by beginners in mapping More than one. The main mistake – in every cognitive mapping approach – is not to analyse ideas, i.e. put more than one ideas in a single node (for example, put a whole sentence in a node, instead of chunking). Class error. A common mistake in concept maps is to put a node either too high (abstract) or too low (concrete) in the map itself. Importance. A common mistake in mind maps is to put a node either too distant (less important) or too close (more important) to the center. 36/41
  • 56. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Known mistakes made by beginners in mapping More than one. The main mistake – in every cognitive mapping approach – is not to analyse ideas, i.e. put more than one ideas in a single node (for example, put a whole sentence in a node, instead of chunking). Class error. A common mistake in concept maps is to put a node either too high (abstract) or too low (concrete) in the map itself. Importance. A common mistake in mind maps is to put a node either too distant (less important) or too close (more important) to the center. Wrong type. A common mistake in dialogue maps is to put a Question in a Idea or using a Question node for judgements (false questions). 36/41
  • 57. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions When cognitive mapping fail to help ubiquitous language • if you are catched in either requirement or developing gold plating; • if you convey more than one concepts in the same node; • if you want to establish once for all (the “Cinderella Syndrom”); • if you consider the technique as a silver bullet; • if you forget the principle of simplicity! 37/41
  • 58. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions JooB enters the market! A new way to improve your professional life! 38/41
  • 59. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions JooB enters the market! A new way to improve your professional life! Three groups: Domain Experts, Development Team One and Development Team Two. 38/41
  • 60. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions A mind map of JooB made by ESSAP staff members... 39/41
  • 61. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Joob competitors to be analized by Domain Experts • iHipo • My Job • The European Researcher’s Mobility Portal • careerbuilder.com • Monster • EkLaboru! • LinkedIn • JobRapido 40/41
  • 62. Introduction Cognitive Mapping Concept Mapping Mind maps Dialogue Mapping Wikimaps! Conclusions Thank you. Let’s work! Download these slides at the following permalink: http://purl.org/net/fgobbo (cc) F. Gobbo 2007. Published in Italy. Attribuzione – Non commerciale – Condividi allo stesso modo 2.5. 41/41