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Important keyword to remember Important keyword to remember Document Transcript

  • Learning Area One – INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIETYNo. Keyword(s) Referring to:1. Define ICT ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime. Information: the knowledge obtained from reading, investigation, study or research. Communication: act of transmitting messages. Technology: the use of scientific knowledge, experience, and resources to create processes and product that fulfill human needs. st2. Evolutions of 1 generation (1940 – 1956) Computers Huge, slow, expensive, unreliable Presper Eckert & William Maunchly built ENIAC (use vacuum tube) Problem with vacuum tube – generates great deal of heat, burns out frequently nd 2 generation (1956 – 1963) Uses transistors which were smaller than vacuum tubes, no need warm up time, consumed less energy, generate less heat, faster and more reliable. Famous computer scientists: John Bardeen, Walter House Brattain, William Shockley rd 3 generation (1964 – 1971) IBM 370 series were introduced in 1964. Also CDC 7600 and B2500 Development of Integrated circuit begins. Use silicon chips – reliable, compact, cheaper Hardware and software sold separately. First 256 bit RAM were introduced and was the basis for development of 1K bit RAM. th 4 generation (1971 – present) st Famous computer scientists: Steve Jobs (built the 1 Apple computer), Bill Gates, Michael Dell Silicone chips, microprocessor, storage devices were invented. Computer became 100 times smaller than ENIAC. Gain in speed, reliability and storage capacity Personal and software industry bloomed. th 5 generation (Present – beyond) Invention of new hardware technology includes:  Silicon chips  Processor  Robotics  Virtual reality  Intelligent systems  Programs which translate languages.3. Usage of ICT in Education: can offer interactive experiences, enhanced learning, cognitive development. everyday life Teachers: to research for teaching materials, participating in online forums and conferences Students: use computer as references tool, browse internet for information. Researchers: use computer to collect and process data School administrators: for administrative purposes (to make sure the entire operations runs smoothly) Banking: electronic banking 24 hours services includes ATM, cheque deposit, electronic fund transfer, direct deposit, pay by phone system, personal computer banking or internet banking. Customers: make any transaction (for 24 hours services) Businessmen: save time by using online services Bank administrators: can oversee the entire banking activities. Industry: to facilitate production planning and control system, support chain managements, help in product design. Workers: use machine that are connected to computers to operate. Researchers: use computer to analyse and collect research data for future references Administrators: to oversee the entire operations, to detect specific error or defects iii
  • E-commerce: makes buying and selling easier, more efficient and faster. Customers: connected with supplier to purchase products online. (save cost and time) Suppliers: to keep track their transactions (help in determine the price and managing inventory) Employees: use computers and telephones to communicate with their customer for enquiries. It helps employees to get the latest updates on inventory to be informed to the customers.4. Computerised and Non-computerised (before Fields Computerised (after ICT) non-computerised ICT) system Education Teaching was more to Equipped with ICT technology explaining using words makes class more colourful and and pictures. Multimedia alive. hardly usable in class Variety of animation able to Students search for show and use for teaching and information mainly from learning. books Students can search for information online. Banking System Was done manually All transactions are done by Transaction was done computers only during working hours Transaction can be done Takes time to approve anytime and place any loan applications Online services, phone banking system, credit cards Industry Slow because everything Computers and was done manually and telecommunications industry depend totally on human became very popular and labour. profitable since productions can be increased throughout all day operation. Commerce Trading system: barter Distribution, buying, selling and system, later developed servicing products are done into currency system. electronically. Advertisement: mouth, billboard, printed flyers Global trading: slow, late, expensive6. Impact of ICT on The six positive impacts: the society Faster communication speed Lower communication cost Reliable mode of communication Effective sharing of information Paperless environment Borderless communication. The two negative impacts: Social problems Health problems7. Computer Ethics Computer Ethics: System of a moral standards or values used as guideline for computer and legal issues users definition Code of Ethics: guidelines in ICT that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical Intellectual Property: work created by inventors, authors, and artist Privacy: rights of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them. Computer Crime: any illegal acts involving computers. Cyber Law: any law relating to protect the Internet and other online communication technologies.8. Why ethics and law Respecting ownership – not steal other people’s work either by duplicating or distributing in computing is Respecting privacy and confidentiality – refraining oneself from invading other’s privacy needed? without permission. iv
  • Respecting property – do not tamper and change electronic information.9. Intellectual Patent for inventions: utility, design, plant patent,… property protection Trademark for brand identity: Words, names, symbols, devices, images,… Design for product appearance: Literary and artistic material, music, films,… Copyright for material: particular lines, contours, colour, shape, texture, ornamentations,…10. Differences Ethics Law between Ethics and Guidelines: as a guidelines to computer users Control: a rule to control computer users Law Moral standards: ethical behavior are judged Judicial standards: Law are judged by by moral standards judicial standards Free to follow: computer users are free to Must follow: computer users must follow follow or ignore the codes of ethics the regulations and law No Punishment: no punishment for anyone Punishment: penalties, imprisonments and who violates the ethics. other punishments for those who break the law. Universal: can be applied anywhere all over Depend on country: Depends on country the world and state where the crime is committed Produce ethical computer users Prevent misusing of computers Immoral: Not honouring computer ethics Crime: Not honouring the law means means ignoring the moral elements committing a crime11. Methods of 2 types: authentications Biometric devices: Fingerprint recognition Facial recognition Hand geometry scanning Iris scanning (the area near to the coloured area of the pupil) Retinal scanning (the eyeball) Voice recognition Signature verification system. Callback system12. Methods of 2 common methods: verification User identification – show passport, key-in user name & password, show exam slip. Processed object – swipe security card to enter building, police check the driver’s license to identify valid driver.13. Controversial Pornography – any form of media or material that depicts erotic behaviour and is intended content to cause sexual excitement. Slander – legal term for false and malicious statement.14. Internet filtering 3 common methods: Keyword blocking – uses a list of banned words to filter access to the site Website / site blocking – uses software to prevent access to any sites on the list Web rating system – browser gain access to a certain level of ratings15. Cyber law acts in Digital Signature Act 1997 – secures electronic communications especially on the internet. Malaysia Computer Crimes Act 1997 – gives protection against misuse of computers and computer criminal activities. Telemedicine Act 1997 – Ensure only qualified medical practitioners can practice telemedicine. Communications and Multimedia Act 1998 – ensures that information is secure, network is reliable, and service is affordable all over Malaysia.16. Computer Crimes Computer Fraud – intention to take advantage or causing loss (mainly monetarily basis) Copyright Infringement – involves illegal copy or reproduction of copyright material by black market group Computer Theft – unauthorized use of another person’s property Computer Attack – to disrupt the equipment of computer systems …17. Computer Security Hardware Security – measure used to protect the computer hardware Software and Data Security – measure used to protect software and the loss of data files Network Security – measure used to protect the network system.18. Security Threat Malicious code Virus – a program that can pass in the malicious code to other programs by modifying them Trojan Horse – a program which can perform useful and unexpected action Logic Bomb – that goes off when a specific condition occurs v
  • Trapdoor or Backdoor – a program that allows someone to access the program with privileges Worm – a program that copies and spreads itself through a network Hacker – unauthorised person who access (hack) into computer Natural and environmental threat – flood, fire, earthquake Theft19. Security Measures Data backup – a program of file duplication. It is necessary so that they can be recovered in case of an emergency Cryptography – process of hiding information by altering the actual information into different representation. Antivirus – program that protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in the computer memory, storage or incoming email files. Anti-spyware – program used to remove spyware. Firewall – hardware or software which functions in a networked environment to prevent some communications forbidden by the security policies. Screening router Proxy gateway Guard Human aspect – refer to the user and also the intruder of a computer system. Organisation self awareness – aware of the people they work with Organisation user self awareness – provide employee with adequate training and importance of security and control Individual user self awareness – aware of software from unreliable sources. Do not expose important information to stranger.Learning Area Two – Computer SystemNo. Keyword(s) Referring to:1. Computer System Hardware + Software + User2. Computer Input Devices – texts, graphics, audio, video Hardware Output Devices – texts, graphics, audio, animations, video Storage Devices – Primary (RAM & ROM), Secondary (Magnetic, Flash, Optical, ROM) Processor – the main brain in the system unit3. Computer Software System Software – Operating System (Linux, Window XP, Mac OS X, Window Vista) & Utility program (Antivirus, File Manager, Screen Saver, Diagnostic utility) Application Software Word Processing – Corel Word Perfect, Microsoft Word, Sun StarOffice Writer Spreadsheet – Corel Quattro Pro, Microsoft Excel, Sun StarOffice Calc Presentation – Corel Presentations, Microsoft PowerPoint, Sun StarOffice Impress Graphics editing – Adobe Photoshop CS2, CorelDraw, Macromedia Freehand, Gimp Software Suite – collection of individual program sold as a single package Proprietary Software – closed source software. Need to purchase the license in order to use. Open Source Software – user can freely use, modified and re-distribute. Any changes made cannot be copyrighted.4. Information processing diagram Input Process Output Storage5. Machine cycle Fetch diagram Store Decode Execute6. Data 8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character vi
  • representation7. Character codes ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Pronounced as ASK-KEY Most widely used coding system to represent data Used mostly in PC and midrange server. Uses 7 out of 8 bits in the character. EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) Pronounced as EB-SEE-DIC Primarily used in mainframe computers and high-end server Unicode  Support all the world language including Asian Language  Example: Chinese, Japanese, Korean  Uses 16 bits instead of the usual 8 bits per character.8. Component of Central Processing Unit (CPU) – control the operations of the computer. It interpret and motherboard carries basic instructions that operate a computer. It have 2 subcomponent that is Control Unit (CU) and Arithmetics Logic Unit (ALU). Expansion Slots – sockets where the circuit board or the adapter card can be inserted into the motherboard. RAM Slot – slot where computer memory (RAM) is placed on the computer’s motherboard. Ports – the point where perihpherals attaches to a system unit. Serial port – connect a device to the system unit by transmitting data one bit at a time. Parallel port – connect devices by transferring information more than one bit at a time. Universal Serial Bus (USB) port – socket on a computer or peripheral devices into which a USB cable is plugged in. Can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector. FireWire port – connect multiple types of devices that requires faster data transmission speeds. Can daisy-chain connect up to 63 devices to one FireWire port. Connectors – a connector joints a cable to a peripheral.9. User Interface Command-line user interface – requires user to type commands or press special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions that instruct the operating system what to do. It has to be typed one line at a time. Menu driven Interface – provides menus as means of entering commands. Graphical User Interface (GUI) – provides interface by means of clicking icon that represent computer resources.10. Function of OS – set of program that coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices. operating system Also support the application software that we run. 3 types of OS: PC Platform (DOS, Microsoft Windows), Apple Platform (Mac OS), Cross Platform (UNIX, LINUX) Starting a computer – Start a computer. Happen in 2 ways: warm boot, cold boot Proving a user interface – Command line, Menu Driven, GUI Managing data and programs Managing memory Configuring Devices – handling input and output as well as enabling communication with input and output devices.11. Utility program A type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type task related to managing a computer, its devices or its program. Example: Antivirus: protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing them Diagnostic utility: compiles technical information about a computer’s hardware and certain system software programs, and prepares a report. File manager: performs functions related to files and disk management. Screen saver: enables a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no mouse activity occurs for a specified time. Disk Defragmenter: reorganising of disk so the files are stored in contiguous (joining / next to each other) sectors. Backup utility: back up or copy selected files or entire hard disk to another storage medium. Data Recovery: restore the data that has been physically damage or corrupted. vii
  • Learning Area Three – Computer Networks and CommunicationsNo. Keyword(s) Referring to:1. Definition of computer A system of interconnected computers and peripheral devices. For example, it may network. connect computers, printers, scanners and cameras.2. Types of Computer LAN – covers a small region of space, typically a single building Network MAN – is a collection of LANs with the same geographical area (e.g. – same city) WAN – can be collections of LANs and / or MANs (e.g. – a country or even beyond the border)3. Network Architecture Client/Server – Network in which the shared files and applications are stored in the server but network user (client) can still store files on their individual PCs. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) – network with all the nodes are acting as both serves and clients. Bus Topology –main physical pathway or central cable where all other devices Backbone are connected to it Advantages: Easy to implement. Failure of a node doesn’t affect the entire LAN. No disruption to network during add/remove devices. Network easily extend Disadvantages: Backbone fails  entire network affected Network speed decrease as number of device increase Troubleshooting difficult when a node fails Ring Topology – all computers and other devices are Node connected in a loop (or a circle) Advantage: Node Node Troubleshoot is easy when a node fails Disadvantages: Difficult to implement4. Network Topology Failure of a node affect the entire network Node Node Difficult to add/remove devices Network speed decrease as number of device increase Star Topology – a central host (usually a hub or a Node Node switch) which acts as the centre, and all nodes connect to the host. Advantages: HUB Easy to implement. Failure of a node doesn’t affect the entire LAN. Node Node No disruption to network during add/remove devices. Network easily extend Troubleshoot is easy Disadvantages: Failure of a host affect the entire network Network speed decrease as number of device increase Troubleshoot difficult when a node fails A host must be installed to control the network5. Protocols HTTP: used to access, send and receive Hypertext Markup Language files (HTML) on the internet SMTP: used for transferring e-mail between computers FTP: for allowing files to be copies between devices TCP: ensures the delivery of information packets across network. IP: providing logical addressing called IP address to route information between network6. Network Internet Communication Intranet – internal network that uses Internet technologies. It is a small version of the Technologies internet that exist within an organization Extranet – private network that uses Internet protocols to securely share part of a business’s information. viii
  • 7. Transmission medium Physical transmission medium – usually uses wires (Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted pair (STP), Coaxial, Fibre Optic) Wireless transmission medium – uses air to transmit data Omnidirectional Unidirectional Short range frequency One sender, Sending and receiving antenna Need special port called IrDA many receiver need to be aligned port. Frequency: Frequency: Frequency: 3 KHz – 1 GHz 1 GHz – 300 GHz 300 GHz – 400 THz Radio wave Microwave Infrared8. Server Software Network Operating System: a) Windows NT b) Windows 2000 Server c) Windows Server 2003 d) Red Hat Linux9. Client Software Client Software: a) Web browser b) Email client c) Network Utility d) Network File ManagerLearning Area Four – MultimediaNo. Keyword(s) Referring to:1. Definition of Presentation of information by using a combination of text, audio, graphics, video and Multimedia animation.2. Interactivity Linear interactivity – the user is a passive receiver. User does not have control over the multimedia content. Only one way communication Non-linear interactivity – the user is an active receiver. User has control over the multimedia content. Two way communication occurs3. Medium of delivery Differences between Web-based and CD-based Web-based Criteria CD-based Relatively cheaper Cost It is more expensive Produces low and medium Can produce high quality Quality quality multimedia multimedia Takes up less time Takes up a lot of time to Production time compared to CD-based produce an end product Easily update via web Cannot update To update server4. Multimedia Elements Text: *doc, *.txt, *.rtf [Microsoft Word, Notepad, Open Office Writer] and File formats. Graphics: *.jpg, *.gif, *.tiff, *.bmp, *.png, *.psd [Microsoft Paint, Adobe Photoshop] Audio: *.wav, *.midi, *.aif/aiff, *.au, *.wma, *.mp3 [Sound Recorder, Sony Sound Forge] Video: *.avi, *.mov, *.mpeg, *.wmv [Adobe Premiere, Pinnacle Studio, Window Movie Maker] Animation: *.swf, *.gif, *.swi [Macromedia Flash, Magic Morph, Ulead GIF Animator]5. Multimedia Authoring Time Frame Concept – presented and organised along time line. Example: Macromedia Tools Flash, Macromedia Director Icon Concept – elements and events are organized in a structural framework. Presented visually in a logical flow of events by dragging icons from an icon menu. Example: Authorware, IconAuthor Card Concept – elements and events are organized as pages in a book pr a stack of cards. Example: Toolbook, HyperCard, SuperCard.5. Web editor What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) Vs Text-based WYSIWYG Criteria Text-based User doesn’t require HTML knowledge is HTML Knowledge HTML knowledge to use. required Will produce junk HTML in No junk is present Junk HTML the web source code Very user friendly to use Friendliness Less user friendly ix
  • Easy to visual the display Harder to visualise the Visualise the design page design.6. User Interface Principle -User interface is a way a computer program communicates with the person who is using it. Consistency – interface design are harmony and the same applies to all screen in the software Clarity - clearness of labels on the icon to make understanding easy Context – relevant to the title Navigation – can move around the system without much constrain Search – enables user to search keyword or glossary Personalisation – user can make their own personal or individual learning Learnability – provides support information and help files to make it easy to understand Flexibility – have authority to navigate any sections7. Multimedia production Project Manager – see the overall of the project. team Subject Matter Expert – do research on the context of the multimedia Graphics Artist – In-charge of the graphics matters (icon, buttons, background, etc…) Audio-Video Technician – In-charge of the audio/video editing. Instructional Designer – decides on the best educational strategies and presentations. Programmer – writes codes or scripts for the authoring tools.8. Multimedia Production Analysis Phase Phases Design Phase Implementation Phase Testing Phase Evaluation Phase Publishing Phase9. Screen Design Principle -screen design refers to how the multimedia program will look when it is displayed on the computer screen. Contrast Alignment Simplicity Proximity Emphasis RepetitionLearning Area Five – ProgrammingNo. Keyword(s) Referring to:1. Definitions Program – contains list of variables and statements that tell the computer what to do. Programming – a creation of a set of commands or instructions which directs a computer in carrying out a task. Programming language – set of words, symbols, and codes that enables human to communicate with computers.2. Generations of Low Level Programming Language programming language 1GL (Machine Language) – written in binary codes and each statement are corresponds to one machine action. 2GL (Assembly Language) – human readable notation for machine language used to control specific computer operations. Written using symbolic instructions codes that are meaning abbreviations or mnemonics. High Level Programming Language 3GL (Procedural language) – uses a series of English-like words that are closer to human language to write instructions. Example: PASCAL, FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, C, C++ 4GL (Non-procedural language) – enables user to access data in a database. Limited to a very specific application. 5GL (Visual programming / Natural language) – provides a visual or graphics interface. Example: Prolog and Mercury3. Programming Structured programming (top-down approach) – map out the overall program structure approaches into separate subsection from top to bottom. Object oriented programming (OOP) – combines data with functions to create objects. The object has relationships with one another. Example: Smalltalk, Java, Visual Basic, C++4. Translator Compiler – source code  machine language (Extra info: translate high level programming language to assembler or machine language. Example: COBOL, FORTRAN, C, C++) x
  • Interpreter – interpret and execute program directly from its source without compiling it first line by line. Execute in real time when user execute it. Assembler – computer program for translating assembly language into machine language. Example: MACRO-80 Assembler and Microsoft MASM5. Basic element Constant – the value never change at any time during the course of a program Variables – value inside may change at any time during the course of a program Data type Integer: Is an whole number (18, 79, 101, -6, -20) Double: Numbers with decimal or contains fractional part (14.1, - 3.5, 200.10) String: Any value that contains a sequence of characters (Ahmad, sekolah) Boolean: consist either True or False value Currency: For currency use (RM, USD, Yen) Operators – symbol or notation that tells a computer to perform certain actions or operation Mathematical operators: plus (+), minus (–), multiply (*), divide (/) Relation operators: equal to (=), greater than (>), less than (<), greater than or equal to (>=), less than or equal to (<=) Logical operators: AND, OR, NOT6. Flow Chart Terminator – beginning or end of a program Flow line and arrowhead – connect symbols and Terminator Input/output indicate the sequences of operation. Input / output – shows either an input operation Process or output operation Decision Process – shows process to be carried out Decision – shows a decision to be made7. Control Structure Sequence control – linear execution of codes within the program (in sequence) Selection control – execution of codes involving decision making based on the situation given. There will be decision symbol present in the control. Sequence Repetition control – execution of Selection Repetition codes where the codes are repeated while condition remains true. The arrowhead in the flow chart usually will return the part of the decision to repeat the process for true condition.8. Program development Problem analysis phase phase Program design phase Coding phase Testing and debugging phase Three types of error Syntax error – caused by wrong spelling, case sensitive, punctuation and wrong words in command. Logic error – expected output and actual output do no match for any set of data. Run-time error – occurs while the program is running or executing. Documentation phaseLearning Area Six – Information System (IS)No. Keyword(s) Referring to:1. Definition Data – raw material that are not organized, and has little value Information – processed data that are organized, meaningful and useful. Information System – a set of related components that collects data, processes data and provides information.2. Component of IS Data Hardware Software each component are interrelated with one another. People Procedures xi
  • 3. Types of IS Management Information System (MIS) – provide regular information about the daily activities of a business to the manager Transaction Processing System (TPS) – record business transaction and keep track of the daily transaction in the database. Decision Support System (DSS) – provides managers with information to make the best decisions. It also helps to analyse information, recognize problems and making decisions. Executive Information System (EIS) – helps top-level managements to plan strategies. It is also used to forecast future trends. Expert System (ES) – store knowledge and make logical suggestions for the user.4. Hierarchy of Data Bits  Bytes  Fields  Records  Files  Database Bit – smallest unit of data the computer can store. It is in binary digit (1 and 0). Byte – 8 bits = 1 byte = 1 character. Field – smallest unit of meaning information in the database. It is also unit of data consist of one or more characters. Example: field that describe Name, Class, Address Record – collection of related fields. Example: Data about a student [Name, StudentID, Age] File – collection of related records. Database – Structured collection of information on a specific subjects.5. Benefits of using Minimise data redundancy – no need to repeat recording the same data. database Data Integrity is assured – changes of data in database will be automatically for all files. Data can be shared – allow ease of sharing data especially over the network. Information can be easily accessed6. Features of table, Table – stores a collection of information about specific topic. query, form and report. Query – request for a specific data from a database Form – interface to enter information. Report – summary of information from the database.7. Primary key and Primary key – these keys must not be null values, and it is unique. It helps to avoid foreign key duplication Foreign key – the field that matches the primary key in another table. It may have duplicate values.8. Phases of System Analysis Phase Development Design Phase Implementation Phase Testing Phase Documentation Phase Maintenance Phase 3 types of maintenance: Corrective maintenance – to repair error in the system design. Perfective maintenance – to improve a computer program. Preventive maintenance – aim for future breakdowns and failures.9. Data manipulation Update – to correct inaccurate data and to change old data with new data Insert – to add new records in the file when new data are obtained. Delete – to remove a record from a file when it is no longer needed Retrieve – to obtain specific information from the tables in order to refer or make changes the information. Sort – To arrange the records according to ascending or descending order based on a specific field. Filter – to exclude unwanted records from being retrieved by using certain condition or criteria in a query. Search – To find specific records that fulfills the user’s requirements. xii