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  1. 1. Constructivism By Steve Gibbs
  2. 2. As compared to other theories Student Teacher Learning OTHER Teachers have a sphere of knowledge that they want to insert into the minds of their students Student Teacher CONSTRUCTIVISTS The sphere is created inside the mind of the student by creating a learning environment
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Constructivism is a philosophy of learning founded on the premise that, by reflecting on our experiences , we color and construct our own understanding of the world we live in </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definition <ul><li>Each of us generates &quot;rules&quot; to make sense of our experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is adjusting our rules to accommodate new experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Students can learn different meanings from the same lesson </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definition <ul><li>No knowledge can be transferred intact from one individual to another </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition <ul><li>Information received is reshaped inside the learner’s mind to fit within his or her frame of reference </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key player Key Player
  8. 8. Jerome S Bruner <ul><li>“ I shall take it as self-evident that each generation must define afresh the nature, direction, and aims of education to assure such freedom and rationality as can be attainted for a future generation… </li></ul>© 2004
  9. 9. Jerome S Bruner <ul><li>… It is in this sense that education is in constant process of invention.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-- Jerome S. Bruner Toward a Theory of Instruction , 1966 </li></ul></ul>© 2004
  10. 10. Key issues Key Issues
  11. 11. How does learning occur? <ul><li>The learner creates meaning from experience. The mind filters input from the external world to create its own singular version of reality </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must start from where the students are to align learning with existing states of mind </li></ul>
  12. 12. Which factors influence learning? <ul><li>Learning is a search for meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning must start with the issues around which students are actively trying to construct meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning requires understanding wholes as well as parts </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is the role of memory? <ul><li>Constructivists view memory as the repository not for intact knowledge, but for flexible threads of information that can be reorganized in an unending variety of ways </li></ul>
  14. 14. How does transfer occur? <ul><li>Transfer can occur by involving learners in authentic tasks anchored within a meaningful context </li></ul>
  15. 15. What types of learning are best explained by this theory? <ul><li>Not best for introductory knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Not best for rote memorization of rules and facts </li></ul>
  16. 16. What types of learning are best explained by this theory? <ul><li>However, for advanced knowledge acquisition, this learning theory works quite well </li></ul><ul><li>There are no preconceived limitations. The student is free to create their own construct </li></ul>
  17. 17. What basic assumptions/principles are relevant to instructional design? <ul><li>Educators focus on making connections between facts and fostering new understanding in students </li></ul>
  18. 18. How to structure instruction? <ul><li>Tailor strategies to student responses </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage analysis, interpretation, prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Use open-ended questions and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Connect past experiences with new learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use project-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>Use problem-based learning </li></ul>
  19. 19. How to evaluate? <ul><li>Learners to construct their own meaning, no memorized &quot;right&quot; answers; no regurgitation </li></ul><ul><li>Formative assessment ensures students are learning during the process </li></ul><ul><li>Use holistic evaluation </li></ul>
  20. 20. How to evaluate? <ul><li>Constructivism calls for the elimination of grades and standardized testing </li></ul>
  21. 21. end