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  • 1. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  • 2. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  • 3. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  • 4. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  • 5. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  • 6. Outline: EH S Nanotechnology &  Definitions  What  Why  How  Proposed Research ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 6
  • 7. Outline: EH S Nanotechnology &  Definitions – Size matters ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 7
  • 8. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 8 10-24 yocto y
  • 9. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 9 10-24 yocto y
  • 10. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 10 10-24 yocto y
  • 11. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 11 10-24 yocto y
  • 12. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 12 10-24 yocto y
  • 13. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 13 10-24 yocto y
  • 14. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 14 10-24 yocto y
  • 15. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions [001] – Size matters 200 nm TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium Chemicals, Micrograph courtesy Shirley Turner, NIST ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 15
  • 16. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions [001] – Size matters 200 nm TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium Chemicals, Micrograph courtesy Shirley Turner, NIST ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 16
  • 17. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions [001] – Size matters 200 nm 200 nm TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium Chemicals, Micrograph courtesy Shirley Turner, NIST Carbon Nanotubes courtesy of Richard TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Chemicals Cavicchi and Shirley Turner, NIST Issues of Nanotechnology 17
  • 18. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions [001] – Shape matters 200 nm 200 nm TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium Chemicals, Micrograph courtesy Shirley Turner, NIST Carbon Nanotubes courtesy of Richard TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Chemicals Cavicchi and Shirley Turner, NIST Issues of Nanotechnology 18
  • 19. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – Chemistry matters ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 19
  • 20. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions • Chemical Properties • Elemental • Phase or compound • Purity, variation • Chemical species distribution • Bonding and electronic structure • Crystallographic structure • Surface structure • Molecular • Biocompatibility/activity … • Physical Properties • Morphology • Magnetic • Dielectric Constant • Hardness • Biocompatibility … ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 20
  • 21. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions • Chemical Properties • Elemental • Phase or compound • Purity, variation • Chemical species distribution • Bonding and electronic structure • Crystallographic structure • Surface structure • Molecular • Biocompatibility/activity … • Physical Properties • Morphology • Magnetic • Dielectric Constant • Hardness • Biocompatibility … ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 21
  • 22. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Intrinsically nanoscale powders • Specialty powders • Al2O3, Fe2O3, ZnO, Tb-Y2O3, TiO2 • pigments • catalysts • carbon black • Micropowders with nanoscale coatings • Hard coating materials (WC-TiN, WC-TiC, Cr2C2-TiN, Ni/Fe-TiC, diamond/WC/Co, Nb-TiN) • Specialty materials: Ag-ZnO, Cu-ZnO, SiO2-TiO2, CuCrOx • Pharmaceuticals • Coating tuned to custom needs • Hard Coatings, Thermal Barrier Films, Corrosion Resistance, Stealth, Drug Delivery, Explosives, Implants • Nanoparticle Dispersion and Containment ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 22
  • 23. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Tuning Nanoparticles • Engineering surfaces, compositions and other properties to develop desired product ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 23
  • 24. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Tuning Nanoparticles • Engineering surfaces, compositions and other properties to develop desired product • What other effects do these properties have on people, the environment, plants, and animals? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 24
  • 25. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Tuning Nanoparticles • Engineering surfaces, compositions and other properties to develop desired product • What other effects do these properties have on people, the environment, plants, and animals? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 25
  • 26. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Tuning Nanoparticles • Engineering surfaces, compositions and other properties to develop desired product • What other effects do these properties have on people, the environment, plants, and animals? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 26
  • 27. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – Size matters – Shape matters – Chemistry matters – other… ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 27
  • 28. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – other… ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 28
  • 29. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – other…  Mass ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 29
  • 30. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – other…  Mass  Surface Area ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 30
  • 31. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – other…  Mass  Surface Area  Morphology (see also size, shape) ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 31
  • 32. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Mass / Surface Area ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 32
  • 33. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Mass / Surface Area 10 nm 10 nm ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 33
  • 34. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Mass / Surface Area 10 nm 10 nm Like any catalyst – increased surface area increases reaction sites, nanoparticles are an extreme example of this, sometimes with unintended consequences! ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 34
  • 35. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 35
  • 36. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 36
  • 37. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops Quartz ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 37
  • 38. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops 100 nm ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 38
  • 39. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops 100 nm 100 nm ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 39
  • 40. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops 100 nm Chrysotile Asbestos 100 nm ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 40
  • 41. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops • Quartz • Size • Crystal-Chemical form • Surface area • Surface composition • Exposure measurement • Asbestos • Morphology • Composition • Exposure measurement • Cocarcinogens • Smoking • Surface composition • Latency or time delay of ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety disease onset Issues of Nanotechnology 41
  • 42. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops • Quartz • Asbestos • Size • Natural nanofibers • Crystal-Chemical form • 50 years of health • Surface area effect research • Surface composition • Shape, size, composition • Exposure measurement • Interactions with human body • Asbestos • Longevity in body • Morphology • 20+ year latency for cancer • Composition • Liability is still killing • Exposure measurement companies • Cocarcinogens • Smoking • Surface composition • Latency or time delay of ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety disease onset Issues of Nanotechnology 42
  • 43. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  What  Why  How  Proposed Research ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 43
  • 44. EH&S Nanotechnology  Health – Epidemiology  Animal Studies – Where do nanoparticles go? – How do they interact? – How are they changed in the living system?  Exposure Characterization – What concentration is important? – What should be measured?  Particle Characterization – How do we measure the critical parameters?  Standards – Materials – Methods ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 44
  • 45. EH&S Nanotechnology  Research? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 45
  • 46. EH&S Nanotechnology  Model? Method? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 46
  • 47. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 47
  • 48. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS What do we measure? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 48
  • 49. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 49
  • 50. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 50
  • 51. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 51
  • 52. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 52
  • 53. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? • Measured in what units? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 53
  • 54. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? • Measured in what units? • Mass? Particle number? Composition? Morphology? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 54
  • 55. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? • Measured in what units? • Mass? Particle number? Composition? Morphology? • WE DO NOT KNOW UNTIL WE MEASURE ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 55
  • 56. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? • Measured in what units? • Mass? Particle number? Composition? Morphology? • WE DO NOT KNOW UNTIL WE MEASURE • But how many and which measurements are correct? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 56
  • 57. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS Currently we have insufficient knowledge to: Predict health effect Measure health effect Predict which properties to measure Develop exposure measurement methods and relationships to health effect Incomplete data will be misleading It’s a good time to start measuring Cross-disciplinary experimental design will help reduce misleading results •NCI, NIST, FDA Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer and Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 57
  • 58. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 58
  • 59. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 59
  • 60. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 60
  • 61. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 61
  • 62. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 62
  • 63. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS Multi-walled carbon nanotubes in conducting airways of the mouse lung after inhalation exposure. CDC/NIOSH ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 63
  • 64. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 64
  • 65. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 65
  • 66. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 66
  • 67. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 67
  • 68. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 68
  • 69. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 69
  • 70. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 70
  • 71. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 71
  • 72. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 72
  • 73. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Manufacturers – countless products and applications!!!  Worker safety  Consumer Safety  Generational / Humanity Concerns ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 73
  • 74. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Consumer Safety ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 74
  • 75. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Consumer Safety: –CPSC: August 2008 “Given the variety of nanoprodutcs and the wide range of nanomaterials used to make them, it is likely that many nanoproducts will be on the market for years before industry even begins to develop safety standards that will address safety.” ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 75
  • 76. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Consumer Safety  CPSC: August 2008 “Given the variety of nanoprodutcs and the wide range of nanomaterials used to make them, it is likely that many nanoproducts will be on the market for years before industry even begins to develop safety standards that will address safety.” ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 76
  • 77. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Consumer Safety  CPSC: August 2008 “Given the variety of nanoprodutcs and the wide range of nanomaterials used to make them, it is likely that many nanoproducts will be on the market for years before industry even begins to develop safety standards that will address safety.” ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 77
  • 78. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Trial Lawyers Association  Insurance Companies  etc…… ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 78
  • 79. EH&S Nanotechnology  Coordinate efforts and learn from the past?  Industry, Academia, Government, Medical, Industrial Hygiene, Metrology, Environmental coordination  Shift materials and application development to include health effects research  Start standards efforts for consensus  Methods, materials, health and environmental ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 79
  • 80. EH&S Nanotechnology  Proactive in stopping health effects before they happen?  Err on the conservative side?  Over protect  Over characterize  Until we understand the effects  Be flexible and responsive … many unknowns and latency problem ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 80
  • 81. EH&S Nanotechnology  Work with potential anti-nano stakeholders?  Understand fear and skepticism and use it to help design better nanomanufacturing and nanotechnology as well as health and environmental studies ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 81
  • 82. EH&S Nanotechnology  Questions? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 82
  • 83. EH&S Nanotechnology  Contact: Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director – IATL Vice-President – nanoTEM frankehrenfeld@iatl.com (609) 929-4211 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 83