Nano Tem111708 V1

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Nano Tem111708 V1

  1. 1. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  2. 2. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  3. 3. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  4. 4. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  5. 5. Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director, International Asbestos Testing Laboratories Vice-President, nanoTEM Vice-Chair ASTM D22.07 Committee ASTM E56.03 Technical Advisory Panel – American Industrial Hygiene Association
  6. 6. Outline: EH S Nanotechnology &  Definitions  What  Why  How  Proposed Research ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 6
  7. 7. Outline: EH S Nanotechnology &  Definitions – Size matters ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 7
  8. 8. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 8 10-24 yocto y
  9. 9. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 9 10-24 yocto y
  10. 10. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 10 10-24 yocto y
  11. 11. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 11 10-24 yocto y
  12. 12. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 12 10-24 yocto y
  13. 13. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 13 10-24 yocto y
  14. 14. EH&S Nanotechnology Scale Name Symbol 1024 yota Y 1021 zetta Z 1018 exa E 1015 peta P 1012 tera T 109 giga G 106 mega M 103 kilo k 102 hecto h 101 deka da 10-1 deci d 10-2 centi c 10-3 milli m 10-6 micro μ 10-9 nano n 10-12 pico p 10-15 femto f 10-18 atto a 10-21 zepto z ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 14 10-24 yocto y
  15. 15. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions [001] – Size matters 200 nm TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium Chemicals, Micrograph courtesy Shirley Turner, NIST ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 15
  16. 16. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions [001] – Size matters 200 nm TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium Chemicals, Micrograph courtesy Shirley Turner, NIST ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 16
  17. 17. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions [001] – Size matters 200 nm 200 nm TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium Chemicals, Micrograph courtesy Shirley Turner, NIST Carbon Nanotubes courtesy of Richard TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Chemicals Cavicchi and Shirley Turner, NIST Issues of Nanotechnology 17
  18. 18. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions [001] – Shape matters 200 nm 200 nm TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium Chemicals, Micrograph courtesy Shirley Turner, NIST Carbon Nanotubes courtesy of Richard TiO2 particles courtesy of Millennium ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Chemicals Cavicchi and Shirley Turner, NIST Issues of Nanotechnology 18
  19. 19. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – Chemistry matters ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 19
  20. 20. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions • Chemical Properties • Elemental • Phase or compound • Purity, variation • Chemical species distribution • Bonding and electronic structure • Crystallographic structure • Surface structure • Molecular • Biocompatibility/activity … • Physical Properties • Morphology • Magnetic • Dielectric Constant • Hardness • Biocompatibility … ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 20
  21. 21. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions • Chemical Properties • Elemental • Phase or compound • Purity, variation • Chemical species distribution • Bonding and electronic structure • Crystallographic structure • Surface structure • Molecular • Biocompatibility/activity … • Physical Properties • Morphology • Magnetic • Dielectric Constant • Hardness • Biocompatibility … ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 21
  22. 22. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Intrinsically nanoscale powders • Specialty powders • Al2O3, Fe2O3, ZnO, Tb-Y2O3, TiO2 • pigments • catalysts • carbon black • Micropowders with nanoscale coatings • Hard coating materials (WC-TiN, WC-TiC, Cr2C2-TiN, Ni/Fe-TiC, diamond/WC/Co, Nb-TiN) • Specialty materials: Ag-ZnO, Cu-ZnO, SiO2-TiO2, CuCrOx • Pharmaceuticals • Coating tuned to custom needs • Hard Coatings, Thermal Barrier Films, Corrosion Resistance, Stealth, Drug Delivery, Explosives, Implants • Nanoparticle Dispersion and Containment ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 22
  23. 23. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Tuning Nanoparticles • Engineering surfaces, compositions and other properties to develop desired product ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 23
  24. 24. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Tuning Nanoparticles • Engineering surfaces, compositions and other properties to develop desired product • What other effects do these properties have on people, the environment, plants, and animals? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 24
  25. 25. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Tuning Nanoparticles • Engineering surfaces, compositions and other properties to develop desired product • What other effects do these properties have on people, the environment, plants, and animals? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 25
  26. 26. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions Tuning Nanoparticles • Engineering surfaces, compositions and other properties to develop desired product • What other effects do these properties have on people, the environment, plants, and animals? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 26
  27. 27. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – Size matters – Shape matters – Chemistry matters – other… ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 27
  28. 28. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – other… ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 28
  29. 29. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – other…  Mass ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 29
  30. 30. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – other…  Mass  Surface Area ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 30
  31. 31. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions – other…  Mass  Surface Area  Morphology (see also size, shape) ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 31
  32. 32. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Mass / Surface Area ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 32
  33. 33. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Mass / Surface Area 10 nm 10 nm ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 33
  34. 34. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Mass / Surface Area 10 nm 10 nm Like any catalyst – increased surface area increases reaction sites, nanoparticles are an extreme example of this, sometimes with unintended consequences! ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 34
  35. 35. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 35
  36. 36. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 36
  37. 37. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops Quartz ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 37
  38. 38. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops 100 nm ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 38
  39. 39. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops 100 nm 100 nm ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 39
  40. 40. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops 100 nm Chrysotile Asbestos 100 nm ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 40
  41. 41. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops • Quartz • Size • Crystal-Chemical form • Surface area • Surface composition • Exposure measurement • Asbestos • Morphology • Composition • Exposure measurement • Cocarcinogens • Smoking • Surface composition • Latency or time delay of ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety disease onset Issues of Nanotechnology 41
  42. 42. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  Morphology… Oops • Quartz • Asbestos • Size • Natural nanofibers • Crystal-Chemical form • 50 years of health • Surface area effect research • Surface composition • Shape, size, composition • Exposure measurement • Interactions with human body • Asbestos • Longevity in body • Morphology • 20+ year latency for cancer • Composition • Liability is still killing • Exposure measurement companies • Cocarcinogens • Smoking • Surface composition • Latency or time delay of ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety disease onset Issues of Nanotechnology 42
  43. 43. EH&S Nanotechnology  Definitions  What  Why  How  Proposed Research ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 43
  44. 44. EH&S Nanotechnology  Health – Epidemiology  Animal Studies – Where do nanoparticles go? – How do they interact? – How are they changed in the living system?  Exposure Characterization – What concentration is important? – What should be measured?  Particle Characterization – How do we measure the critical parameters?  Standards – Materials – Methods ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 44
  45. 45. EH&S Nanotechnology  Research? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 45
  46. 46. EH&S Nanotechnology  Model? Method? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 46
  47. 47. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 47
  48. 48. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS What do we measure? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 48
  49. 49. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 49
  50. 50. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 50
  51. 51. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 51
  52. 52. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 52
  53. 53. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? • Measured in what units? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 53
  54. 54. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? • Measured in what units? • Mass? Particle number? Composition? Morphology? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 54
  55. 55. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? • Measured in what units? • Mass? Particle number? Composition? Morphology? • WE DO NOT KNOW UNTIL WE MEASURE ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 55
  56. 56. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS • What do we measure? • What is tested in animal studies? • What are people exposed to? • Are they the same? • What concentration matters? • Measured in what units? • Mass? Particle number? Composition? Morphology? • WE DO NOT KNOW UNTIL WE MEASURE • But how many and which measurements are correct? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 56
  57. 57. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS Currently we have insufficient knowledge to: Predict health effect Measure health effect Predict which properties to measure Develop exposure measurement methods and relationships to health effect Incomplete data will be misleading It’s a good time to start measuring Cross-disciplinary experimental design will help reduce misleading results •NCI, NIST, FDA Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer and Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 57
  58. 58. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 58
  59. 59. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 59
  60. 60. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 60
  61. 61. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 61
  62. 62. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 62
  63. 63. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS Multi-walled carbon nanotubes in conducting airways of the mouse lung after inhalation exposure. CDC/NIOSH ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 63
  64. 64. EH&S Nanotechnology  METRICS ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 64
  65. 65. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 65
  66. 66. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 66
  67. 67. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 67
  68. 68. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 68
  69. 69. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 69
  70. 70. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 70
  71. 71. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 71
  72. 72. EH&S Nanotechnology ASTM E56.03 ASTM D22.07 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 72
  73. 73. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Manufacturers – countless products and applications!!!  Worker safety  Consumer Safety  Generational / Humanity Concerns ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 73
  74. 74. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Consumer Safety ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 74
  75. 75. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Consumer Safety: –CPSC: August 2008 “Given the variety of nanoprodutcs and the wide range of nanomaterials used to make them, it is likely that many nanoproducts will be on the market for years before industry even begins to develop safety standards that will address safety.” ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 75
  76. 76. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Consumer Safety  CPSC: August 2008 “Given the variety of nanoprodutcs and the wide range of nanomaterials used to make them, it is likely that many nanoproducts will be on the market for years before industry even begins to develop safety standards that will address safety.” ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 76
  77. 77. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Consumer Safety  CPSC: August 2008 “Given the variety of nanoprodutcs and the wide range of nanomaterials used to make them, it is likely that many nanoproducts will be on the market for years before industry even begins to develop safety standards that will address safety.” ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 77
  78. 78. EH&S Nanotechnology  Stakeholders  Trial Lawyers Association  Insurance Companies  etc…… ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 78
  79. 79. EH&S Nanotechnology  Coordinate efforts and learn from the past?  Industry, Academia, Government, Medical, Industrial Hygiene, Metrology, Environmental coordination  Shift materials and application development to include health effects research  Start standards efforts for consensus  Methods, materials, health and environmental ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 79
  80. 80. EH&S Nanotechnology  Proactive in stopping health effects before they happen?  Err on the conservative side?  Over protect  Over characterize  Until we understand the effects  Be flexible and responsive … many unknowns and latency problem ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 80
  81. 81. EH&S Nanotechnology  Work with potential anti-nano stakeholders?  Understand fear and skepticism and use it to help design better nanomanufacturing and nanotechnology as well as health and environmental studies ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 81
  82. 82. EH&S Nanotechnology  Questions? ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 82
  83. 83. EH&S Nanotechnology  Contact: Frank E. Ehrenfeld III Laboratory Director – IATL Vice-President – nanoTEM frankehrenfeld@iatl.com (609) 929-4211 ASTM E56.03, Health & Safety Issues of Nanotechnology 83

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