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Carp 2012

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  • 1. Common Carp Fish Firas Abdul Malik M.Sc. Fish Biology 1
  • 2. Introduction Common Carp - Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus (1758) is afresh water fish and it belongs to the Carp group. Itsoriginal home is China. In China, this fish has beencultured in ponds since many centuries. Today this fishhas been distributed not only in the countries of Asiabut throughout the world. The Common Carp is themost domesticated fish. Carp are a very strong androbust fish and can cope with many different types ofwater and temperatures. This adaptability accounts fortheir survivability when you consider all the differentenvironments in which they are being kept or havethrived in, worldwide. They can survive temperaturesranging from (1-30)°C. (Chumchal, 2009). 2
  • 3. Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Cypriniformes Family: Cyprinidae Genus: Cyprinus Species: Cyprinus carpio Source: Chumchal, (2009). 3
  • 4. Comparative between cultured fishes Table 1: survival rates for common farmed fishes Type Survival rate Comparative growths of fishes Carp ±7.1 95% 1000.0 900.0 Catfish 77.6% ±12.1 800.0 710.4 729.3 Final average wts (g) 700.0 543.4 Tilapia 57.5% ±38.9 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 200.0 Source: Chumchal, (2009). 100.0 0.0 Catfish carp tilapia Fish species Figure 1: comparative growth of farmed fishes 4
  • 5. Table 2: The ratio of carp against the farmed fish inthe world. Fish % Carp > 50% Tilapia > 5% Salmon >5% Shrimp > 3% Trout > 2% Catfish > 5% Other > 30% fish *Seabass, Seabream, Turbot, Tuna, Greater Amberjack, Striped seabass, Source: Boschung & Mayden, (2004) 5
  • 6. Table 3. Length and weight of carpsby species. Species Length Weight Common carp 120 cm 60 Kg 90 cm 56 cm 80 Kg Silver carp 190 cm 35 Kg 80 cm 61 cm Grass carp 160 cm 45 Kg 100 cm 49 cm Black carp 180 cm 70 Kg Bighead carp 150 cm 40 Kg *(maximum length recorded in Iraq) *(maximum length recorded in Fish Breeding Project in Dohuk University) *(maximum weight recorded in Mosul Dam) 6 Source: Chumchal, (2009), fish researches center-Baghdad & Fish Project Archive.
  • 7. Table 4. Habitat and diet preferences of Carps.Species Temp. Salinity Oxygen DietCommon carp 1-30°C 2.5 0.5 Zooplankton, phytoplankton, crustaceans, worms, insect larvae, seeds and algae.Silver carp 6-28°C 4 0.5 PlanktonGrass carp 10-26°C 14 0.5 Vegetation & invertebratesBlack carp 25-30°C 2 Benthic invertebrates, zooplankton & small fish.Bighead carp 4-26°C 8 0.5 Plankton Source: Aitkin et al.(2008) 7
  • 8. Table 5. Age at sexual maturity and longevity byspecies of carp.Species Sexual Maturity LongevityCarp (male) 2-4 years 50-70 years 1 yearCarp (female) 3-5 years 1-2 yearsSilver 3–4 years 20 yearsGrass 4–7 years 14 yearsBlack 6–11 years 16 yearsBighead (male) 2 years 18 yearsBighead 3 years(female)*(Sexual maturity in worm climates like Iraq) Source: Molnar, (2002) 8
  • 9. Table 6. Carp reproduction requirements.Time of Year April - JuneTemperature Range 13-21oCWater Depth <1.8 mNH3 0.049-0.099ppmpH 6.8 - 7.5Current < 20 cm/secEgg type Adhere to the sides of aquatic plantsNumber of offspring 300000 Eggs /Season (Average)Time to hatching 4 days (high)length Fry 6-7 mm, Fingerling 25-30 mmStocking Density 200-600 Fry/ m2, 5-10 Fingerling/ m2Survival Rate Fry 40-70%, Fingerling 80% Source: Weimin ,(2005). 9
  • 10. The food IngredientsTable 7: Main food for the different age stages of carp. Age stage Diet Fry Zooplankton, phytoplankton, crustaceans. Juvenile Worms, insect larvae, seeds, algae Adults Worms, insect larvae, seeds, algae Notes: opportunistic feeders, utilize any available food source, sucking bottom sediments while feeding.Video 1: Showing the feeding habits of carp. Source: Chumchal, (2009). 10
  • 11. Common carp types:Cyprinus carpio communisScale carp: Has regular concentrate scales.(McCrimmon,1968;Grattidge,2006).Figure 4. Common Carp (Scaled variety). Source: Froese & Pauly. (2002). 11
  • 12. Common carp types:Cyprinus carpio specularisMirror carp: Has a large flashed scales randomlyrunning along the side of the body in several rows.(McCrimmon,1968;Grattidge,2006). Figure 5. Common Carp (Mirror variety). Source: Froese & Pauly. (2002). 12
  • 13. Common carp types:Cyprinus carpio coiaceusLeather carp: Has few scales on the back and athick skin. (McCrimmon,1968;Jen,2003).Figure 6. Common Carp (Leather variety). Source: Lougheed, et al.( 1998) 13
  • 14. Common carp types:Cyprinus carpio regularisLine carp: a regular single mid-lateral row of scalesand elsewhere none or only a few scales.(McCrimmon,1968;Jen,2003). Figure 7. Common Carp (Linear variety). Source: Froese & Pauly. (2002). 14
  • 15. Common carp types:Cyprinus carpio koiOrnamental carp :Nishikigoi strains were developedin Japan over the last two centuries (1850-1860),and may be red, white, gold or black. (Coad, 2005). Figure 8. Common Carp (Koi variety). Source: Froese & Pauly. (2002). 15
  • 16. Shiro-Utsuri Sanke Tancho- Kohaku Asagi Hi-utsuri SankeShiro bekko Kujaku Tancho Shusui Unique Goshiki Figure 9.Preferred variants of Japanese koi carp 16 Source: Nelson, (1984).
  • 17. Figure 10. Growth curves of the carp groups. Source: Molnar, (2002) 17
  • 18. Conclusions1. Carps are tolerant and hardy fish that thrive in a wide variety of aquatic habitats.2. Common carp are an important food and ornamental fish.3. Carps are an important food source, especially in countries or regions with lower financial resources.4. Currently the largest (2/3 of all fish production is carp).5. Since living standards are generally increasing throughout the world, carp culture may increase in importance.6. Provide Important protein source in many countries at affordable prices.7. The oldest form of aquaculture in the known world is carp culture. Common carp have been first fish species cultured in China about 500 BC.8. The common carp was introduced in Iraq by unintentional release in 1955.9. Over the last two centuries, ornamental strains (called “Koi”) were developed in Japan.10. Common carp populate slow-moving waters, such as human-made impoundments and lakes. 18
  • 19. Video 2: Showing the baby duck feed the carp (Nishiki-Goi, Koi). Source:Molnar, (2002) 19
  • 20. Video 3: Showing that the Koi Carp came out of the water just for gettingfood. 20
  • 21. ReferencesAitkin, K. J., S. Lohr, P. Heimowitz, and M. Hill.2008. “Columbia River Asian Carp Risk Evaluation." Report. US Fish and Wildlife Service.www.asiancarp.org/Documents/AsianCarp_PNWRiskEvalu ation_022208.pdf.Boschung , P., B. Mayden, 2004. "Effect of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) on Aquatic Restorations" (On-line). Accessed 2 April 2005 at http://www.hort.agri.umn.edu/h5015/00papers/baldry.htm.Chamchal, M. 2009. Cyprinus carpio on line, Animal Diversity Web. Accessed May 16,2010 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/C yprinus_carpio. html.Coad, A. 2005, The Effect of Carp on a Small Lake: Carp as a Dominant. Ecology, 10: 271-274.Froese, R., D. Pauly. 2002. "Fishbase: Species summary for Cyprinus carpio" (On-line). Accessed 2 April 2002 at http:// www.fishbase.org.Grattidge, Julian. 2006. Northern Monkeys Forum topic: English or Foreign? URL:http://www.northwestcarp.co.uk/forums/showthread.php? t=100&page=2 (Accessed May7, 2007). 21
  • 22. ReferencesJen. 2003. List of Strains for Cyprinus carpio carpio. URL: http://wap.fishbase.org/physiology/strainlist.cfm?ID=1450 (Accessed May 6, 2007).Lougheed, V., B. Crosbie, P. Chow-Fraser. 1998. Predictions on the Effect of Common Carp (-Cyprinus carpio-) Exclusion on Water Quality, Zooplankton, and Submergent Macrophytes in a Great Lakes Wetland. Can. J. Fish. Aquai. Sci, 55: 1189-1197.McCrimmon, H. 1968. Carp in Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada.Molnar, K. 2002. Differences between the European carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) and the colored carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) in susceptibity to Thelohanellus nikolskii (Myxosporea) infection. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1581 Budapest, P.O. Box 18, Hungary. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 50 (1), pp. 51–57Nelson, J. 1984. Fishes of the World. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2nd ed..Weimin M. 2005 June, Main academic guide for freshwater fishes culture. Lecture Outline. For 2005 IFF Course, fifth edition.pp:103. 22
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