Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks and aquatic plants.Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions
Indoor hatching of channel catfish eggs was first accomplished in 1929
Commercial aquaculture was first considered to be economically practical in the late 1950s
Catfish farming developed rapidly during the 1960s and 1970s</li></ul>improvements in pond management<br />disease identification and control<br />and prepared feeds were developed and adopted by farmers<br />David Taylor Agri 100<br />Aerial view of a catfish farm<br />
Physiology<br /><ul><li>Reported to live up to forty years
Dorsal and pectoral fins have sharp, hard spines</li></ul>can inflict a nasty, painful wound <br /><ul><li>Possess very keen senses of smell and taste</li></ul>at the pits of their nostrils are very sensitive odor sensing organs with a very high concentration of olfactory receptors<br /><ul><li>Taste buds distributed over the surface of their entire body</li></ul>especially concentrated on the four pair of barbelssurrounding the mouth<br />Breathes by sucking water in through the mouth where it flows directly over the gill filaments<br />David Taylor Agri 100<br />ChannelCatfish<br />
Behavior<br /><ul><li>Most active during times when there’s very little light.
Spawn when the water temperature exceeds 72°F</li></ul>eggs are laid in an adhesive mass<br /><ul><li>Once egg laying and fertilization are complete the male will chase the female from the nesting area and tend to the eggs by fanning the mass with his fins to keep oxygenated water moving over them</li></ul>David Taylor Agri 100<br />Catfisheggs<br />
Nutrition Requirements<br /><ul><li>Catfish are fed a diet of puffed, high-protein food pellets
Should contain from 26 to 36% percent crude protein plus all essential vitamins and minerals</li></ul>32% crude protein is adequate and most economical for food fish production<br />36 to 40% crude protein for starter diets for young fry <br />The prepared feeds consist of various combinations of such plant proteins :<br />soybean meal, cottonseed meal, corn meal, peanut meal, and wheat, <br />supplemented with vegetable oil, vitamins, and minerals<br /><ul><li>Both sinking (pelleted) or floating (extruded) feed can be fed to catfish</li></ul>floating pellets help in producing a healthier fish, and a cleaner, milder tasting one.<br />David Taylor Agri 100<br />Catfish feed pellets<br />
Nutrition Requirements<br /><ul><li>The daily feed ration for channel catfish is affected by a variety of factors:</li></ul>water temperature<br />fish size<br /> water quality<br /><ul><li>Newly-hatched fry should be fed several times daily at 6-10% of fish weight.
The daily feed ration for fingerling and broodfish catfish should be divided into two or more feedings per day.
In general, fingerlings are fed between 2 and 5 percent of their body weight per day, and broodfish, 1 to 2% of their weight. </li></ul>David Taylor Agri 100<br />Feed me!!<br />Me too!<br />I hate crowds<br />Catfishatfeeding time<br />
Reproduction<br /><ul><li>In the wild:</li></ul>spawning season of usually during the months of April through June<br />water temperature exceeds 72°F<br />After fertilization male incubates the eggs<br />After the eggs hatch:<br />The young, called "sac fry," live off the food supplied by the yolk sacs<br />Male continues to guard the young until the yolk sac is absorbed and the young can swim off in search of food<br />David Taylor Agri 100<br />Catfishfry<br />
Reproduction & Management<br /><ul><li>In farming operations:</li></ul>farming begins with the selection and mating of quality brood stock<br />Spawning occurs in the spring and may be conducted in open ponds where adults are stocked at a density ranging from 60-325/ha in ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:4 (male : female) and allowed to select their own mates. <br />alternatively, adults may be paired in pens within a spawning pond. <br />in both instances nests comprised of metal cans, drain tiles, wooden boxes or other types of enclosures of appropriate size are utilized<br />David Taylor Agri 100<br />Wooden spawn container<br />
Reproduction & Management<br /><ul><li>In farming operations:</li></ul>fertilized eggs are collected and placed in controlled hatchery tanks<br />after seven days at a temperature of 78° F, the eggs hatch<br />when the yolk is used up, the fish begin to swim and are moved to a special pond where they grow into fingerlings<br />at 4 to 6 inches in length, they are transferred to catfish ponds in a ratio of approximately 4,500 per surface acre of water<br />David Taylor Agri 100<br />Hatchery Tanks<br />
Management & Husbandry<br /><ul><li>Ponds are built over clay-rich soils and filled with pure fresh water pumped from underground wells
Rectangular-shaped ponds, averaging 10 to 20 acres each, are built above ground by constructing levees with depths of 4 to 6 feet
Also raised in watershed ponds, and in high-density culture systems that make use of tanks, raceways, and cages
Raising channel catfish mixed with other species of fish (polyculture) is also practiced
Catfish require a warm water environment for good growth. Optimum temperature for growth is 85°F</li></ul>David Taylor Agri 100<br />Catfish ponds<br />
Management & Husbandry<br /><ul><li>An intermittent harvesting approach is employed.
Ponds are partially harvested every several weeks to a few months and marketable fish (about 18 months old and averaging 1 to 1.5 pounds)are removed.
Catfish ponds are partially harvested using seines (large weighted nets) of sufficiently large mesh size to allow sub-marketable fish to escape
Fish are transported to the processing points using live-haul trucks with clean, fresh water.
The appropriate number of fingerlings is then stocked to replace the fish removed.
Thus, various fish sizes are in the pond at the same time.
The process can be maintained for several years, during which time the ponds are not drained</li></ul>David Taylor Agri 100<br />Catfish harvesting<br />
Catfish Production Cycle<br />David Taylor Agri 100<br />
Health Management<br /><ul><li>The most serious threat to catfish in ponds is poor water quality:</li></ul> Time of day Season<br /> Weather conditions Water source<br /> Soil types Temperature<br /> Stocking density Feeding rate<br />Chemical treatments<br /><ul><li>Fingerling ponds are often fertilized, usually with inorganic fertilizer, in advance of stocking to induce the development of plankton blooms
Channel catfish are subjected to a wide variety of diseases including viruses, bacteria, fungi, helminths (parasitic worms), and parasitic copepods.
Prevention through avoidance of stress on the fish is probably the most effective means of avoiding disease
Chemicals are only used when an epizootic has been detected, and then only for limited periods of time
Preventive or protective chemical use is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration</li></ul>David Taylor Agri 100<br />Parasitic Copepod<br />