Major tailings dam disasters in the Philippines April 2011
Major tailingsdam disasters in the Philippines
TVI PACIFIC INC April 6 and July 11, 2007 Siocon, Zambonga del Norte Heavy rains washed out the clay soil and destructed the concrete wall of the sulphide dam used for the extrac7on of copper and zinc. IMPACTS: Contaminated water, where cyanide and mercury is detectable, ﬂows to the Canatuan River down to Siocon River and towards the sea. Two days aFer the collapse, it has been reported that silta7on has reached up to 3meters thick.
LAFAYETTE POLYMETALLIC PROJECT (LAFAYETTE MINING LTD) October 11 and 31, 2005 Rapu-‐rapu Island, Albay It rained heavily. Water eleva7on at the lower tailings storage facility was almost full due to con7nuous rainfall. IMPACTS: In the morning of November 1, 2005, ﬁshes and other marine organisms were found dead at Ungay and Hollowstone Creeks As per DENR inves7ga7on report: 1. The eﬄuent LafayeVe to meet DENR Eﬄuent Standards per DENR Administra7ve Order 90-‐35 for parameter cyanide; and 2. Samplings conducted on 4 and 5 Nov. at Hollowstone Creek, Ungay Creek and Binosawan River failed to conform to conform to DENR Administra7ve Order 90-‐35 for parameter cyanide.
DIZON COPPER SILVER MINES INC. (DCSMI) Heavily-‐rusted mine facili7es at the August 27 and September 11, Benguet Corpora7on-‐Dizon Copper/Gold Mines (BCD) in San 2002 Marcelino, Zambales. San Marcelino, Zambales [Photo courtesy of Tetra Tech EM Inc.] The Spillway of Bayarong tailings dam collapsed during heavy rain; IMPACTS: Low lying villages were ﬂooded with mine waste; 250 families evacuated; Some tailings spilled into Mapanuepe Lake and eventually into the Sto. Tomas River; dams heavily damaged (especially Camalca) Communi7es residing In Dizon mine road.
SIPALAY, NEGROS OCCIDENTAL DISASTERS In November 8, 1982 under MARICALUM MINING CORP, a tailings pond causing the Widespread inunda7on of agricultural land up to 1.5m High and the silta7on of the Tao-‐angan River Again in December 8, 1995 Under PHILEX MINING CORP, Destruc7on of tailings pond Caused the silta7on of Sipalay River. MARICALUM MINING CORP. December 2001 Since the ‘temporary’ stoppage of opera7ons no fresh tailings have been discharged, causing tailings pond 3 to dry up and become prone to wind ac7ons IMPACTS: Excessive levels of dust aﬀect area of 5 km; air quality aﬀected; nearby residents report increases in respiratory illnesses
ATLAS CONSOLIDATED MINING AND DEVELOPMENT CORP. (ACMDC) August 9, 1999 Toledo City, Cebu Outlet in drainage tunnel of released approximately 5.7 million m3 of acidicthe open pit (from closed water into Sapangdaku and into the open sea copper mine) was clogged resul7ng in loosening of accumulated silt, causing discharge into the Sapangdaku River towards the sea IMPACTS: Silta7on of Sapangdaku River; Increase in acidity of aﬀected water bodies causing ﬁsh kill
PLACER, SURIGAO DEL NORTE DISASTERS All under MANILA MINING CORP. (MMC) • July 9, 1987: Dam failure causing ﬁsh kills • September 2, 1995: Dam founda7on failure at tailings pond 5 of the Placer copper-‐gold project killing 5 people and coastal pollu7on • April 26, 1999: Tailings spill from damaged concrete pipe in tailings pond caused 40 homes to be buried and 40 hectares of land aﬀected including 20 hectares of agricultural land
DISASTERS IN SIBUTAD, ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE UNDER PHILEX GOLD PHILIPPINES INC. (PHILEX MINING CORP.) Two incidents of heavy rain resulted in mudﬂow and rockslide into silt dam at Lalab (November 6, 1997) causing ﬂashﬂoods damaged nearby houses and rice ﬁelds and the overﬂowing of silt dam at the Sibutad gold project (in June 27, 1998) causing ﬁsh kill and blindness.
According to the Save The Abra River Movement, the silta7on and toxic pollu7on of the rivers deprives communi7es in Cervantes of about 7.33 million kg of rice worth US$2.27 million per annum. BENGUET DISASTERS October 17, 1986, Mankayan, Benguet (Lepanto Consolidated Mining Corpora7on): Collapse of tailings pond 3 due to weakened dam embankment caused by addi7onal loading caused the silta7on of the Abra River which aﬀected 9 municipali7es
January 1992, Padcal, Tuba, Benguet (Philex Mining Corp.): Collapse of dam wall at tailings pond 2 due to weakened founda7on caused by the 1990 Northern Luzon earthquake eﬀected the heavy silta7on aﬀected downstream government irriga7on system BENGUET DISASTERS
BENGUET DISASTERS June 26, 1993, Mankayan, Benguet (Itogon-‐Suyoc Mines Inc): Overtopping at the dam of the Itogon-‐Suyoc gold and silver mines occurred during a typhoon when the dam’s penstock and diversion tunnel were blocked caused the silta7on of adjoining river
THE WORST MINING DISASTER: MARINDUQUE EXPERIENCE FillFille
December 6, 1993, Marinduque Island MARCOPPER MINING CORP The Maguila-‐Guila silta7on dam collapsed due to pressure from heavy silta7on at the dam wall and caused the Mogpog River to be ﬂooded; 2 children killed; livestock killed; agricultural land contaminated; downstream communi7es and Mogpog Town ﬂooded.
March 24, 1996, Marinduque Island MARCOPPER MINING CORP According to the company the rock around a cement plug inserted into the former Tapian open Pit drainage tunnel to convert it into a tailings containment was fractured and the plug failed. However, the tunnel started leaking in August 1995. In September 1995 Marcopper/ Placer Dome started drilling down 160 meters to the tunnel. On 24 March 1996 the drill hit the tunnel, released an air pocket holding back tailings and started the spill.
THE WORST MINING DISASTER: MARINDUQUE EXPERIENCE FillFille
WHAT MINERS Acid mine drainage or acid rock drainage, is the acidic water that drains out of above-ground orCANNOT SOLVE: under-ground coal and metal mines. It may form inside the mine or several kilometers downstream.Acid Mine Drainage It can occur during mining operations and even when operations has finished and the site is abandoned. It affects stream and river ecosystems by increasing acidity, depleting oxygen, and releasing heavy metals, such as aluminum, iron, manganese, and zinc.
Photos and data were taken from the following sources: • ATM File Photos • Ofam Ombudsman Report on Marinduque • Legal Rights and Natural Resources Center (LRC) • Philippine Indigenous Peoples Links (Piplinks) • Marinduque Council for Environmental Concerns (MACEC) • Alex Felipe Photos • www.saverapurapu.blogspot.com • www.panoramio.com • www.mustardseedblog.com