Earth Science 1.3 : Formation, Mining, and use of Minerals.


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Earth Science 1.3 : Formation, Mining, and use of Minerals.

  1. 1. The Formation, Mining, and use of minerals<br />Earth Science<br />Chapter 1.3<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />Describe the environments in which minerals forms<br />Compare the two types of mining<br />Describe two ways to reduce the effects of mining<br />Describedifferent uses for metallic and nonmetallic minerals<br />
  3. 3. Formation of Minerals<br />Minerals form in a variety of environments in the Earth’s crust.<br />Each has a different set of physical and chemical conditions that determine the minerals’ properties<br />Evaporating Salt Water<br />When a body of salt water dries up, minerals such as gypsum and halite are left behind<br />
  4. 4. Metamorphic Rocks<br />When changes in pressure, temperature, or chemical makeup alter a rock, metamorphism takes place<br />Minerals that form in metamorphic rock include:<br />calcite, garnet, graphite, hematite, magnetite, mica, and talc<br />
  5. 5. Limestones<br />Surface water and groundwater carry dissolved materials into lakes and seas, where they crystallized on the bottom<br />Minerals that form in this environment include:<br />calcite and dolomite<br />limestone<br />dolomite<br />
  6. 6. Hot-Water Solutions<br />Groundwater works its way downward and is heated by magma, and then reacts with minerals to form a hot liquid solution<br />Dissolved metals and other elements crystallize out of the hot fluid to form new minerals, such as:<br />gold, copper, sulfur, pyrite, and galena<br />
  7. 7. Pegmatites<br />As magma rises upward from the Earth’s crust, it can form teardrop-shaped bodies called pegmatites<br />Many gemstones such as:<br />topaz and tourmaline, form in pegmatites<br />
  8. 8. Plutons<br />As magma rises upward through the crust, it sometimes stops moving before it reaches the surface and cools slowly, forming millions of mineral crystals<br />Eventually, the entire magma body solidifies, forming minerals such as:<br />mica, feldspar, magnetite, and quartz<br />
  9. 9. Mining<br />Many kinds of rocks and minerals must be mined to extract the valuable elements they contain<br />Geologists use the termoreto describe a mineral deposit large enough and pure enough to be mined for profit<br />Rocks and minerals are removed from the ground by one of two methods<br />
  10. 10. 1. Surface Mining<br />When mineral deposits are located at or near the surface of the Earth, surface-mining methods are used to remove the minerals<br />Types of surface mines include:<br />open pits<br />surface coal mines<br />quarries<br />
  11. 11. 2. Subsurface Mining<br />Methods are used when mineral deposits are located too deep within the Earth to be surface mined<br />Subsurface mining often requires that passageways be dug into the Earth to reach the ore<br />
  12. 12. Responsible Mining<br />Mining gives us the minerals we need, but it may also create problems<br />Can destroy or disturb the habitats of plants and animals<br />Waste products from a mine may get into water sources, which pollutes surface water and ground water<br />
  13. 13. One way to reduce the potential harmful effects of mining is to return the land to its original state after the mining is completed<br />Called reclamation<br />Reducing our need for minerals by recycling is another way to reduce the effects of mining<br />
  14. 14. The Use of Minerals<br />Metallic Minerals<br />good conductors of heat and electricity<br />Processed for various uses<br />Building aircraft<br />Automobiles<br />Communications<br />Electronic equipment<br />Examples of useful metallic minerals<br />Gold<br />Silver<br />Copper<br />Aluminum – frame<br />Titanium – handlebars<br />Beryllium – pedals<br />Iron - spokes<br />
  15. 15. Nonmetallic Minerals<br />good insulators of electricity<br />Uses range from:<br />glass-making to producing computer chips<br />Example:<br />Calcite is a major component of concrete, which is used in building roads, buildings, bridges and other structures<br />
  16. 16. Gemstones<br />highly valued for their beauty and rarity, than for their usefulness<br />Important gemstones include<br />Diamond<br />Sapphire<br />Ruby<br />Emerald<br />Aquamarine<br />Topaz<br />tourmaline<br />