Earth science 1.1 : What is a Mineral?

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Earth science 1.1 : What is a Mineral?

  1. 1. Minerals of the Earth’s crust<br />Earth Science<br />Chapter 1.1<br />What is a Mineral?<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />Describe the structure of minerals<br />Describe the two major groups of minerals<br />Bellringer:<br /> Compare the piece of pencil lead and the diamond in the photograph provided by your teacher. Both substances are composed of carbon. How can the same element form two substances with such different properties? <br />
  3. 3. Mineral Structure<br />Mineral<br />Naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure<br />You can tell whether an object is a mineral by asking four questions<br />Is it a nonliving material?<br />Is it a solid?<br />Does it have a crystalline structure?<br />Is it formed in nature?<br />Elements<br />pure substances that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means<br />
  4. 4. Atoms and Compounds<br />Minerals may be either elements or compounds<br />Compound<br />substance made of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds<br />Native element<br />Mineral that is composed of only one element<br />Examples: Gold and Silver<br />Native Gold<br />Native antimony<br />Native silver<br />
  5. 5. Crystals<br />Solid, geometric forms of minerals produced by a repeating pattern of atoms that is present through-out the mineral<br />Shape <br />Determined by the arrangement of the atoms within the crystal<br />Arrangement of atoms <br />determined by the kinds of atoms that make up the mineral<br />Silvite, KCl<br />Halite, NaCl<br />Fluorite, CaCl2<br />
  6. 6. Two Groups of Minerals<br />based on their chemical composition<br />Silicate minerals<br />minerals that contain a combination of silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals<br />Examples : quartz, feldspar, and mica<br />
  7. 7. Nonsilicate minerals<br />Minerals that do not contain compounds of silicon and oxygen<br />Six main classes<br />Native elements<br />One element<br />Copper - Cu, Gold - Au, Silver - Ag<br />Carbonates<br />Combination of carbon and oxygen<br />Cement, building stone, fireworks<br />Halides<br />Form when halogen combine with sodium, potassium, or calcium<br />Chemical industry and detergents<br />copper<br />Calcite, calcium carbonate<br />Azurite, copper carbonate<br />Fluorite, calcium fluoride<br />
  8. 8. Oxides<br />Form when aluminum or iron combine with oxygen<br />Abrasives, aircraft parts, paint<br />Sulfates<br />Contain sulfur and oxygen, SO4<br />Cosmetics, toothpaste, cement, and paint<br />Sulfides<br />Contain lead, iron, or nickel combined with Sulfur.<br />Batteries, medicines, electronic parts<br />Corundum, aluminum oxide<br />Zincite, zinc oxide<br />Gypsum, calcium sulfate<br />Pyrite, Iron sulfide<br />“Fools Gold”<br />Galena, lead sulfide<br />Baryte, barium sulfate<br />

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