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The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
The vietnamwar
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The vietnamwar

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  • 1. Where isWhere is Vietnam?Vietnam?
  • 2. Why Did the United StatesWhy Did the United States Fight a War in Vietnam?Fight a War in Vietnam? • Basically to hold the line against theBasically to hold the line against the spread of world Communism.spread of world Communism. America paid for the war the FrenchAmerica paid for the war the French fought against Communist Vietnamfought against Communist Vietnam as a part of the Truman Doctrineas a part of the Truman Doctrine (1947) “to help free peoples to(1947) “to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions andmaintain their free institutions and their national integrity against …their national integrity against … totalitarian regimes.” In the 1950’s,totalitarian regimes.” In the 1950’s, America became involved again.America became involved again.
  • 3. Longest and Most UnpopularLongest and Most Unpopular WarWar • The Vietnam War was theThe Vietnam War was the longest and most unpopular warlongest and most unpopular war in American history. During thein American history. During the war:war: – 58,000 Americans lost their lives.58,000 Americans lost their lives. • The oldest man killed was 62 yearsThe oldest man killed was 62 years old; the youngest, 16.old; the youngest, 16. • 61% of the men killed were 21 or61% of the men killed were 21 or younger.younger. – 304,000 were wounded.304,000 were wounded. – 75,000 were severely disabled.75,000 were severely disabled. – The United States spent over $200The United States spent over $200 billion dollars on the war.billion dollars on the war.
  • 4. Conflict Between France &Conflict Between France & VietnamVietnam The Vietnam War grew out of theThe Vietnam War grew out of the long conflict between France andlong conflict between France and Vietnam.Vietnam. – In July 1954, after one hundredIn July 1954, after one hundred years of colonial rule, a defeatedyears of colonial rule, a defeated France was forced to leave Vietnam.France was forced to leave Vietnam. – Nationalist forces under the directionNationalist forces under the direction of General Vo Nguyen Giapof General Vo Nguyen Giap defeated the allied French troops atdefeated the allied French troops at the remote mountain outpost of Dienthe remote mountain outpost of Dien Bien Phu in the northwest corner ofBien Phu in the northwest corner of Vietnam.Vietnam.
  • 5. The Geneva Peace AccordsThe Geneva Peace Accords • The Geneva Peace Accords,The Geneva Peace Accords, signed by France and Vietnam insigned by France and Vietnam in the summer of 1954, provided forthe summer of 1954, provided for the temporary partition ofthe temporary partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel, withVietnam at the 17th parallel, with national elections in 1956 tonational elections in 1956 to reunify the country.reunify the country. • In the North, a communistIn the North, a communist regime, supported by the Sovietregime, supported by the Soviet Union and the People's RepublicUnion and the People's Republic of China, set up its headquartersof China, set up its headquarters in Hanoi under the leadership ofin Hanoi under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh.Ho Chi Minh.
  • 6. Opposition to Geneva AccordsOpposition to Geneva Accords • The United States prevented the elections that wereThe United States prevented the elections that were promised under the Geneva conference because itpromised under the Geneva conference because it knew that the Communists would win.knew that the Communists would win. – Secretary of State John Foster Dulles thought the GenevaSecretary of State John Foster Dulles thought the Geneva Accords granted too much power to the Communist Party ofAccords granted too much power to the Communist Party of Vietnam.Vietnam. – He and President Dwight D.He and President Dwight D. Eisenhower supported the creationEisenhower supported the creation of a counter-revolutionaryof a counter-revolutionary alternative south of the 17thalternative south of the 17th parallel.parallel. • This was accomplishedThis was accomplished through formation of thethrough formation of the Southeast Asia TreatySoutheast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).Organization (SEATO).
  • 7. A New Nation in the SouthA New Nation in the South • Using SEATO for political cover, theUsing SEATO for political cover, the Eisenhower administration helpedEisenhower administration helped create a new nation in southerncreate a new nation in southern Vietnam.Vietnam. • In 1955, with the help of massiveIn 1955, with the help of massive amounts of American military,amounts of American military, political, and economic aid, thepolitical, and economic aid, the government of the Republic ofgovernment of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) was born.Vietnam (South Vietnam) was born. • The following year, Ngo Dinh Diem, aThe following year, Ngo Dinh Diem, a staunchly anti-Communist figure fromstaunchly anti-Communist figure from the South, won a dubious electionthe South, won a dubious election that made him president of Souththat made him president of South VietnamVietnam
  • 8. The Domino TheoryThe Domino Theory • American policymakers developed the “DominoAmerican policymakers developed the “Domino Theory” as a justification for the involvement. ThisTheory” as a justification for the involvement. This theory stated, “If South Vietnam falls to thetheory stated, “If South Vietnam falls to the Communist, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma,Communist, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, India and Pakistan would also fall like dominos. TheIndia and Pakistan would also fall like dominos. The Pacific Islands and even Australia could be at risk”.  Pacific Islands and even Australia could be at risk”.  
  • 9. South Vietnam Under DiemSouth Vietnam Under Diem • Diem claimed that his newly createdDiem claimed that his newly created government was under attack fromgovernment was under attack from Communists in the north.Communists in the north. • In late 1957, with American military aid, DiemIn late 1957, with American military aid, Diem began to counterattack.began to counterattack. – He used the help of the CIA (throughHe used the help of the CIA (through Operation Phoenix) to identify those whoOperation Phoenix) to identify those who sought to bring his government down andsought to bring his government down and arrested thousands.arrested thousands. – He passed a repressive series of actsHe passed a repressive series of acts known as Law 10/59 that made it legal toknown as Law 10/59 that made it legal to hold suspected Communists in jail withouthold suspected Communists in jail without bringing formal charges.bringing formal charges.
  • 10. Opposition to DiemOpposition to Diem • The outcry against Diem's harsh and oppressiveThe outcry against Diem's harsh and oppressive actions was immediate.actions was immediate. – Buddhist monks and nuns were joined by students,Buddhist monks and nuns were joined by students, business people, intellectuals, and peasants inbusiness people, intellectuals, and peasants in opposition to Diem’s corrupt rule.opposition to Diem’s corrupt rule. – The more these forces attacked Diem's troops andThe more these forces attacked Diem's troops and secret police, the more Diem complained that thesecret police, the more Diem complained that the Communists were trying to take South Vietnam byCommunists were trying to take South Vietnam by force. This was "a hostile act of aggression by Northforce. This was "a hostile act of aggression by North Vietnam against peace-loving and democratic SouthVietnam against peace-loving and democratic South Vietnam."Vietnam."
  • 11. The National Liberation FrontThe National Liberation Front • The CommunistsThe Communists supported the creation of asupported the creation of a broad-based united front tobroad-based united front to help mobilize southernershelp mobilize southerners in opposition to thein opposition to the government in Southgovernment in South Vietnam.Vietnam. • On December 20, 1960, the National LiberationOn December 20, 1960, the National Liberation Front (NLF) was born.Front (NLF) was born. – It brought together Communists and non-Communists in anIt brought together Communists and non-Communists in an umbrella organization that had limited, but important goalsumbrella organization that had limited, but important goals – Anyone could join as long as they opposed Ngo Dinh DiemAnyone could join as long as they opposed Ngo Dinh Diem and wanted to unify Vietnam.and wanted to unify Vietnam.
  • 12. Washington White PapersWashington White Papers • In a series of government "WhiteIn a series of government "White Papers," Washington insidersPapers," Washington insiders denounced the NLF, claiming that itdenounced the NLF, claiming that it was merely a puppet of Hanoi. Theywas merely a puppet of Hanoi. They called it the "Viet Cong," a derogatorycalled it the "Viet Cong," a derogatory and slang term meaning Vietnameseand slang term meaning Vietnamese Communist.Communist. • The NLF, on the other hand, arguedThe NLF, on the other hand, argued that it was autonomous andthat it was autonomous and independent of the Communists inindependent of the Communists in Hanoi and that it was made up mostlyHanoi and that it was made up mostly of non-Communists. Many anti-warof non-Communists. Many anti-war activists supported the NLF's claims.activists supported the NLF's claims.
  • 13. December 1961 White PaperDecember 1961 White Paper • In 1961, President KennedyIn 1961, President Kennedy sent a team to Vietnam tosent a team to Vietnam to report on conditions in thereport on conditions in the South andSouth and to assess future American aidto assess future American aid requirements.requirements. • The report, known as theThe report, known as the "December 1961 White"December 1961 White Paper," argued for:Paper," argued for: – An increase in military, technical, and economicAn increase in military, technical, and economic aidaid – The introduction of large-scale AmericanThe introduction of large-scale American "advisers" to help stabilize the Diem regime"advisers" to help stabilize the Diem regime and crush the NLF.and crush the NLF.
  • 14. The Kennedy ResponseThe Kennedy Response • As Kennedy weighed the merits ofAs Kennedy weighed the merits of these recommendations, some ofthese recommendations, some of his other advisers urged thehis other advisers urged the president to withdraw frompresident to withdraw from Vietnam altogether.Vietnam altogether. • In typical Kennedy fashion, theIn typical Kennedy fashion, the president chose a middle route.president chose a middle route. – Instead of a large-scale militaryInstead of a large-scale military buildup or a negotiated settlement,buildup or a negotiated settlement, the United States would increase thethe United States would increase the level of its military involvement inlevel of its military involvement in South Vietnam through moreSouth Vietnam through more machinery and advisers, but nomachinery and advisers, but no military troops.military troops.
  • 15. The Strategic Hamlet ProgramThe Strategic Hamlet Program To counteract the NLF'sTo counteract the NLF's success in the countryside,success in the countryside, Washington and SaigonWashington and Saigon launched an ambitious militarylaunched an ambitious military effort in the rural areas.effort in the rural areas. – Called the Strategic HamletCalled the Strategic Hamlet Program, the newProgram, the new counterinsurgency plan roundedcounterinsurgency plan rounded up villagers and placed them inup villagers and placed them in "safe hamlets" controlled by the"safe hamlets" controlled by the government of South Vietnam.government of South Vietnam. – The idea was to isolate the NLFThe idea was to isolate the NLF from villagers, its base offrom villagers, its base of supportsupport
  • 16. NFL SuccessesNFL Successes • This culturally-insensitive planThis culturally-insensitive plan further alienated the peasantsfurther alienated the peasants from the Saigon regime andfrom the Saigon regime and produced more recruits for theproduced more recruits for the NLF.NLF. • By the summer of 1963,By the summer of 1963, because of NLF successes andbecause of NLF successes and its own failures, it was clear thatits own failures, it was clear that the government of Souththe government of South Vietnam was on the verge ofVietnam was on the verge of political collapse.political collapse.
  • 17. Buddhist Self-ImmolationsBuddhist Self-Immolations • Diem's brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, hadDiem's brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, had raided the Buddhist pagodas of Southraided the Buddhist pagodas of South Vietnam, claiming that they hadVietnam, claiming that they had harbored the Communists that wereharbored the Communists that were creating the political instability.creating the political instability. • The result was massive protests on theThe result was massive protests on the streets of Saigon that led Buddhiststreets of Saigon that led Buddhist monks to self-immolation.monks to self-immolation. • The pictures of the monks engulfed inThe pictures of the monks engulfed in flames made world headlines andflames made world headlines and caused considerable consternation incaused considerable consternation in Washington.Washington.
  • 18. Military CoupMilitary Coup • By late September, the BuddhistBy late September, the Buddhist protest had created such disloca-protest had created such disloca- tion in the south that the Kennedytion in the south that the Kennedy administration supported a coup.administration supported a coup. • In 1963, some of Diem's ownIn 1963, some of Diem's own generals approached the Americangenerals approached the American Embassy in Saigon with plans to overthrow Diem.Embassy in Saigon with plans to overthrow Diem. • With Washington's tacit approval, Diem and hisWith Washington's tacit approval, Diem and his brother were captured and later killed.brother were captured and later killed. • Three weeks later, President Kennedy wasThree weeks later, President Kennedy was assassinated on the streets of Dallas.assassinated on the streets of Dallas.
  • 19. Escalation of the ConflictEscalation of the Conflict • At the time of the Kennedy and Diem assassinations,At the time of the Kennedy and Diem assassinations, there were 16,000 military advisers in Vietnam.there were 16,000 military advisers in Vietnam. – The Kennedy administration had managed to runThe Kennedy administration had managed to run the war from Washington without the large-scalethe war from Washington without the large-scale introduction of American combat troops.introduction of American combat troops. – The continuing political problems in Saigon,The continuing political problems in Saigon, however, convinced the new president, Lyndonhowever, convinced the new president, Lyndon Baines Johnson, that more aggressive actionBaines Johnson, that more aggressive action was needed.was needed. • After a dubious North Vietnamese raid on two U.S.After a dubious North Vietnamese raid on two U.S. ships in the Gulf of Tonkin, the Johnsonships in the Gulf of Tonkin, the Johnson administration argued for expansive war powers foradministration argued for expansive war powers for the president.the president.
  • 20. Attack on American ShipsAttack on American Ships • In August 1964, in response toIn August 1964, in response to American and South VietnameseAmerican and South Vietnamese espionage along its coast, Northespionage along its coast, North Vietnam launched an attack against theVietnam launched an attack against the C. Turner Joy and the U.S.S. Maddox,C. Turner Joy and the U.S.S. Maddox, two American ships on call in the Gulftwo American ships on call in the Gulf of Tonkin.of Tonkin. – The first attack occurred onThe first attack occurred on August 2, 1964.August 2, 1964. – A second attack was supposed to haveA second attack was supposed to have taken place on August 4, but authoritiestaken place on August 4, but authorities have recently concluded that no secondhave recently concluded that no second attack ever took place.attack ever took place.
  • 21. The Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionThe Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • The Johnson administrationThe Johnson administration used the August 4 attack toused the August 4 attack to obtain a Congressionalobtain a Congressional resolution, now known asresolution, now known as the Gulf of Tonkinthe Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, that gave theResolution, that gave the president broad warpresident broad war powers.powers. • The Resolution wasThe Resolution was followed by limited reprisalfollowed by limited reprisal air attacks against Northair attacks against North VietnamVietnam..
  • 22. Operation Rolling ThunderOperation Rolling Thunder • In early 1965, the NLF attacked two U.S.In early 1965, the NLF attacked two U.S. army installations in South Vietnam, and asarmy installations in South Vietnam, and as a result, Johnson ordered sustaineda result, Johnson ordered sustained bombing missions over North Vietnam.bombing missions over North Vietnam. • The bombing missions, known asThe bombing missions, known as “Operation Rolling Thunder,” caused the“Operation Rolling Thunder,” caused the Communist Party to reassess its own warCommunist Party to reassess its own war strategystrategy
  • 23. Phosphorous & NapalmPhosphorous & Napalm BombsBombs • ““Operation RollingOperation Rolling Thunder” was backedThunder” was backed up by phosphorousup by phosphorous and napalm bombs –and napalm bombs – the latter causingthe latter causing dreadful burns todreadful burns to thousand of innocentthousand of innocent civilians.civilians.
  • 24. Operation Ranch HandOperation Ranch Hand • When this failed to break down the jungle cover the USAF startedWhen this failed to break down the jungle cover the USAF started “Operation Ranch Hand” – the defoliation program, using Agent“Operation Ranch Hand” – the defoliation program, using Agent Orange.Orange. – This deadly chemical cocktail, containing dioxin, killed off millionsThis deadly chemical cocktail, containing dioxin, killed off millions of acres of jungle to try to weaken the Vietcong – but left aof acres of jungle to try to weaken the Vietcong – but left a horrendous legacy in Vietnam.horrendous legacy in Vietnam. – The dioxin got into the food chain causing chromosome damageThe dioxin got into the food chain causing chromosome damage to humans. There were hundreds of cases of children born withto humans. There were hundreds of cases of children born with deformities.deformities.
  • 25. HelicoptersHelicopters • Of all aircraft, theOf all aircraft, the helicopter was thehelicopter was the most useful,most useful, dropping platoonsdropping platoons in the junglein the jungle clearings and outclearings and out again. They wereagain. They were excellent airexcellent air ambulances.ambulances.
  • 26. How did the North VietnameseHow did the North Vietnamese Fight Back Against the U.S.Fight Back Against the U.S. Invaders?Invaders? • The North Vietnamese used classic MaoistThe North Vietnamese used classic Maoist guerrilla tactics. “Guerrillas must moveguerrilla tactics. “Guerrillas must move through the peasants like fish throughthrough the peasants like fish through sea,” i.e., the peasants will support themsea,” i.e., the peasants will support them as much as they can with shelter, food,as much as they can with shelter, food, weapons, storage, intelligence, recruits.weapons, storage, intelligence, recruits.
  • 27. North Vietnamese TacticsNorth Vietnamese Tactics • In areas held by the NLF, theIn areas held by the NLF, the Communists distributed theCommunists distributed the land to the peasants. (By 1973,land to the peasants. (By 1973, the NLF held about half ofthe NLF held about half of South Vietnam.)South Vietnam.) • Their weapons were cheapTheir weapons were cheap and reliable.and reliable. – The AK47 assault rifle out-performed the American M16The AK47 assault rifle out-performed the American M16 – The portable rocket launcher took out many US vehicles &The portable rocket launcher took out many US vehicles & aircraft.aircraft. – They recycledThey recycled dud bombs dropped by the Americans.dud bombs dropped by the Americans. Deadly booby-traps could inflict huge damage on youngDeadly booby-traps could inflict huge damage on young American conscripts!American conscripts!
  • 28. Tunnel ComplexesTunnel Complexes • The Vietnamese built large tunnelThe Vietnamese built large tunnel complexes such as the ones at Cu Chicomplexes such as the ones at Cu Chi near Saigon. This protected them from thenear Saigon. This protected them from the bombing raids by the Americans and gavebombing raids by the Americans and gave them cover for attacking the invaders.them cover for attacking the invaders.
  • 29. Search & Destroy TacticsSearch & Destroy Tactics • The United States countered withThe United States countered with “Search and Destroy” tactics. In“Search and Destroy” tactics. In areas where the NLF wereareas where the NLF were thought to be operating, troopsthought to be operating, troops went in and checked forwent in and checked for weapons. If they found them,weapons. If they found them, they rounded up the villagers and burned the villages down.they rounded up the villagers and burned the villages down. • This often alienated the peasants from theThis often alienated the peasants from the American/South Vietnamese cause.American/South Vietnamese cause. – As one marine said – “If they weren’t Vietcong before we gotAs one marine said – “If they weren’t Vietcong before we got there, they sure as hell were by the time we left”.there, they sure as hell were by the time we left”. – The NFL often helped the villager’s re-build their homes andThe NFL often helped the villager’s re-build their homes and bury their dead.bury their dead.
  • 30. Protracted War StrategyProtracted War Strategy • After “Operation RollingAfter “Operation Rolling Thunder,” the CommunistThunder,” the Communist Party moved to aParty moved to a protracted war strategy:protracted war strategy: the idea was to get thethe idea was to get the United States boggedUnited States bogged down indown in a war that it could not wina war that it could not win militarily and createmilitarily and create unfavorable conditionsunfavorable conditions for political victory.for political victory.
  • 31. The War in AmericaThe War in America • The Vietnam War had aThe Vietnam War had a major impact on everyday lifemajor impact on everyday life in America, and the Johnsonin America, and the Johnson administration was forced toadministration was forced to consider domesticconsider domestic consequences of itsconsequences of its decisions daily.decisions daily. • Since there were not enoughSince there were not enough volunteers to continue tovolunteers to continue to fight a protracted war, thefight a protracted war, the government instituted a draft.government instituted a draft.
  • 32. Anti-War SentimentsAnti-War Sentiments • As the deathsAs the deaths mounted andmounted and Americans continuedAmericans continued to leave for Southeastto leave for Southeast Asia, the JohnsonAsia, the Johnson administration wasadministration was met with the fullmet with the full weight of Americanweight of American anti-war sentiments.anti-war sentiments.
  • 33. Anti-War ProtestsAnti-War Protests • Protests erupted on college campusesProtests erupted on college campuses and in major cities at first, but by 1968and in major cities at first, but by 1968 every corner of the country seemed toevery corner of the country seemed to have felt the war's impact.have felt the war's impact.
  • 34. 1968 Democratic Convention1968 Democratic Convention • One of the most famous incidentsOne of the most famous incidents in the anti-war movement was thein the anti-war movement was the police riot in Chicago during thepolice riot in Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National1968 Democratic National Convention.Convention. • Hundreds of thousands of peopleHundreds of thousands of people came to Chicago in August 1968 tocame to Chicago in August 1968 to protest American intervention inprotest American intervention in Vietnam and the leaders of theVietnam and the leaders of the Democratic Party who continued toDemocratic Party who continued to prosecute the war.prosecute the war.
  • 35. The Tet OffensiveThe Tet Offensive • By 1968, things had gone from bad to worse for theBy 1968, things had gone from bad to worse for the Johnson administration. In late January, NorthJohnson administration. In late January, North Vietnam and the NLF launched coordinated attacksVietnam and the NLF launched coordinated attacks against major southern cities.against major southern cities. • These attacks, known as the Tet Offensive, wereThese attacks, known as the Tet Offensive, were designed to force the Johnson administration to thedesigned to force the Johnson administration to the bargaining table.bargaining table.
  • 36. The My Lai MassacreThe My Lai Massacre • A serious blow to U.S. credibility came withA serious blow to U.S. credibility came with the exposure of the My Lai massacrethe exposure of the My Lai massacre (March 1968).(March 1968). • Hushed up at the time and only discoveredHushed up at the time and only discovered by a tenacious journalist, this involved theby a tenacious journalist, this involved the killing of 400 men, women and children bykilling of 400 men, women and children by US troops. US troops. 
  • 37. A Secret Plan to End the WarA Secret Plan to End the War • In late March 1968, a disgracedIn late March 1968, a disgraced Lyndon Johnson announced thatLyndon Johnson announced that he would not seek the Democratiche would not seek the Democratic Party's re-nomination for presidentParty's re-nomination for president and hinted that he would go to theand hinted that he would go to the bargaining table with thebargaining table with the Communists to end the war.Communists to end the war. • Negotiations began in the spring ofNegotiations began in the spring of 1968, but the Democratic Party1968, but the Democratic Party could not rescue the presidencycould not rescue the presidency from Republican challengerfrom Republican challenger Richard Nixon who claimed he hadRichard Nixon who claimed he had a secret plan to end the war.a secret plan to end the war.
  • 38. VietnamizationVietnamization • Nixon's secret plan involvedNixon's secret plan involved a process calleda process called “Vietnamization.” This“Vietnamization.” This strategy brought Americanstrategy brought American troops home whiletroops home while increasing the air war overincreasing the air war over North Vietnam and relyingNorth Vietnam and relying more on the Southmore on the South Vietnamese army for groundVietnamese army for ground attacks.attacks.
  • 39. Expansion to Laos &Expansion to Laos & CambodiaCambodia • The Nixon years also saw the expansion of theThe Nixon years also saw the expansion of the war into neighboring Laos and Cambodia,war into neighboring Laos and Cambodia, violating the international rights of theseviolating the international rights of these countries in secret campaigns, as the Whitecountries in secret campaigns, as the White House tried desperately to rout out CommunistHouse tried desperately to rout out Communist sanctuaries and supply routes.sanctuaries and supply routes.
  • 40. Campus Protests &Campus Protests & ShootingsShootings • The intenseThe intense bombingbombing campaigns andcampaigns and intervention inintervention in Cambodia in lateCambodia in late April 1970 sparkedApril 1970 sparked intense campusintense campus protests all acrossprotests all across America.America.
  • 41. Kent StateKent State • At Kent State inAt Kent State in Ohio, four studentsOhio, four students were killed bywere killed by NationalNational Guardsmen whoGuardsmen who were called out towere called out to preserve order onpreserve order on campus after dayscampus after days of anti-Nixonof anti-Nixon protest.protest.
  • 42. Jackson StateJackson State • Shock waves crossed theShock waves crossed the nation as students atnation as students at Jackson State inJackson State in Mississippi were also shotMississippi were also shot and killed for politicaland killed for political reasons, prompting onereasons, prompting one mother to cry, "They aremother to cry, "They are killing our babies inkilling our babies in Vietnam and in our ownVietnam and in our own backyard."backyard."
  • 43. The Christmas BombingsThe Christmas Bombings • In December 1972, the Nixon administration unleashedIn December 1972, the Nixon administration unleashed a series of deadly bombing raids against targets ina series of deadly bombing raids against targets in North Vietnam’s largest cities, Hanoi and Haiphong.North Vietnam’s largest cities, Hanoi and Haiphong. • These attacks, now known as the Christmas bombings,These attacks, now known as the Christmas bombings, brought immediate condemnation from the internationalbrought immediate condemnation from the international community and forced the Nixon administration tocommunity and forced the Nixon administration to reconsider its tactics and negotiation strategy.reconsider its tactics and negotiation strategy.
  • 44. The Paris Peace AgreementThe Paris Peace Agreement • In early January 1973, the NixonIn early January 1973, the Nixon White House convinced SaigonWhite House convinced Saigon that they would not abandon thethat they would not abandon the South Vietnamese army if theySouth Vietnamese army if they signed the peace accord.signed the peace accord. • On January 23, therefore, theOn January 23, therefore, the final draft was initialed, endingfinal draft was initialed, ending open hostilities between theopen hostilities between the United States and North Vietnam.United States and North Vietnam. • The Paris Peace Agreement didThe Paris Peace Agreement did not end the conflict in Vietnam,not end the conflict in Vietnam, however, as Saigon continued tohowever, as Saigon continued to battle Communist forces.battle Communist forces.
  • 45. The Fall to CommunismThe Fall to Communism • From March 1973 until the fall ofFrom March 1973 until the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975, theSaigon on April 30, 1975, the South Vietnamese army triedSouth Vietnamese army tried desperately to save the Southdesperately to save the South from political and militaryfrom political and military collapse.collapse. • The end finally came when NorthThe end finally came when North Vietnamese tanks rolled southVietnamese tanks rolled south along National Highway One.along National Highway One. • On the morning of April 30,On the morning of April 30, Communist forces captured theCommunist forces captured the presidential palace in Saigon,presidential palace in Saigon, ending the Vietnam War.ending the Vietnam War.
  • 46. Why Did the United StatesWhy Did the United States Lose the Vietnam War?Lose the Vietnam War? 1.1. They underestimated the tenacity andThey underestimated the tenacity and organization of the North Vietnameseorganization of the North Vietnamese and the National Liberation Front.  and the National Liberation Front.  
  • 47. 2.2. Despite droppingDespite dropping more tonnage ofmore tonnage of high explosive onhigh explosive on Vietnam than theVietnam than the whole of World Warwhole of World War II, the AmericansII, the Americans could not stop thecould not stop the movement of troopsmovement of troops or supplies to theor supplies to the south along the Hosouth along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.  Chi Minh Trail.  
  • 48. 3.3. The NorthThe North VietnameseVietnamese conducted aconducted a “Peoples war” in“Peoples war” in which everyonewhich everyone played a part.played a part.
  • 49. 4.4. At first, most Americans supported theAt first, most Americans supported the war. But by 1970, the Peace Movementwar. But by 1970, the Peace Movement had support from all parts of society andhad support from all parts of society and no government could ignore it.no government could ignore it.
  • 50. 5.5. After 1969, there wereAfter 1969, there were deep questions aboutdeep questions about the efficiency of USthe efficiency of US troops. There was atroops. There was a serious drug problem;serious drug problem; desertion rates weredesertion rates were high and morale low.high and morale low. Many troops wereMany troops were “time-servers,” i.e.,“time-servers,” i.e., counted the days untilcounted the days until the tour was over.the tour was over.
  • 51. 6.6. The US never reallyThe US never really understood the culture ofunderstood the culture of the Vietnamese people.the Vietnamese people. Coca Cola, chewingCoca Cola, chewing gum, ball point pens, andgum, ball point pens, and ice cream cones couldice cream cones could not dislodge their ancientnot dislodge their ancient beliefs.beliefs.
  • 52. 7.7. America was not prepared to keep losingAmerica was not prepared to keep losing high numbers of casualties for suchhigh numbers of casualties for such limited progress in a difficult jungle war,limited progress in a difficult jungle war, for which they were not suited.  for which they were not suited.  
  • 53. 8.8. The strength and resourcefulness of theThe strength and resourcefulness of the NLF. For example, the highly complexNLF. For example, the highly complex Cu Chi tunnel system the U.S. never shutCu Chi tunnel system the U.S. never shut down.  down.  
  • 54. SourcesSources • Battlefield Vietnam: A Brief HistoryBattlefield Vietnam: A Brief History http://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/history/index.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/history/index.html • Vietnam Revision GuideVietnam Revision Guide http://www.learnhistory.org.uk/vietnam/ustactics.htmhttp://www.learnhistory.org.uk/vietnam/ustactics.htm

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