ETHIOPIAN DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH INSTITUTE
1
Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture and
Nutritional Outcomes in Ethiopia
Fanaye ...
2
Introduction
• Intra-household resource allocation has a considerable role to play in
nutritional outcomes.
• The extent...
3
Introduction-cont’d
• These linkages are complex, and the direction of relationship between
women’s status and nutrition...
4
Objective
• This research aims at looking into the relationship between women’s
empowerment and nutritional outcomes of ...
5
Data
• Data from a baseline survey conducted for the evaluation of the FtF
program in Ethiopia, the US government global...
6
Methodology
• To examine the relationship between women’s empowerment in agriculture
and mothers and children nutritiona...
• Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)
• Developed by researchers at USAID, IFPRI, and the Oxford Poverty and
H...
• The five domains, their definitions under the WEAI, the corresponding
indicators, and their weights for the 5DE are:
Dom...
• How empowered are Ethiopian women in Agriculture?
• The female respondent’s individual-level 5DE profile or score (weigh...
Results - Contribution of each of the 5 domains to
disempowerment of women
Production
11%
Resources
25%
Income
7%Leadershi...
Results - Descriptive
Children's Nutritional Outcomes (under 5 years)
Stunting (%) 51.3
Wasting (%) 12.1
Underweight (%) 3...
12
Methodology
• Following the works by IFPRI colleagues (Sraboni et al, 2014 in Bangladesh
and Malapit et al, 2013)
• Lik...
• Individual level characteristics (Child and mother) and Household
characteristics
• Household size, Dependency ratio, La...
5DE Group Credit Work Income
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
Stunting -1.56* -0.69*** 0.27 0.01 -1.10* -0.12*** -0...
5DE Group Credit Work Income
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)
Underweight 0.26 0.05 -0.78*** -0.05** -0.25 0.12 -0....
 Children’s nutritional outcomes:
• Wealth
• Availability of dairy cows and chicken
• Dependency ratio
 Women’s nutritio...
• Women’s empowerment has a positive impact on children’s nutritional
outcome (reducing stunting and underweight) as well ...
• Improved nutritional outcome is not necessarily correlated with being
empowered in all the domains of empowerment.
• Dif...
Thank You!
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture and Nutritional Outcomes in Ethiopia

172

Published on

Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture and Nutritional Outcomes in Ethiopia

Published in: Economy & Finance
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
172
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture and Nutritional Outcomes in Ethiopia

  1. 1. ETHIOPIAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH INSTITUTE 1 Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture and Nutritional Outcomes in Ethiopia Fanaye Tadesse and Feiruz Yimer IFPRI ESSP 19th Annual Conference of the African Region Chapter of the Econometric Society 12th International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy July 16-19, 2014 Addis Ababa
  2. 2. 2 Introduction • Intra-household resource allocation has a considerable role to play in nutritional outcomes. • The extent to which women have access to and control over resources largely determines the kind of care they provide for their children. • lack of control over household resources, time, knowledge, and social support networks -> poor nutritional outcomes. • Empirical researches have also shown that women’s greater control in household has an impact on the nutritional and educational outcomes of children
  3. 3. 3 Introduction-cont’d • These linkages are complex, and the direction of relationship between women’s status and nutrition are not straight forward. • For instance, women’s empowerment through engaging in agriculture or other paid work  could reduce the amount of time available for them to take care of themselves as well as their children.  Positive income effect • Measuring women’s empowerment is not straight forward. • Quantifying the linkages between women’s empowerment and nutritional outcomes depends on the measurement of empowerment.
  4. 4. 4 Objective • This research aims at looking into the relationship between women’s empowerment and nutritional outcomes of both women and children in the rural Ethiopia context • Using a recently developed measure of women empowerment called Women Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI). • Outcome variables • Children’s nutritional outcomes (stunting, wasting, underweight) • Women’s nutritional outcomes (BMI and Dietary Diversity)
  5. 5. 5 Data • Data from a baseline survey conducted for the evaluation of the FtF program in Ethiopia, the US government global hunger and food security initiative. • Collected from 5 regions of the country and comprises of 7,056 households from 84 woredas (districts). • Data collection took place in June 2013. • The questionnaire used for the survey includes modules on • basic demographic information; household consumption expenditure; Women empowerment indicators; women dietary diversity and anthropometry; child anthropometry and infant and young child feeding; employment, agricultural productivity and input use; and other relevant information.
  6. 6. 6 Methodology • To examine the relationship between women’s empowerment in agriculture and mothers and children nutritional outcomes, we estimate the following equation: 𝑌 = 𝑏0 + 𝑏1 𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 + 𝑏3 𝐼 + 𝑏4 𝐻 + 𝜀 Where Y - vector of women and child nutritional outcomes. I - vector of individual characteristics, H - household characteristics and 𝜀 - the error term.
  7. 7. • Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) • Developed by researchers at USAID, IFPRI, and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) • Measures the empowerment, agency and inclusion of women in the agricultural sector. • Composed of two sub-indexes: the Five Domains of Empowerment sub- index (5DE) and the Gender Parity sub-Index (GPI) • Five Domains of Empowerment (5DE) measures the empowerment of women in five areas (90 percent of the total WEAI); and • The Gender Parity Index (GPI) measures the average level of equality in empowerment of men and women within the household (10 percent of the total WEAI). Methodology - Women's Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)
  8. 8. • The five domains, their definitions under the WEAI, the corresponding indicators, and their weights for the 5DE are: Domain(each weighted 1/5 of 5DE sub-index Indicator Weight Production Input in productive decisions 1/10 Autonomy in production 1/10 Resources Ownership of assets 1/15 Purchase, sale, or transfer of assets 1/15 Access to and decisions about credit 1/15 Income Control over use of income 1/15 Leadership Group member 1/10 Speaking in public 1/10 Time Workload 1/10 Leisure 1/10 Methodology (Cont.) WEAI Components
  9. 9. • How empowered are Ethiopian women in Agriculture? • The female respondent’s individual-level 5DE profile or score (weighted average of the 10 indicators) • The average 5DE score is 0.64  A lower level of empowerment in agriculture for Ethiopian women compared with women in Bangladesh (0.75), Guatemala (0.69) and Uganda (0.79). • The findings from the WEAI diagnostics are used to identify the focus of analysis. • Contribution of each of the five domains to disempowerment  Leadership, Time, Resources, Production and Income Result: WEAI Descriptive
  10. 10. Results - Contribution of each of the 5 domains to disempowerment of women Production 11% Resources 25% Income 7%Leadership 30% Time 27%
  11. 11. Results - Descriptive Children's Nutritional Outcomes (under 5 years) Stunting (%) 51.3 Wasting (%) 12.1 Underweight (%) 33.1 Women's Nutritional Outcomes Underweight (BMI<18.5) 28.15 Dietary Diversity (No. of food groups) 1.49
  12. 12. 12 Methodology • Following the works by IFPRI colleagues (Sraboni et al, 2014 in Bangladesh and Malapit et al, 2013) • Likely that women’s empowerment within the household might be affected by the same factors affecting child outcomes and dietary diversity • Possible endogeneity of the empowerment measure - instrumental variables (IV) technique. • Percentage of women who are members of women only groups in the community (village level empowerment proxy) • Number of types of informal credit sources in the village as instruments for all of the empowerment indicators. • The cluster-level distance to markets- reflect the intensity of a woman’s work burden at home, the woman’s degree of isolation within the community
  13. 13. • Individual level characteristics (Child and mother) and Household characteristics • Household size, Dependency ratio, Land size, Crop diversification (number of food groups produced by the household), Wealth (asset and housing), Number of dairy cows, Number of chicken, Location dummy) • Estimation using IVprobit for child and women nutrition outcomes • After each IV regression we test for the endogeneity of the women empowerment regressors. • When we fail to reject the exogeneity of women’s empowerment, the simple Probit results are our preferred estimates. • Regression on Stunting, we fail to reject the exogeniety of women’s empowerment – Simple probit. • For the IVprobit regressions, the over identification and under identification test results confirm that instruments are valid and the model is identified. Regression Results
  14. 14. 5DE Group Credit Work Income (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) Stunting -1.56* -0.69*** 0.27 0.01 -1.10* -0.12*** -0.10* 0.01 -0.61** -0.03* (1.25) (0.18) (0.83) (0.03) (0.51) (0.43) (0.00) (0.01) (0.10) (0.02) Underweight -1.95 -0.55*** -0.934*** -0.03 -0.03 -0.10 -0.06 0.01 0.14 0.01 (1.58) (0.18) (0.15) (0.03) (0.49) (0.07) (0.07) (0.01) (1.37) (0.02) Wasting 0.36 0.03 0.07 -0.05 -0.17 0.03 -0.17** -0.01 0.116 0.02 (1.59) (0.23) (0.76) (0.04) (0.63) (0.08) (0.00) (0.01) (0.23) (0.02) Result: Regression on Children’s outcome
  15. 15. 5DE Group Credit Work Income (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) Underweight 0.26 0.05 -0.78*** -0.05** -0.25 0.12 -0.18 -0.02** 0.06 0.02 (1.80) (0.16) (0.25) (0.02) (0.84) (0.05) (0.12) (0.01) (0.17) (0.01) Dietary Diversity 2.48** 1.27*** -0.18 0.16*** 1.59*** 0.12*** -0.07 0.02*** 0.41 0.08 (0.86) (0.11) (0.34) (0.02) (0.64) (0.04) (0.01) (0.01) (0.12) (0.01) Result: Regression on Women’s nutritional outcome
  16. 16.  Children’s nutritional outcomes: • Wealth • Availability of dairy cows and chicken • Dependency ratio  Women’s nutritional outcomes (particularly Dietary Diversity) • Education • Wealth • Availability of dairy cows and chicken • Number of crops produced by the household Result: Other variables affecting children’s and women’s nutritional outcomes
  17. 17. • Women’s empowerment has a positive impact on children’s nutritional outcome (reducing stunting and underweight) as well as women’s nutritional outcomes (Dietary Diversity) • Different dimensions of women’s empowerment appear to have different effects on nutritional status and dietary diversity. • Group membership of women emerges to be strongly correlated with both child and mother outcomes. • The number of hours in paid and unpaid is also positively associated with material dietary diversity and BMI; and negatively associated with the probability of children’s wasting. • Control of income is important as a determinant of BMI and child’s stunting. Conclusion
  18. 18. • Improved nutritional outcome is not necessarily correlated with being empowered in all the domains of empowerment. • Different domains may have different impacts on nutrition, consistent with other findings in the empowerment literature (Kabeer 1999, Sraboni et al, 2014; Malapit et al, 2013). • Interventions to increase women’s agency work towards improving child nutrition as well as their own well-being. Conclusion
  19. 19. Thank You!
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×