Though women loved animals, they totally disagreed with being used for raising livestock.
Joint families more in livestock.
Treating sick animals, vaccines, drugs, AI, construction, pregnancy and birth care. They contribute 60 to 80% of labour in the animal husbandry (Younas et al., 2007)
Rural women are not permitted to participate by the male.
Role of women in livestock management, their constraints and training need-Punjab, Pakistan
Role of Women in
Constraints and Training
Shifa Ul Haq
Agriculture & Livestock
The agriculture is leading sector. Absorbs 44% of the
country‟s labor force.
Livestock plays a vital role in the agriculture economy
150 million heads of livestock
35.6 million cattle, 31.7 million buffaloes
28.1 million sheep, 61.5 million goats (Government of
Livestock 55.1% of the agriculture value added and 11.6 % of the
Still a huge source of traction power for cultivation and transportation.
Livestock production is an important source of income for the rural poor
in developing countries.
Livestock and poultry provide the food products of high nutritional values
such as milk, beef, mutton, poultry meat and eggs.
Livestock consumes many crop byproducts that would otherwise
The role of livestock sector in the rural economy of Pakistan is very
critical as 35 million rural population is engaged in livestock raising.
Pakistan faces major problem and not doing best but is the 6th largest
producer of milk in the world.
Women represent half of the world‟s population and one third of
the official labor force, but they receive only 1% of the world
income and own less than 1% of the world property (ILO, 2006)
63% of country population is rural and majority involved in
agriculture. (S.B Pakistan, 2012)
Among rural women, about 79.4% of rural women in agriculture
in comparison with 60.8 percent of the rural men (UNDP, 1997).
Generally, it is perceived that women living in the rural areas of
Pakistan are not involved in so called „Gainful Employment‟.
According to the FAO (FAO, 1995) survey, women as paid or
unpaid worker often spends up to 19 h/day in carrying out
different assignments at farms and house.
The women‟s participation in agriculture and livestock
has a tradition worldwide, especially in Asian & African
countries where domestic animals have been an
integral part of the family - farming system.
Women take part actively in various agricultural
activities, for example seed bed
preparation, tilling, sowing, fertilizer application, fodder
cutting, weeding, inter-
culturing, husking, threshing, drying, storing cereals
and fodder, and harvesting of crops, fruits and
vegetables (Ahmed & Hussain, 2004).
In comparison to agriculture crop sector, the role of
rural women in livestock is much more significant. In
many cases, they are involved in watering and
cleaning and maintenance of animals and their
sheds, preparing dung cakes as fuel, as well as
milking animals and processing of milk products.
Bringing water, firewood, cooking food, sewing clothes
and taking care of the child and family matters.
According to a recent study in Pakistan, the rural women
usually spend about 7-8 h for household work while 6-7 h
in performing livestock (Jamali, 2009).
Roles can vary among different societies with regard to
religious, culture, classes, values and beliefs
There may be an 'ideal' division of labor in livestock, as
prescribed by cultural norms, it is not always practiced.
Economic considerations, settlement patterns, general
labor availability and other factors can cause people to
adopt other labor divisions. In some societies, women may
even slaughter cattle and small ruminants, although this is
considered men's exclusive responsibility
Despite the essential economic and care giving roles women
perform, they have significantly less access to financial, physical
and social assets than men do; fewer opportunities to improve
their knowledge and skills; and less voice in public decision-
Women own less than 2 per cent of all land and receive only 5
percent of extension services worldwide.
Presently, women are not only conferred with all important issues
Livestock is a gender activity so disadvantaged women further
decrease the production.
This problem is exacerbated in Muslim.
Two-thirds of the world's 880 million illiterate adults are women. Girls are
more than 70 percent of the 125 million children who don't have a school to
Similar finding in the study; majority were illiterate. Punjabi families.
Illiterate Primary MiddleMatriculation and above
Education Level of
Age Distribution 40
Up to 35
46-50 years 51 and
Age Distribution of the
Majority were middle-ages,
young & unmarried women were
less involved in livestock
management and production
Family Type of the
Kacha Pacca Semi-pacca
Nature of Livestock
Domestic Commercial Both
Small (1-12) Medium
Size of Land
Time Spent for Livestock
3 Hours 4 Hours 5 Hours 6 Hours 7 Hours 8 Hours
Time Spent for Livestock Activities
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%
Cutting and collecting fodder
Cleaning animal's shed, bedding
Grazing of animals
Watering the animals
Manuring/Dung cake making
Taking animals in and out
Pregnancy and birth care
Who treats the sick animals
The Roles Performed By Women
Goat Sheep Both (goat & sheep)
Preference for Care of Small Animals
Professional Training can
Women Are Skillful
Enough to Manage the
Majority (90%) of the women had no access to credit facility
Not credit worthy or allowed by male members, lack of confidence or
Yisehak (2008) access to credit and capital will increase the participation of
women and their efficiency in livestock production.
Access to Microfinance
Where CVH or other
institute is near and have
staff are satisfied. Govt.
departments lack outreach
so people don‟t get support
Satisfaction With the
Government of Pakistan
Not at All
Livestock for Fulfilling the
Not at All
Thinking That the
Livestock is Best Small
Lot of problems
Women Perception on Livestock Productivity Problems
Constraint‟ here refers to economic and technological problems
that limit the growth and development of farm women.
The low productivity is explained by both biological and
Constraints such as unavailability and high cost of exotic breeds
and commercial feed, lack of market access and unstable
livestock and livestock product prices, and access to veterinary
services and drugs are gender neutral.
Studies in the field indicate that there are some obstacles like
lack of capital and access to institutional credit, workload and
lack of technical skills and access to extension services that may
affect women more than men.
Constraints Faced by
Preoccupation with household chores
Dominance by spouses
Involvement in non farm activities
Involvement in crop production for the
Constraints Faced by the Women
Training refers to the “acquisition of
knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the
teaching of vocational or practical skills and
knowledge that relates to specific useful skills”
Training is mostly directed at improving the ability of
individuals to make their vocation more effectively and
Official livestock services are often controlled by men and
extension personnel are primarily men who are not
accustomed or trained to teach technical subjects to
Extension programs and educational materials are mainly
designed by and oriented towards men.
Compared to women; men have easier access to
technology and training, mainly due to their strong position
as head of the household and greater access to off-farm
Training Needs of Rural Women
Health Care Management and Disease
Feeding and Nutrition
Housing and Cleaning
Marketing and Finance
Ranking of Training Needs of Rural Women
Degree ,Diploma, and Certificate courses
Female dairy cooperatives should be introduced at the district level.
They must be provided employment opportunities to work for rural women guide
There is a need of new research agenda which should take into account the dynamic
role of women in the livestock sector.
Value addition to agriculture and livestock products, modern high-tech
Women are largely absent from the state structures and decision-making bodies that
have the potential to introduce structural changes.
Educated women in pastoral areas must be provided scholarships for the education in