Women Empowerment


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Creating women entrepreneurs through Training & Development in garment manufacturing technology

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Women Empowerment

  1. 1. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA Women empowerment through Education & Training in garment Technology A Case Study of successful women empowerment model in Andhra Pradesh- India Dr.N.V.R.Nathan. PhD Vice President Cluster Development Intiative Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Ltd The National Institute of Fashion Technology, (NIFT) Hyderabad was approached by Former speaker Late Balayogi to help the weavers’ community in East Godavari district particularly the women, to explore the possibility of engaging them in some economic activity that can augment the income of the family. As Director NIFT, I had the unique opportunity to lead a team to work out a project report that can bring sustainable income through garment manufacturing using the fabric available locally as well as from the state apex marketing society APCO. The services and experience of Mr.Basanth Kumar, Registrar, NIFT on deputation from the state government from APCO enabled the successful implementation of the project on women empowerment. Garment being the basic need of all citizens it appeared fashionable to explore its strength in women empowerment as an economic generating activity. 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Indian Constitution in its Preamble has laid down the principle of gender equality, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favor of women and also grants equality to women. Beginning from the fifth five year plan of 1974-78 women empowerment was recognized as the central issue in determining the status of women. Through an act of parliament in 1990 the National Commission for Women was established for rights and legal entitlement of women. Participation from a large number of NGO’s and wide spread women movement to achieve economic independence like the Development of Women And Children Association (DWACRA) well supported by the Andhra Pradesh Government made possible in true sense the economic independence and empowerment of women. In many a cases women empowerment programmes are merely statistical data’s for appeasing voters and a lip sympathy factor for politicians and policy makers. However this project is one exemption for which the credit goes mainly to the women of East Godavari who were determined to achieve success by sheer hard work and sustainable interest in the outcome. Through its success they also proved that poverty is not a limiting factor for economic generation. Hard work and consistent efforts can take them to a new level of economic freedom and pride. 1.1 NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP What is Entrepreneurship? How do they have impact on economy? What is Entrepreneurship? This has been a subject of National and International interest and much discussed among the various government. The word entrepreneur is derived from French and literally translated it means “between-taker” or “go-between”. An early example of this definition go-between is 1
  2. 2. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA refers to Marco Polo who attempted to establish trade routes to the far east. Marco Polo would sign trade contract with a financially sound person (forerunner to venture capitalists of today) to sell his goods. A common contract provided during this period @22.5 percent rate of interest including insurance. The capitalist was a passive risk bearer; merchant-adventurer took active role in trading, bearing all the physical and emotional risks. While the trading is completed the capitalist would take 75% of profit and the merchant- adventurer would get 25%. The theory of entrepreneurship has developed parallel to the development of the term itself as can be seen in the table below; the source of this well computed evolution of the theory of Entrepreneurship development is from Robert D Hisrich in his book “Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship: Methods for creating new companies that have an impact on the Economic Renaissance of an Area” ed Robert D.Hisrich (Lexington books, 1986) p.96. (SEE Table 1.2) This project of “Fashioning Women Empowerment through Fashion Technology” was inspired by the 1985: Robert Hisrich theory of Entrepreneurship. NIFT and DRDA together began a process of creating something different and the value being the training of around 13500 women in a span of 3 years ( Time and Effort) with an investment of Rs.25 crores and the only social risk was the level of education which did not allow them to explore suitable marketability to make the entrepreneur succeed in its goal. This role of creating market was taken up by NIFT to support entrepreneurship in association with large retail chains like Big Bazaar, Shoppers’ Stop & Lifestyle. Table 1.2 Development of Entrepreneurship theories & the term Entrepreneur. Middle ages: Actor and person in charge of large scale production projects. 17th Century: Persons bearing risks of profit (loss) in a fixed price contract with Government. 1725: Richard Cantillon –Person bearing risks is different from one supplying capital. 1803: Jean Baptiste Say - Separated profits of entrepreneur from profits of capital. 1876: Francis Walker – distinguished between those who supplied funds and received interest and those who received profit from managerial capabilities. 1934: Joseph Schumpter – Entrepreneur is an innovator and develops untried technology 1961 : David Mc Clelland – Entrepreneur is an energetic moderate risk taker 1964 : Peter Drucker – Entrepreneur maximizes opportunities 1975 : Albert Schapero- Entrepreneur takes initiative, organises some social and economic mechanism, and accepts risks of failures 1980 : Karl Vesper – Entrepreneur seen differently by economist, psychologist, business persons and politicians 1983 : Giffard Pinchot – Intrapreneur is an entrepreneur within an already established organisations 1985 : Robert Hisrich – Entrepreneurship is the process of creating something different with value by devoting necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychological, and social risks and receiving the resulting rewards of monitory and personal satisfaction. 2
  3. 3. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA 2.0 THE MARKET STUDY All projects and trainings generally go smooth till the time the training is completed. The bottlenecks begin with marketing. The earlier study by NIFT in failure of APCO as an APEX marketing body and the reasons behind it helped in structuring the Training and Development Programme in East Godavari. The students of .post graduate marketing program in NIFT numbering 60 were spread all over East Godavari (EG) district to carry out a market survey on studying the following: 1) To identify the exact problems of weavers in EG particularly with the product mix. 2) To explore using the fabric produced to do possible value addition. 3) Role of women in current activity of weavers’ family. 4) Educational background of women. 5) To explore their willingness to get trained for economic activity. 2.1 IDENTIFICATION OF ISSUES: The study outcome was not so encouraging but the following identification of the issues on hand brought us nearer to exploring possibilities of tackling the issue tactfully. 1) The weavers of EG had no market guidance on the demand factor of the fabrics and color concept. 2) Not all fabric produced by them were suitable for value addition. 3) The women hardly had two hours of work a day supporting in the weavers activity of spinning the yarn or dyeing of the yarn. 4) The educational qualification was from 5th standard to 7th in 90% of the sample and 10% between 8th and th 10 standard. 5) Only 25% were willing to undergo any new training for economic activity. 2.2. DATA OF EAST GODAVARI. TOTAL MEN WOMEN POPULATION 4541222 2272962 2268260 POPULATION BELOW 7 YEARS 740807 371553 369254 SC POPULATION 826057 414038 412019 ST POPULATION 176083 88270 87813 LITERATES 1854359 1051869 802490 TOTAL WORKERS 1671295 1282658 388637 CULTIVATORS 249094 221830 27264 AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS 842372 568222 274150 WORKERS : LIVESTOCK, FORESTRY ETC 43095 41275 1820 MINING & QUARRYING 3889 2810 1079 MAF.&PRO.IN H.H.IND 54454 36973 17481 MAF. & PRO. OTHER THAN H.H.I 87958 80867 7091 CONSTRUCTION 18120 16504 1616 TRADE & COMMERCE 137602 121030 16572 TRANSPORT, STORAGE & COMM 50460 49734 726 IN OTHER SERVICES 184251 143413 40838 MARGINAL 76082 7308 68774 NON-WORKERS 2793845 982996 1810849 3
  4. 4. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA 2.3 NIFT RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the study and brainstorming of faculty and the students who had done the market study a viable sustainable activity of the following was suggested to the Collector of EG,Government of AP and the Special officer incharge of the project. 1) The East Godavari District Rural Development Agency(DRDA) would identify women from Self Help Group(SHG) who can motivate the weavers family to undergo training and become its members. 2) SHG’s will have 60% members from the weavers community who will undergo training under NIFT in Garment manufacturing activities. 3) Training will be for 3 months in batch of 20 women in two convenient shifts morning and noon. 4) Training centres will be located in 52 Mandals all over EG district to cover maximum benificiaries. Each training centre will have 20 state of art sewing machines for training. 5) NIFT will identify 52 members from the districts who will undergo systamatic “Train the Trainers” Programme for three months. 6) Three month tarining will be conducted to groups in only one area such as women’s wear,men’s wear or children wear . 7) Trained women will be grouped to establish co-operative society which will have 50 sewing machines and under state sponsored garment park. 8) Annual production plan with help of NIFT will be made and marketing network established with private retail chains. 2.2 ENTREPRENEUR AS INNOVATOR The 19th & 20th century model briefly stated the entrepreneurs organize and operate enterprise for personal gains. He pays current prices for materials consumed in the business, pays for use of land and building, personal services employed. He plays role of manager, deploys his own skill and ingenuity in planning, organizing and administering the enterprise. He takes responsibility for the loss and gain consequent to unforeseen circumstances and after paying all costs he retains what is left out as profit for himself. Andrew Carnegie on the above lines adapted and developed new technology in creation of products to achieve economic vitality. He made American steel industry one of the wonders of industrial world, primarily through his competitiveness rather than his inventiveness or creativity. In East Godavari (EG) district this is what was required, more of competitiveness rather than inventiveness or creativity. 3.0 ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AS INNOVATOR. The government is one important conduit for commercializing the results of the synthesis of social need and technology. In today’s terminology it is known as Technology Transfer and has been the focus of a significant amount of research effort. However not much has been achieved in this direction significantly from sound scientific Government –sponsored research and commercialization in the market. Frequent transfers of key officials monitoring projects also adversely affect the successful implementation. The research will have little or no social application most of the time, wherever it has produced a few products, they would require significant modification to meet customer demand and satisfaction. Under these circumstances this project was taken up with the assurance of the government to support in every aspect beginning from the chief minister Shri Chandrababu Naidu to down the hierarchy at DRDA level in East Godavari district. The challenges were far compelling and hence urgent need to gain confidence of the people in particular the weavers’ community. 3.1 ROLE OF DRDA & SGSY SCHEME. The DRDA then headed by Mr.Y.S.Prasad IAS took immediate initiatives to evolve a scheme under Swarnajayanthi Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY) which had provision for Asset Creation, Training, providing seed capital for the trained women and finance from NABARD. The honorable speaker late shri Balayogi used his good offices to get 4
  5. 5. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA the scheme approved from GOI. The CM of AP Shri Chandrababu Naidu agreed to fund 50% of the scheme investment as required by GOI. He also inaugurated the first exhibition of the women entrepreneurs post their training and also entrusted the order of social welfare department to stitch uniforms. This greatly motivated other women in waiting to take serious note of the opportunity and suddenly there was demand for getting trained to become entrepreneurs. SWARNJAYANTI GRAM SWAROZGAR YOJANA OBJECTIVES: To enable poor selected families (Swarozgaris) in the rural areas to cross the poverty line. STRATEGY: To provide income generating assets and inputs to the target groups through a package of assistance consisting of subsidy and bank loan. TARGET GROUPS: Small farmers, marginal farmers, agricultural labourers, non-agricultural labourers and rural artisans whose annual family income is less than Rs. 13000/- from 1999-2000. Small farmers are those having land holding from 2.5 to 5.0 acres dry land in non DPAP areas or 3.75 to 7.5 acres dry land in DPAP areas or half the limits in case of wet land. Marginal farmers are those having land holding upto 2.5 acres in non DPAP areas or 3.75 acres in DPAP areas in terms of dry land or half the limits in case of wet lands. SAFE GUARDS: for SCs & STs: Assistance both in physical and financial terms to the extent of. a) Government of India norm - 50% for SCs & STs put together b) State norm - 50% for SCs,10% for STs (16% for STs in ITDA areas). For Women - 40% For Physically Handicapped - 3% Minorities - 3% FORUM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF BENEFICIARIES: Grama sabha attended by prospective beneficiaries, the representatives of bank, DRDA, Mandal officials, non- officials and village elders. SIZE OF INVESTMENT (PERCAPITA) DURING Subsidy - Rs.7500 Credit - Rs.17500 Minimum Investment - Rs.25,000 RATES OF SUBSIDY: Small farmer 30% of Project Cost subject to Max of Rs.7500/- Others 50% Project Cost subject to Maximum of Rs.10,000 SCs,STs and Physically Handicapped - 50% Community minor irrigation works - There is no monitory limit and subsidy for irrigation projects INDIVIDUAL MAXIMUM SUBSIDY: Non DPAP areas - Rs.7500 DPAP areas - Rs.7500 SCs,STs and Physically Handicapped - Rs.10000 Minor Irrigation Sector - No monitory limit on subsidy SWARNJAYANTI GRAM SWAROZGAR YOJANA [SGSY] [TRAINING] ( 10% of SGSY allocation) OBJECTIVES: To upgrade the capacity of Swarozgaris both individual as well as group oriented activities. 5
  6. 6. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA TARGET GROUPS: Those between 18-35 years from the families below the poverty line. The age limit is relaxed to 16 years in case of the in-mates of orphanages and to 45 years in case of freed bonded labourers, ex-convicts, leprosy cured patients, liberated scavengers etc. QUALIFICATIONS: No educational qualifications are prescribed. SAFEGUARDS for SCs & STs: Assistance both in physical and financial terms to the extent of. a) Government of India norm - 50% for SCs & STs put together b) State norm - 50% for SCs,10% for STs (16% for STs in ITDA areas). For Women - 40% For Physically Handicapped - 3% STRATEGY: Training in any institution or with master crafts man and provide subsidy by DRDA and credit from banks under SGSY for acquisition of income generating assets after completion of training. DURATION: Two types of training are contemplated under SGSY BASIC ORIENTATION PROGRAMME Swarozgaris may put through a basic orientation programme to acquire the skills after the loan is sanctioned and before distribution training should not be more than two days. Training expenses like training material, honorarium to resource persons, travel and food expenses of Swarozgaris can be met from SGSY training fund. No stipend is admissible. SKILL DEVELOPMENT TRAINING Swarozgaris who need additional skill development /upgradation of skill appropriate training may be identified and organised. Under this Swarozgaris will be entitled for financial assistance if they require to undergo training for more than a week. The bank will give this money to the Swarozgaris as a soft loan. DRDAs are entitled to meet the expenses incurred by the training institutions . The expenses should not exceed Rs.15/- per trainee per day. The Project Report envisages three stages of training and linking with banks. (1) In the primary stage, training would be imparted to selected Self Help Groups at the cluster level in the Mandal (4 or 5 clusters per Mandal). Women will be trained on motorized sewing machines and for stitching and various seams and other hand embroidery works in these centers and the women so trained will be linked to banks with SGSY subsidy under Group Loaning Scheme. (2) At the Mandal level, training centres would be established with the infrastructure of SGSY Special Project and training would be organized in advanced courses in fashion designing and dress making besides fabric dyeing and printing including tie and dye Batik and Kalamkari printing etc., work. The groups which have already undergone training in basic sewing, will be covered in these centers and such groups would be linked with banks with SGSY subsidy. (3) At the Division Level, designing and dress making centers will be established with state of the Art machinery and these centres would act as potential dress making units besides giving training to entrepreneurs to be financed under PMRY and other non form sector lending. This Centre would act as facilitator for imparting training to trainers who would coordinate training modules at Mandal and cluster level. The National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) Hyderabad volunteered to offer its services for successful implementation of the project. The Standing Committee of DCC has approved the proposal in principle for funding 6
  7. 7. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA the Project with a loan component of Rs.825.00 Lakhs with Rs.825.00 Lakhs of subsidy and Rs.850.00 Lakhs of infrastructure so that 4,300 groups can be covered in a span of 2 years. The implementation of the Project will take place in 2001-2003 years. For details of project refer Annexure -A 4.0 FINANCIAL IMPLICATIONS Being an ambitious project to train 13500 women in three years to become entrepreneurs was a very ambitious project. The project was carried out with a budget outlay of 25 crores shared between the GOI and the AP Government and also NABARD which took care of the post training financial commitment of women entrepreneurs to empower them to achieve economic independence. Marketing tie-up with large retail chains like Big Bazaar, Shoppers Stop etc who realized their social responsibility to society was reason for the success of the project. 4.1 IMPLEMENTING THE TRAINING While the initial Market Research, making of the project report and processing for Government approval almost took one whole year, the actual implementation of programme looked most challenging. There were more number of people who warned us that this project would never take off, there were few from the beaurocracy the Government and the Retail who saw it an opportunity to create a record of a sort in Training close to 13500 women in a span of 2 years and converting them to Entrepreneurs. However the most important people that is the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh Shri Chandra Babu Naidu, Former speaker Late.Balayogi, Shri Vidyadhar Rao who was minister for industries and also the Collector of East Godavari Mr.Satish Chandra IAS and the CEO of DRDA, Mr.Y.S.Prasad, Project Director DRDA and ofcourse Mr.P.Basant Kumar, the Registrar NIFT and entire team of Officers of NIFT wherein favour of taking up the challenge whole heartedly. One of our Faculty from NIFT Mr.Shyam dedicated considerable time in closely monitoring the training programme as well as guiding the DRDA in proper implementation helped in keeping pace with implementation of the project. As is the case in State and Central Government the project saw transfers of several key officers including Mr.Y.S.Prasad being transferred half way through the implementation of the project. However the new CEO Mr.Ramanjaneyulu IAS who came in place of Mr.Y.S.Prasad IAS continued to extend whole hearted support which made the project the great success. 4.2 TRAINING THE TRAINERS Initially NIFT selected 52 young and enthusiastic team who belong to mostly East, West Godavari and Prakasham districts and had also completed one year comprehensive certificate course from NIFT on Garment Technology where trained to train the potential Entrepreneurs in 50 Mandal Training Centres. The Trainers were put through two months of systematic orientation in teaching methodologies and simultaneously a handbook of training with syllabus for each module to guide the trainers were prepared. The preparation of the handbook went a long way in ensuring uniformity in training as well as teaching methodology. The Internationally reputed “CLOTHING INDUSTRIES TRAINIING AUTHORITY (CITA)” HONGKONG was roped in keeping in view their vast experience of over 50 years in HongKong and China in the area of operators training. The Director CITA Mr.Li John organized training initially to NIFT Faculty and was responsible in guiding through preparation of teaching modules and handbook. The 52 Trainers were monitored on a regular basis as suggested by CITA through monthly visits undertaken by Director NIFT along with Registrar Mr.Basant Kumar and Mr.Shyam, the Coordinator. 4.3 THE MARKETING STRATEGY Director NIFT and Registrar Mr.P.Basant Kumar held meetings and presentations to several large Retail chains like Big Bazaar, Pantaloon Group, Shoppers’ Stop, Life Style and focused on social accountability factor with these organisations and sought their support in marketing the products produced by the East Godavari SHG’s post their training programme and setting up of production unit. NIFT also initiated creation of brands such as “EG- Easy Wear” for both Men & Women’s wear The State Government also supported through order from Social Welfare Department for stitching of uniforms for Government run Schools and also the uniforms for Athletes participating in AFRO ASIAN GAMES held in 7
  8. 8. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA Hyderabad in the year 2003. NIFT also organize several events like “Fashion Spectrum” an annual event of NIFT in which ready made garments of the societies from East Godavari district were displayed and sold. The society also participated in several such exhibitions both in Andhra Pradesh and in places like Delhi which helped their Marketing and Brand building. 4.4 SUMMARY The SGSY project of East Godavari proved that it is possible to create Entrepreneurs from rural areas through the process of systematic training, guidance and marketing support. It also proved that high level of education is not an absolute essential to create Entrepreneurs. Infact higher education is a detrimental factor to creating Entrepreneurship, since they are more worried about risks factors. The East Godavari experiment also proved that the partnership of the Government, the Institution (NIFT) is an ideal combination for implementation of schemes such as SGSY. The reason being that the accountability factor is more predominant under this partnership. The East Godavari experience also proved that by meticulous planning and execution and roping in of experts (CITA) benefited largely the humongous task of undertaking such large scale training programme. It is also essential that training by itself cannot assure the rate of success. The factors to be monitored largely begins post training such as creating a Cooperative Institutions such as what was done in East Godavari district as APEX Cooperative bodies. It is also essential that marketing networking has to be planned well in advance to ensure the success of the enterprise. 4.5 ASSESSEMENT OF FAILURES The East Godavari experiment also underlined certain factors which could cause failure of a well timed purposeful project. Some of the areas where failures were observed included factors such as power failures in several of training centres resulting in extended training time. Since the most of the rural population of East Godavari district in particular the Women do not possess a higher level of education which resulted in their enterprise depending on the DRDA entirely to assist in areas such as Banking, Financial planning and Marketing. Though the DRDA managed to press into service special officers to ensure proper management of enterprise, the commitment of these officers were not at the same level of Project Director himself. Transfers of officials at the level of Collectors and Project Managers and in certain areas even the Special Officers greatly became an impediment in successful implementation of the project. NIFT itself had a change in the year 2003 of the Director which also changed the paradigm equation with only the Registrar Mr.P.Basant Kumar being a continuity factor for the project. In conclusion, the East Godavari experiment of empowering Women overall proved to be a highly positive factor and with the right commitment and whole hearted support of both the Government as well as Institution like NIFT, the prospects are bright in ensuring success of a Women Empowerment. NIFT choose Fashion Technology to empower Women because it meets the basic three criteria’s: Roti, Kapada & Makan, (FOOD,CLOTHING & SHELTER) where demand is certain and marketability is assured. 5.0: Learning & Re-adaptation: Learning from the above gave me new opportunities when I was offered the position of Vice President at ILFSCDI Limited (Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Cluster Development Initiative) in the year 2007. Mr.RCM Reddy IAS, MD & CEO had submitted a proposal to Ministry of Rural Development (MORD) Government of India under a special SGSY scheme to Train and place in Industry 5 Lakh Below Poverty Line (BPL) youths as Sewing Machine Operators (SMO) in the age group of 18-30 over a period of 5 years. Since over 400 million people in India out of 1 billion populations are below poverty line earning less than US $1 a day, our challenge was to use the opportunities in Apparel sector in India which is labor intensive to provide trained manpower. While in model -1, we were unable to engage all persons trained as entrepreneur, the special SGSY scheme was focused on employable skill development of rural youths. The MORD sanctioned the scheme for training on “Skill for Employment in Apparel Sector” (SEAM) on a pilot basis to train 30000 BPL youths over a period of 3 years. 8
  9. 9. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA The SEAM training centres with 32 State-of-Art high speed industrial sewing machines in Technical Collaboration with JUKI, Japan & Their Distributors IIGM in India were setup in 12 states of India number 52 Training Centres. The potential BPL youths are selected through a process of tests namely, Finger Dexterity Tests, Eye & needle coordination, Color Blindness with the help of Project officers from Department of Rural Development (DRDA) from the respective state and districts. The selected candidates will undergo 4 weeks of intensive training programs under trainers trained by ILFSCDI Limited in the 52 training centres. Each Training centres trains two batches of 32 BPL youths (64 in a month) for six hours each day and six days a week. The training is imparted using a unique patented Audio Visual Aid called “KYAN” which is a computer cum LCD projector with DVD drive and Internet enabled system which is portable. The entire training is in Modular Employable Skills Model based on the Directorate General of Employment & Training (DGET) Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India and in Audio Visual format spread over 180 Hours of “SEE & LEARN” supported by our Trainers and about 60 hours of practical learning through Life skill training and visit to potential employers manufacturing units to familiarize the work environment. The SEAM training centres layouts are designed to simulate work environment at the apparel manufacturing units. The SEAM TEAM is headed by our MD & CEO Mr.RCM.Reddy IAS, me as its Vice President and an able TEAM of dedicated members like Ms.Jyothi, Mr.Somasundar, Mr.Padmanabhan, Mr.Kunal Trivedi, Mr. Amit Pandey, Mr.Vikram who form the core TEAM and about 12 dedicated officers with over 100 Trainers manning the training centres. The SEAM TEAM is also well supported by the other Verticals Cluster managers and support staff which has made this program a success. The ILFS Group Chairman Mr. Ravi Parthasarathy & Group MD Mr.Harishankaran have provided full support, encouragement and empowered the SEAM TEAM to deliver the desired result. The SEAM Training centres are supported by Training Partners from the Industry, NGO’s, Educational Institutions & three Universities. There are over 50 large Exporters who have provided employment to over 20,000 Trained BPL youths till date on a salary of approximately US $ 600 and also provided dormitory accommodation and free transportation. The pilot project which was to train 30,000 BPL youths in three years will be accomplished by June 2009 and one year ahead of the scheduled three years time allocated. The Ministry of Rural Development (MORD) Government of India is now considering up-scaling of the project by approving the training of the targeted 5 Lakh ( Half Million) youths over 5 years. 5.1 CITATIONS & REFERENCES SGSY scheme is a GOI supported programme from Ministry of Rural development (www.rural.nic.in) launched during the NDA government period by the former prime minister of India Shri.Atal Behari Vajpayee. The AP Government was the first beneficiary of this programme which was sanctioned in the year 2001 for East Godavari district. The SGSY scheme has benefited 1.45 million SHG’s till date refers http://rural.nic.in/rd2.htm. This model of entrepreneurship development was replicated the in three other states such as Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Orrissa for which the consultancy was provided by NIFT,Hyderabad between 2001 to 2003. Other references: Robert D Hisrich “Entrepreneurship, Intrapreneurship and Venture Capital” (Lexington, M A: Lexington Books 1986) Robert D Hisrich & Michael P.Peters “Entrepreneurship” 1989 : TATA MC Graw-Hill Bird, Barbara J: David J. Hayward and David N Allen (1993) “ Entrepreneurship – Theory & Practices” Volume 17, no.4, pp. 57-77 (Conflicts in commercialization of knowledge, Perspectives from Science and Entrepreneurship. Linda Himelstein “I am an Entrepreneur”: Business Week , October 25 th 1999. 9
  10. 10. 2009 ABR & TLC Conference Proceedings Oahu, Hawaii, USA Osborne, Stephen W, Thomas W.Falcone & Prashanth B.Nagendra (2000) “ From unemployed to Entrepreneur” : A Case study in Intervention, Journal of Development Entrepreneurship: Volume 5, no.2, pp 115-36 10