Cn tu12 5_isric_wb1_drivers_of_desertification_mantel

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Cn tu12 5_isric_wb1_drivers_of_desertification_mantel

  1. 1. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Desertification drivers and policies in DESIRE study sites S. Mantel (ISRIC) G.W.J. van Lynden (ISRIC) Marie-José van de Werff ten Bosch (Both Ends)
  2. 2. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC 16 study sites
  3. 3. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Climate change Socio-economic drivers Demographics Migration Policies Prices Markets Social factors Land use and management Desertification processes Response SLM strategies Other sources of income People Rural livelihoods Sustainability goals Bio-physical drivers Environmental conditions
  4. 4. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Climate change Socio-economic drivers Demographics Migration Policies Prices Markets Social factors Land use and management Desertification processes Response SLM strategies Other sources of income People Rural livelihoods Sustainability goals Bio-physical drivers Environmental conditions SLM loop
  5. 5. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Climate change Socio-economic drivers Demographics Migration Policies Prices Markets Social factors Land use and management Desertification processes Response SLM strategies Other sources of income People Rural livelihoods Sustainability goals Bio-physical drivers Environmental conditions Policy loop
  6. 6. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC DESIRE study sites • Climate in the DESIRE study sites: from (semi-)arid to sub-humid. High variation between sites. Av. Ann. rainfall < 600 mm, < 300 mm and sometimes <100 mm. • Dominant land uses dryland farming and pastures, with increasing importance of irrigated arable farming and other forms of capital intense farming.
  7. 7. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Methods • Data collected through emailed questionnaires (and discussed in group sessions) • Structure and data fields used DPSIR concepts of socio-economic drivers, environmental drivers, pressures, impact, responses, and policies
  8. 8. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Drivers Socio economic drivers Environmental drivers Pressures Impact Study site: Guadalentin Basin, Murcia, Spain Land abandonment Aging farming population (traditionally dry land farmers), farming only part-time activity. Commercial, irrigated farms have developed at the cost of traditional dryland agriculture since the 1970's, Policy developed and implemented at many different levels within ministries and governments. Cross-sectoral cooperation and planning is extremely complex and difficult to implement. Natural conditions such as topography, climate and lithology and active tectonic uplift favor overland flow and erosion. Changes in soil quality, soil organic matter content and increased vegetation cover Soil erosion (+) Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Lack of investment at region, local, and farm level, the low profitability of agriculture calls for government intervention to provide incentives The threatened mosaic landscape is crucial for SWC purposes Changes in soil quality, soil organic matter content and increased vegetation cover Soil erosion (+) Intensive tillage Tillage under almonds is traditionally done 3-5 times a year Soils are easily crusted without tillage which reduces infiltration capacity Higher organic matter content, less runoff and erosion Soil erosion (-) Irrigated horticulture and illegal pumping of groundwater for irrigation Irrigated horticulture is the most profitable land use type in the region Land leveling is often practiced for irrigated agriculture Changes in groundwater availability and quality Ground water (quality+ quantity) decline Intensive pig farming Low land demand High demand for pork and ham Changes in water and soil quality Soil and groundwater contamination Decline of traditional knowledge Land abandonment, due to out- migration to cities, has lead to increased soil erosion, causing damage to existing SWC strucutures such as terraces and water harvesting structures. Long dry periods and intermittent rivers require structures to maintain water that is available during rainfall events throughout dry Changes in water availability and quality Water stress
  9. 9. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Drivers Impact Responses Policies Guadalentin Basin, Murcia, Spain Land abandonment Soil erosion (+) Construction of terraces and check dams, reduced tillage, increased fallow periods, reforestation Policies and regulations that focus on vegetation cover management, such as reforestation, crop rotations and fallow periods Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) Soil erosion (+) Construction of terraces and check dams, reduced tillage, increased fallow periods, reforestation National Action Programme to Combat Desertification (NAPD), European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF), and the Regional development programmes Intensive tillage Soil erosion (-) Reduced- and contour tillage Regional development programme Irrigated horticulture and illegal pumping of groundwater for irrigation Ground water (quality+ quantity) decline Drip irrigation and plastic covers to reduce evaporation losses Policy enforcement by the water authorities, water transfers, subsidies for irrigation infrastructure, European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund (EAGGF) Intensive pig farming Soil and groundwater contamination Controlled use of sludge for fertilization purposes Regulations on waste treatment, storage and use of pig sludge Decline of traditional knowledge Water stress Construction of terraces and water harvesting structures Regional development programme
  10. 10. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Source: De Vente et al., based on discussions between stakeholders during two stakeholder workshops in 2007 – 2008 Guadalentin basin, Spain: Sustainability Goals Goal 1 Maintenance and restoration of the productive capacity of the agricultural-, forest-, and scrublands systems Goal 2 Reduce water loss and maintain or restore aquifer levels Goal 3 Reduce soil erosion and prevent flooding and siltation of reservoirs Goal 4 Increase soil fertility and soil organic matter content Goal 5 Integration of agriculture and ecological systems in a ‘mosaic landscape’ Goal 6 Conservation of biological diversity Goal 7 Production of labelled ‘quality products’ from ecological agriculture Goal 8 Use of organic waste and sludge for local green energy production
  11. 11. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Key drivers of desertification • Out-migration • Lack of (integrated) planning • Land fragmentation • Land management decline • Mono-culture tree planting • Population growth/poverty • Lack of land tenure • Land use intensification
  12. 12. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC frequency of reported drivers for desertification/degradation in the 16 DESIRE study sites 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Outmigration Lackofplanning Mono-plantation Landfragmentation Intensification Pop.growth/Poverty Landtenure Landmanagementdecline Frequency Drivers
  13. 13. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Outmigration is a key driver of desertification (10 sites, 9 countries) Driver / Issue Study Site Primary impact Secondary impact Outmigration / low population/ Ageing Portugal (2) Land use change/land abandonment, negligence of SWC structures, loss of (traditional) knowledge Forest fires, soil erosion Spain Mosaic landscape is lost, SWC structures damaged Soil erosion Tunesia Land use change (degradation of SWC structures) Soil erosion Greece, Crete Less land care Soil erosion( (Population change) Russia (Dzhanybek) Introduction of mechanization Soil erosion, salinization Cape Verde Land abandonment lead to invasive species Biodiversity and soil quality decline Chile Poor agricultural and livestock practices Soil erosion Italy Poor land care Soil erosion, Mass movement, soil slip Morocco, Sehoel Indirect effect: lack of labour for rotational cropping Soil mining
  14. 14. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC • Lack of integrated planning and implementation of policies is considered to contribute to desertification (8 sites, 6 countries) • E.g. Spain: effective policy is difficult due to multiple sectors and many administrative levels • Botswana: Lack of coordination and implementation capacity resulting in low impact of policies. National policies do not always fit local conditions that sometimes cause negative side-effects
  15. 15. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Land fragmentation (7 sites, 6 countries) E.g Portugal: Increased land abandonment, less managed forest and vegetation -> increased forest fires risk E.g Turkey, Karapinar: Expansion of irrigated agriculture at the cost of traditional dry land farming ->lowering ground water levels Land use intensification (7 sites, 6 countries) Introduction of mono-culture tree plantations (6 sites, 5 countries) Mono-culture tree plantations: often decreased soil cover (e.g. Tunisia, Morocco), leading to greater forest/plantation fire risk (Portugal, Chile)
  16. 16. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Land management decline is considered a driver (5 study sites, 4 countries). •E.g. Russia (Novy): decrease of irrigated area but use of inappropriate methods for irrigation; soil salinization, water logging •Morocco: due to outmigration land tenure issues (land is rented out) and less labor available, rotational cropping is left for continuous wheat cultivation)
  17. 17. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC NOT (or hardly) reported by study sites: •Tourism •Transport/infrastructure •Climate change
  18. 18. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Policies • The international policy agreements and national contributions to them mentioned by the study sites: • the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, and its National Action Plans (7 sites) • Agenda 21 and environmental action plans and protection laws (7 sites) • Common Agricultural Policy (in Europe) (3 sites) • National Strategy for Poverty Reduction (1 site) • Natura 2000 (1 site) • Convention on Biological Diversity, and national plans and regulations (1 site) • European Water Framework Directive (1 site)
  19. 19. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Policies (2) The national and local agreements mentioned: • Subsidy schemes, regulations, laws on irrigation, water management, waste and flood control (9 sites) • Forestry laws and forest management regulations (5 sites) • agricultural laws and regulations, such as national policy on agricultural development (5 sites) • laws and national strategies on soil conservation and prevention and control of desertification (3 sites) • bonus programme on rehabilitation of degraded lands (1 site) • regional development plan (1 site) • official establishments of protected areas and national parks (1 site) • national strategy for rangeland improvement (1 site) • land management law (1 site) and grassland law (1 site) • Community Based Natural Resource Management Policy (1 site) • Tourism policies (1 site) • Emigration policies (1 site) • National plan for rural biogas development (1 site) • Revised National Policy on Education (1 site) • Order in council on protection of air (1 site)
  20. 20. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Policies (3) NOT (or hardly) reported by study sites: •Trade and investment agreements •Climate change protocols/agreements
  21. 21. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Conclusions • Drivers reported may have either negative or positive effects on desertification depending on the environmental and socio- economic context (e.g. land abandonment) • Local decisions on land use and management are highly influenced by national and global economy and trade and the resulting mobility of people • Rural exodus is an indicator for change in economic conditions and the primary driver for desertification in several sites.
  22. 22. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Conclusions • Policies have diverse effects on land use and management. Policies not targeted on environment or land management often as or even more influential
  23. 23. Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17Panel Review Meeting, Brussels, 17thth June 2009June 2009LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010LANDCON, Xi’an, China October 12, 2010 ISRIC Thank you for your attention

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