Recovery and ChangesFor Slaves For previously free African Americans, women, indigenou s Americans, and Immigrants Slavery Abolished Societal Role Convinced their undetermined rights must be incorporated into new country.
THE CHALLENGE To create a U.S. more connected to the Constitution than in the Antebellum U.S. A desire to REMAKE not repair the country.
What’s this mean for U.S. as awhole?First we should look at the other history andsocial ideas happening at the time.
For Women- Gender Roles andRights Women recognized Women in the Civil their status and war took new roles condition in relation and gained personal to the enslaved independence, why blacks, even though would they just go they were THE back to allowing the BACKBONE of the fraternity decide anti-slavery their liberties? movement.
New Territories and Immigration First Transcontinental Railroad Huge wave of in 1889. Asians, blacks, and poor European immigrants exploited entered the U.S. Allowed rural and small towns between 1860-1900 to urbanize (about 14 million). NYC population skyrockets from 500,000 in 1850 to 3.5 million in 1900 Chicago- from 20,000 to 2 million
Melting Pot Solution? The answer to this was---- the melting pot concept but this was more like a “stew characterized by meat and potatoes, mildly flavored with a little salt- almost no pepper. Rice, Yams, and Maize were excluded from the recipe and the Rice, Yams, and Maize eaters were allowed only at the table to serve.” Cultural interaction and assimilation as a benefit but in the process destroyed other cultures (like Native Americans).
Emancipation: the Plantation System takes a gut punchPlantation Owners- 0 Freed Slaves- Score Individual fortunes Sharecropping were destroyed Tenant Farming Happy comfortable living conditions Inspired by a uprooted reconfiguration of Who will feed post-war industrial us, work our expansion. land, and take care of us now?!
Free--- now what do we do?!While some Newly freed slaves had nofreed slaves education, work, skills, or socialgained workand contacts (or skills). And not muchtransitioned has been collected on how manyfrom slave tofree, many regarded their new found “freedom”.were just set With nowhere to go- Starvation wasfree. Andwhat common.happensthen? Many fled plantations and escaped to Union forces and found themselves refugees in Contraband Camps.
What’s a Contraband Camp?By warsend, approximatelyhalf a millionformerly enslavedpeople and otherAfrican Americanfreedmen hadsought protectionbehind Union lines.These "contraband,"as they becameknown, usually livedin camps hastilyerected almostanywhere the armywas stationed.The camps becamerecruitment centersfor African Americantroops and workerswilling to digtrenches, buildfortifications, and aid
Slavery Outlawed and the South Freaks Out AgainFifteenth Amendment Violated in a sneaky way Protecting its personal interests with legislation and white supremacist ideology. Discouraging Black Voters without technically denying or violating the right to vote.
Worth Comparing to CurrentEvents?15th Amendment violations inthe 1800s Voter ID Laws in the 2000s Creating laws that required http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/deci sion2012/pennsylvania-voter-id-law- people to pay a poll tax enforcement-halted-by- judge/2012/10/02/bf240ffc-0c9d-11e2-bb5e- before voting. 492c0d30bff6_story.html Required people to pass a “PA VOTER ID LAW which required specific forms of photo identification that reading or writing test many residents — the number is disputed before voting. — lack. Lawmakers and new Republican Gov. Tom Corbett say the changes are Example: Mississippi had a necessary to combat voter fraud and sentence or two for restore confidence in the integrity of elections. whites, and part of the Civil Rights groups allege that the real state law for blacks to read purpose of such laws is to suppress or copy. turnout of poor, urban and minority voters, who are the most likely to lack http://chnm.gmu.edu/cours photo IDs. Commonwealth Court Judge Robert Simpson, who upheld es/122/recon/code.html Pennsylvania’s law when he first considered it this summer, ruled Tuesday that state officials had not made enough progress in supplying photo IDs for those
Black Codes Illinois Black Code of 1853 extended a complete prohibition against black immigration into the state. South Carolina persons of color contracting for service were to be known as servants, and those with whom they contracted, as masters. All the slave states passed laws banning the marriage of whites and black people, so-called anti-Black Codes were laws in the United miscegenation laws, as didStates after the Civil War with the several new free states, includingeffect of limiting the civil rights and civil Indiana, Illinois and Michigan.liberties of blacks.
The North’s Reaction Outrage over Black Slave codes After 1866 the South was put under military rule. Mass support for abolition, but some still didn’t believe in equal black rights. Black men were okay to vote, but not women. European Immigrants given first dibs in the labor force. Leading to the beginning of Segregation and the early beginnings of the Jim Crow Laws (they should be free, but I don’t really want to drink from the same water fountain or sit next to them in a restaurant, ya know?)
Enter Jim Crow Laws and Segregation Who’s Jim• Blacks had little legal recourse Crow against these assaults because anyway? the Jim Crow criminal justice system was all-white: Jim Crow police, prosecutors, judges, juri was the es, and prison officials. name of the racial caste• Violence was instrumental for system Jim Crow. It was a method of which social control. The most operated extreme forms of Jim Crow primarily, but violence were lynchings. not Almost all of which occurred in exclusively in southern Af. American communities. and border http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/what.htm states, betw een 1877 and the mid-
Plessy vs. FergusonThe Story: Result: On June 7, 1892, 30-year-old Homer The Plessy decision set the Plessy was jailed for sitting in the precedent that "separate" "White" car of the East Louisiana facilities for blacks and whites Railroad. Plessy could easily pass for were constitutional as long as white but under Louisiana law, he was considered black despite his light they were "equal." complexion and therefore required to The "separate but equal" doctrine sit in the "Colored" car. When was quickly extended to cover Louisiana passed the Separate Car many areas of public life, such as Act, legally segregating common restaurants, theaters, restrooms, a carriers in 1892, a black civil rights nd public schools. The doctrine organization decided to challenge the law in the courts. was a fiction, as facilities for blacks were always inferior to those for Plessy deliberately sat in the white whites. section and identified himself as black. He was arrested and the case Not until 1954, in the equally went all the way to the United States important Brown v. Board of Supreme Court. Plessys lawyer Education of Topeka, would the argued that the Separate Car Act "separate but equal" doctrine be
African American Literature: In the mid-19th early 20th centuries
Literary Elements during Reconstruction Used to confirm and manifest creativity and genius Documenting and shaping social, political, and spiritual aspirations and conditions. As with the past- literature influencing public attitudes by using narratives/personal testimony/biographies/memoirs. Championed rugged individualism and successful transcendence characterized both the American dream—convincing blacks to buy into it. Combined capitalist possibilities with strong spirit of community and mutual effort that typified social, political, and religious sentiments of the time. Concentrated on lessons learned from slavery and progress after emancipation.--- as models for present and blueprints for a better future. Some studies of those who endured trials but experienced triumph assuaged the fears of whites and others who worried about revenge against or dependency on them. Some biographies were to show white readers blacks were capable of contributing to the rebuilding of the nation and to instruct other African Americans of the way to a more satisfying future—to elevate them or raise them up. National African American Press was created and gave many Black writers the opportunity the addition of publishing poems, letters, essays for writing contest or otherwise. This is where the majority of Af. Am. Writers were published first and most frequently.
Booker T., where do you fit in? The focus of Washington’s1856-1915 philosophy at Tuskegee, his answer to post-slavery life was Industrial Education and economicHe began advancement. He also believed inwork at the accommodation of southern whiteTuskegee supremacy, an emphasis on racialInstitute pride, solidarity, and self. He said:1881during "My plan was for them to see nota time of only the utility of labor but itsrapidly beauty and dignity. They would bedisappearing taught how to lift labor up frominterracial drudgery and toil and would learncooperation. to love work for its own sake. We wanted them to return to the plantation districts and show people there how to put new energy and new ideas into farming
ATLANTA COMPROMISE Atlanta Compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities The ATLANTA COMPROMISE earned him the name “the Great Compromiser” Washington was the architect of the Atlanta Compromise, an unwritten deal he struck in 1895 with Southern white leaders who had taken over government after the failure of Reconstruction. The agreement provided that Southern blacks would submit to discrimination, segregation, lack of voting rights, and non-unionized employment; that Southern whites would permit blacks to receive a basic education, some economic opportunities, and justice within the legal system; and that Northern whites would invest in Southern enterprises and fund black educational charities.
Up From Slavery (1901) That Up From Slavery was “a demonstration of the good a black man could do for himself and his people if given a chance to obtain and education and engage in useful, productive work.” Emphasizes racial pride, solidarity, and self- help. Popular with whites, because he masked his personal and social agenda with "folksy” and “unassuming" storytelling. Has an inspirational tone, lucidity of style, constructive contribution to racial problems in the South. Washington labels some scornfully as “intellectuals” who doubted his overall approach to race relations in the South The impact of slavery and significance of race on the prospects of African Americans creates a double-edged interpretation.
Discussion The school is got emphasis What is Washington’s on vocational training and central/overall point? manual labor and the school What does he suggest African didn’t challenge segregation- American’s do to raise themselves instead founded on thrift, hard up? work, self-reliance, and patience and emphasized How does the mood contribute to “cast down your bucket where the readers understanding of you are.” What’s that mean? Booker T’s ideas? Why is it important to What are some common themes Washington’s Philosophy or discussed and where are some overall point? places where these themes occur He thought it was important in the text? for blacks to share “privileges What is the climax of the story? of the law”- but to “be Who might we consider to be the PREPARED for the exercise antagonist of the story? of those privileges.”---- what did this imply? In what way do the minor characters influence Washington’s ideas and philosophies at Tuskegee?