Cultural clashes Period 5


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Cultural clashes Period 5

  1. 1. By: Gabriel Dorame Lucy Lopez Karleigh Palmeter
  2. 2. The Red Scare <ul><li>The Red Scare </li></ul><ul><li>The end of the fighting in Europe brought a great scare in the United States. There was fear of anarchists, communists and immigrants. The word &quot;Red&quot; has long been associated with the Communists and Socialists. </li></ul><ul><li>The growing Communist influence became known as the &quot;Red Menace.&quot; Race riots in several dozen cities led to the deaths and injury of hundreds during the summer. The fear of communism rapidly increased when numerous of strikes occurred in 1919. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitchell Palmer, Woodrow Wilson’s Attorney- General, lead a campaign against the communists. The police of Boston went on strike with him and 100,000’s of steel and coal workers did the same. </li></ul><ul><li>On New Year’s Day, 1920, over 6000 people were arrested and put in prison. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Palmer Raids <ul><li>The Attorney-General A. Mitchell Palmer was strongly against the “reds” and led raids later known as the Palmer Raids which arrested and deported many people. Palmer believed that there were Communist Agents who wanted to overthrow the American government. </li></ul><ul><li>With John Edgar Hoover as his assistant, both men teamed up to launch a campaign against radicals. On November 7, 1919 over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists were arrested. Most of them were deported to Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>On January 2nd, 1920 another 6,000 were arrested even though Palmer and Hoover found no evidence of a red revolution by these suspects. Palmer claimed that on May 1st there would be a communist revolution but when it failed, people’s minds about Palmer began to change. They believed he used the Red Scare just for his presidential campaign in 1920. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Immigration Restriction vs. Golden Door <ul><li>During Warren G. Harding’s presidency, This Quota Law was passed. It kept all of the existing restrictions on about 350,000 immigrants outside of the Western Hemisphere. This would be known as one of the first immigration restrictions in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the Johnson-Reed Act of 1924 limited the total European immigration to 150,000 per year. This reduced immigration from many regions. With immigration restriction, it led to the guarding of the golden door. </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Door- “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore, Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me: I lift my lamp beside the golden door.” </li></ul><ul><li>These words were written by Emma Lazarus in 1883 to honor the Statue of Liberty The golden door which was the harbor of New York City was open to thousands of European immigrants. </li></ul><ul><li>This quote created a romanticized view of immigration. The Golden door was what immigrants believed, but the immigration restriction was the harsh reality. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Traditional moral values versus modernists <ul><li>Scopes Trial : Tennessee law forbid the teaching of evolution and only accepted the creation of man as taught in the bible.  -this trial was important to the modernists because Scopes attorney, Clarence Darrow, made Bryan's defense of biblical truth seem foolish. Darrow tricked Bryan into admitting that not all religious beliefs have one interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibition- </li></ul>
  6. 6. New Women versus Victorian values <ul><li>-the women of the 1920's believed it wasn't necessary to maintain the old Victorian morals of respectability - the new woman became known as a &quot;Flapper&quot; - the modern women whose liberated lifestyle was expressed through dress, hairstyle, speech, and behavior - the flapper lifestyle attracted lower middle class and working class in search of excitement and companionship The flappers challenged the traditional expectations of women </li></ul>
  7. 7. Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>Nativism helped instigate the rebirth of the Klu Klux Klan as a major force in American society. In 1915, another group of white southerners met on Stone Mountain near Atlanta and established a new version of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Was largely concerned with intimidating African Americans, but the concern became secondary after World War I. More concern on Catholics, Jews, and foreigners. </li></ul><ul><li>Grew in industrial cities in the North and Midwest. Klan feared anyone who posed a challenge to “traditional values” Persecuted those white protestants they considered guilty of irreligion, sexual promiscuity, and drunkenness. </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced prohibition; attempted to institute compulsory Bible readings in schools; and worked to punish divorce. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Garveyism <ul><li>“ Garveyism” is the term used to describe the body of thought and organizational activities associated with Marcus Mosiah Garvey of Jamaica. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1914, Garvey organized the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (the UNIA). Inspired a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>The goals and principles appealed mainly to segments of the working class who sought a clearer identity along racial lines as well as a means to express their African heritage and ancestry. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Growth of Suburbs <ul><li>The first suburbs developed along the train and trolley line. People were able to live outside the cities and were still able to travel into the city to work. </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Ford was a big reason for the growth of suburbs because families were able to afford a car and more people could go to and from home and work everyday. Also the development of the interstate Highway system further encouraged suburban growth. </li></ul><ul><li>After World War II, suburban areas increased rapidly because of the economic boom following World War II and the need for housing for returning veterans </li></ul>
  10. 10. Migration of African Americans <ul><li>After the Civil War ended most blacks lived in the rural areas of the South </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1915 and 1920, at least 500,000 blacks migrated North. </li></ul><ul><li>Falling cotton prices brought an economic depression across the South. Also suffered under the “Jim Crow” laws- were segregated, were not allowed to vote (required literacy test) and a poll tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Northern industries were going through an economic boom, especially as the war in Europe began creating a demand for war goods. Those industries could no longer rely on new immigrants from Europe to fill the jobs. The war had limited immigration from Europe. When America got into the war, many young white men (and some young black men) were recruited into the military, leaving their old jobs open. Salaries were higher in the North. Wages in the South ranged from 50 cents to $2 a day. In the North, workers could make between $2 and $5 a day. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sacco and Vancetti <ul><li>On 15th April, 1920, Frederick Parmenter and Alessandro Berardelli, in South Braintree were shot dead while carrying two boxes containing the payroll of a shoe factory. After the two robbers took the $15,000 they got into a car containing several other men and were driven away. </li></ul><ul><li>A large number of Italian immigrants were questioned but eventually the authorities decided to charge Bartolomeo Vancetti and Nicola Sacco with the murders. </li></ul><ul><li>The main evidence against the men was that they were both carrying a gun when arrested. </li></ul><ul><li>Others disagreed and both men had good alibis. Vanzetti was selling fish in Plymouth while Sacco was in Boston with his wife having his photograph taken. The prosecution made a great deal of the fact that all those called to provide evidence to support these alibis were also Italian immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Many observers believed that their conviction resulted from prejudice against them as Italian immigrants and because they held radical political beliefs. The case resulted in anti-US demonstrations in several European countries and at one of these in Paris, a bomb exploded killing twenty people. </li></ul>