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Should Bulgaria Concentrate On Nuclear Power As Its

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  • 1. Should Bulgaria Concentrate on Nuclear Power as its Main Future Energy Source? By Veselka Dimitrova
  • 2. Content:
    • Introduction.
    • The Global Trend.
    • The International Attitude.
    • The Bulgarian Case.
    • Why Nuclear Power:
      • Effectiveness.
      • Carbon Dioxide Emissions.
      • The Land factor.
      • General Effect on the Environment.
      • Radioactive waste.
    • Conclusion.
    • References.
  • 3. Introduction:
    • Under the unstable condition in the energy sector the nuclear energy could be the answer we are waiting for, not only in Bulgaria but world-wide.
  • 4. The Global Trend:
    • The demand for energy will increase with 50% until 2050 and in the following decades with 75% more.
    • Currently, on the globe there are approximately 440 nuclear power plants (NNP) and 30 more are under development.
    Source: IAEA, n.d. and Schulz, 2006
  • 5. The International Attitude: Source: IAEA, n.d. Country: Number of NNPs: Percentage of the total demand: France 59 80% USA 103 19% Japan 55 + 1 under construction 30%
  • 6. The Bulgarian Case:
  • 7. The Bulgarian Case (2): Source: Ministry of Economy and Energy, 2008 A Number of Working reactors: Population i n millions: Gross consumption w ithin the country In thousands: Produced energy in Bulgaria in thousands: Coefficient of energy dependency in percentage: 2 7,68 20 637 11 011 46,60 % Note: The estimation was made in 2006
  • 8. Why Nuclear Power:
    • There are several factor that will be considered under this section:
      • Effectiveness.
      • Carbon Dioxide Emissions.
      • The Land factor.
      • General Effect on the Environment.
      • Radioactive waste.
  • 9. Effectiveness:
    • The energy produced by one gram uranium equals the energy produced by four tones of coals.
    • A package of fuel rods is enough to supply New York City with energy for one year.
    • The price is relatively cheaper and independent from market uncertainties.
    Source: Schulz, 2006
  • 10. Carbon Dioxide Emissions:
    • The EU policy aims at lowering the levels of CO 2 emissions with 20% until 2020 with basic year 1990.
    • Emissions of a gram CO 2 per kWh:
      • Nuclear: 4 grams
      • Wind and water: 8 grams
      • Geothermal: 79 grams
      • Gas: more than 400 grams
      • Oil: approx. 830 grams
      • Coal: about 1,000 grams
    Source: Hodgson, 2008 and Ministry of Economy and Energy, 2008 B
  • 11. The Land factor:
    • Land necessary for energy project in square meter per megawatt:
      • Nuclear: 630
      • Oil: 900
      • Gas: 1,500
      • Coal: 2,000
      • Solar: near to 2,000,000
    Source: Hodgson, 2008
  • 12. General Effect on the Environment:
    • Radioactivity is emitted during almost any process that produces energy.
    • The radioactivity emitted per gigawatt for the different processes are:
    • Coal: 4.0
    • Nuclear: 2.5
    • Geothermal and peat: 2.0
    • Oil: less than 1.0
    • Gas: 0.03
    Source: Hodgson, 2008
  • 13. Radioactive waste:
    • Three types of radioactive waste:
      • High-level
      • Intermediate-level
      • Low-level
    • A nuclear reactor generates the following quantities of radioactive waste in cubic meters per year:
      • High-level: 4
      • Intermediate-level: 100
      • Low-level: 500
    Source: Hodgson, 2008
  • 14. Radioactive waste (2):
    • Currently, the technology used for low and intermediate radioactive waste deals with the matter effectively.
    • All the waste produced from NNPs for all the years of their exploitation could be collected on a football field, which will be deeper less than 10 feet.
    Source: Wolf, 1996
  • 15. Radioactive waste (3):
    • Possible solutions to the problem with high-level radioactive waste:
      • Stable geological structures such as the Yucca Mountain, Nevada and deserts.
      • Alteration in the technology: substitution of the fuel rods with graphite balls, which will be used completely.
    Source: Schulz, 2006 and Wolfe, 1996
  • 16. Conclusion:
    • Nuclear energy is a good choice in the Bulgarian case. Then a stable and independent economy will be developed as a result of the strong Bulgarian policies in the energy sector.
  • 17. Thank you for your attention!!!
  • 18. References:
    • Hodgson, P. (2008) Nuclear Power and the Energy Crisis. Modern Age, Vol. 50 Issue 3, p238-246, 9p . Retrieved July 20, 2009, from Education Research Complete Database.
    • International Atomic Energy Agency. (2007, October 23) Nuclear Power Worldwide: Status and Outlook. A report from the IAEA. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/PressReleases/2007/prn200719.html
    • Ministry of Economy and Energy. (2008 A, August) Bulletin for the condition and the development of the energy sector in Republic Bulgaria. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from http://www.mee.government.bg/doc_vop/Buletin_Energy_08_2008.pdf
    • Ministry of Economy and Energy. (2008 B, November) Project for Energy Strategy of Bulgaria until 2020 Retrieved July 21, 2009, from http://www.mi.government.bg/energy/energy/docs.html?id=252405
    • Schulz, M. (2006). Nuclear Power Is the Future. Wilson Quarterly , 30 (4), 59-63. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from Academic Search Premier Database.
    • Wolfe, B. (1996, November 1). Why environmentalists should promote nuclear energy. Vital Speeches of the Day , 63 (2), 52-56. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from Academic Search Premier Database.