ITP March 2013 - Karen Hiestand - Feline Infectious Diseases


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  • Non Governmental organisation,
  • ITP March 2013 - Karen Hiestand - Feline Infectious Diseases

    1. 1. Feline InfectiousDisease ControlKaren Hiestand BVSc MRCVS Field Veterinary Officer Reg Charity 203644 (England and Wales) and SCO37711 (Scotland)
    2. 2. Cats ProtectionWhat Do We Do? •UK only charityEducation •Public •Veterinary ProfessionNeutering •Early Neutering •Financial assistance •FeralsRehoming •Reuniting owned animals •Accepting strays and handed in cats •Rehabilitate and rehome
    3. 3. Todays Talk - OverviewWhy are infectious diseases a problem?A few specific cases Cat ‘flu Feline Parvovirus Ringworm FeLV FIVHow we contain disease
    4. 4. Why do cats in shelters get sick?Immune System!!!StressHost susceptibilityTransient populationDifferent bugs from different placesShelter environment factorsPopulation density
    5. 5. Cat ‘fluWhat is it?Feline herpesvirus (FHV)Feline calicivirus (FCV)Chlamydophila felisBordetella bronchiseptica
    6. 6. Cat ‘fluClinical Signs Sneezing Runny nose and eyes Conjunctivitis High temperature Quiet and subdued Loss of appetite Dribbling A cough or loss of voice Gingivo-stomatitis Lameness
    7. 7. Feline herpesvirusFeline rhinotracheitis virusWho’s got herpes?Cats will be lifelong ‘carriers’ Virus shedding Shedding may last up to 14 days Virus survives in environment for only 18hrs
    8. 8. Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu Feline herpesvirus
    9. 9. Feline herpesvirus
    10. 10. Feline calicivirusConstantly mutates – clever!Virus survives in the environment for up to 10dCats can become ‘carriers’ 50% still shedding 75 days after infection Most cats stop shedding 1 year after infection Some will be lifelong carriers - without symptoms!20-30% of cat population estimated to be shedding
    11. 11. Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu Feline calicivirus
    12. 12. Feline calicivirus (VSD)New strain known as ‘Virulent Systemic Disease’ Swelling of head and paws Flu signs Jaundice Bleeding from nose and bowel DeathAll ages can get itEven Vaccinated cats
    13. 13. ChlamydophilosisA bacteriaSo likes to piggy back on virusesGot to treat it right or it sticks aroundEasy to kill in environmentSpread by direct contact only
    14. 14. Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu Feline chlamydophilosis
    15. 15. Cat ‘flu What do you do?? VACCINATEIsolate and barrier nurseGood nursing careCan’t kill the virusAntibiotics for secondaryinfectionsDecongestants
    16. 16. Feline ParvovirusAlso known as:parvoenteritispanleucopeniaWhat is it?VirusBad news
    17. 17. Feline ParvovirusClinical SignsSudden death with nosignsLack of appetiteHigh temperatureWeight lossSevere vomitingSevere diarrhoea withblood and mucusDehydration
    18. 18. Feline ParvovirusGreatest disease threat to any rescue facilityVery high death rate, particularly in unvaccinated kittens
    19. 19. Feline ParvovirusDiagnosisKitten post mortemBlood testFaecal sample
    20. 20. Feline Parvovirus What do you do? VACCINATEIsolate and barrier nurseGood nursing careCan’t kill a virusOral fluidsAntibiotics for secondary infectionsVaccinate in face of outbreakUse the right disinfectants
    21. 21. Infectious Diseases - Ringworm
    22. 22. RingwormWhat is it?A fungus known as a dermatophyteIt’s not gonna kill anyone, so why is it a big problem?
    23. 23. RingwormClinical SignsHair lossCrusting and scalingItchingCan mimic other skin diseasesCan look like anything – or nothing
    24. 24. Infectious Diseases - Ringworm
    26. 26. RingwormDiagnosisWoods lampHair culture
    27. 27. RingwormWhat do you do?Isolate and barrier nurse: sporesOral medication  Itraconazole (Itrafungol; Janssen) for 5 week courseTopical treatments  Miconazole shampoo (Malaseb; VetXX), Enilconazole (Imaverol; Janssen), Lime sulphurIf long haired may need clippingUse the right disinfectants
    28. 28. RingwormCP says: 2 CLEAR CULTURES BEFORE HOMINGThings to Remember:Ringworm spores can survive up to 2 yearsAppropriate disinfectants are: Bleach or Virkon (Peroxygen compound)Steam cleaning
    29. 29. FeLV & FIVWhat are they? Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV) Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)How are they spread between cats?How are they diagnosed?What is the quality of life for infected cats like?What is the long term outlook for infected cats?
    30. 30. Transmission of FeLV & FIVFeLV FIVMating/Fighting Mating/FightingMutual grooming Less easy to transmitSharing food/water Approx. a third ofbowls kittens of FIV positiveAll kittens of FeLV queen will be infectedpositive queen will beinfected
    31. 31. Signs of FeLV & FIV FeLV FIVCan’t fight off other diseases Can’t fight off other diseasesHigh temperature High temperatureWeight loss Weight lossLethargy LethargyCancerous tumours GingivitisAnaemia Anything else you canUsually young-middle aged imagine!cats
    32. 32. Diagnosis•Who to test?•Do you test any?•What’s the prevalence in your area?Some suggested ‘at risk’ categories:Sick catsIntact adultsKittens of FIV positive queensOrphan kittensFeral/Stray catsCats going communal areaAnything vet suspicious of – clinical signsIn contact catsBefore spending lots of money
    33. 33. Difficult Decisions What are you going to do with results?Euthanaise positives?Rehome?
    34. 34. Quality of Life: FeLV & FIVFeLV FIV85% of infected cats die CP home them: must bewithin 3 years of infection so healthy and suitable indoorCP policy is euthanasia home onlyVery low incidence of this Can live a long timedisease in UK Euthanasia for positiveVaccination available ferals and sick cats, and those that won’t enjoy life indoors No vaccine available in UK
    35. 35. CONTAINING DISEASEWhy know about thebugs??What’s a Fomite?We are the major sourceof infection transmission!!
    36. 36. Containing DiseasePersonal Protective Equipment Apron Gloves Oversuit Sleeves Overshoes Hat or hood on oversuit Mask? Goggles?Idea is all items should be disposable
    37. 37. Containing Disease The 10 Commandments1. Understand the disease you’re fighting2. Use a disinfectant that is effective against the disease.3. Deal with infectious cats last4. Wear and use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)5. Use footbaths6. Have separate cleaning utensils per cat7. Use disposable litter trays and food bowls or return trays and bowls to same cat8. Use disposable bedding or soak in disinfectant before washing on hot cycle9. Wash contaminated bedding last and separate from other bedding10. Use knowledge of bug to decide what to do with environment
    38. 38. Thank You!