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ICAWC 2011: Rachel Dean and Jenny Stavisky - Feline and Canine Infectious Diseases

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From the University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, covering infectious diseases and vaccination for dogs and cats.

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ICAWC 2011: Rachel Dean and Jenny Stavisky - Feline and Canine Infectious Diseases

  1. 1. Infectious diseases and vaccination in cats and dogs Rachel Dean and Jenny Stavisky
  2. 2. Introductions <ul><li>Rachel </li></ul><ul><li>Jenny </li></ul>
  3. 3. What we do.... <ul><li>Visit </li></ul><ul><li>Teach </li></ul><ul><li>Help </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Plan <ul><li>Principles of disease prevention & control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bug, Host, Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent, Protect, Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parvovirus in dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parvovirus in cats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat flu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennel cough </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. The problem <ul><li>Lots of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of bugs </li></ul><ul><li>Stressful environment </li></ul><ul><li>Bugs are cleverer than we are </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal future: </li></ul><ul><li>no overpopulation + responsible pet ownership = no shelters </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Infectious diseases common in shelters </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by a variety of ‘bugs’ </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms.... </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses probably the biggest problem </li></ul>Infectious diseases
  7. 7. <ul><li>Bug </li></ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>Relationships
  8. 8. The Bug <ul><li>Which one(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Which animals are affected </li></ul><ul><li>How easily it’s transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>How well it survives in the environment </li></ul>Bug
  9. 9. The Host <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy/ birth </li></ul><ul><li>Stress (physical or psychological) </li></ul><ul><li>Immunity (vaccination) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Environment <ul><li>Contact between animals </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of FOMITES </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene – cleaning, surfaces, drains, bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of quarantine/ isolation </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Bug </li></ul><ul><li>Host </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul>Relationships DISEASE
  12. 12. Three Part Strategy <ul><li>PREVENT </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECT </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL </li></ul>
  13. 13. PREVENT <ul><li>Are the animals in a healthy environment? </li></ul>
  14. 15. PREVENT <ul><li>Are the animals in a healthy environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and changes in diet </li></ul>
  15. 17. PREVENT <ul><li>Are the animals in a healthy environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and changes in diet </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul>
  16. 19. PREVENT <ul><li>Are the animals in a healthy environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and changes in diet </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Most vulnerable animals </li></ul>
  17. 21. PREVENT <ul><li>Are the animals in a healthy environment? </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and changes in diet </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Most vulnerable animals </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul>
  18. 22. PROTECT <ul><li>Quarantine facilities for new arrivals </li></ul>
  19. 24. PROTECT <ul><li>Quarantine facilities for new arrivals </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate! </li></ul>
  20. 25. What is a vaccine? <ul><li>Similar to natural infection </li></ul><ul><li>Immune system responds to the vaccine and protects the animal for a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>The body remembers </li></ul>
  21. 26. Types of vaccine <ul><li>Lots of different types </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination is safer than natural infection </li></ul>
  22. 27. Expectations <ul><li>Nothing can stop an animal meeting a bug </li></ul><ul><li>Some vaccines stop clinical disease and shedding of virus – canine parvovirus </li></ul><ul><li>Some vaccines reduce clinical disease and shedding of virus – cat flu </li></ul>
  23. 28. PROTECT
  24. 29. PROTECT <ul><li>At least two vaccines when they start their vaccines </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate as soon as possible after entering the shelter </li></ul>
  25. 30. PROTECT <ul><li>Quarantine facilities for new arrivals </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate! </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate at the right age </li></ul>
  26. 31. Can be too young
  27. 32. Exception to the rule <ul><li>Poor start in life </li></ul><ul><li>High risk </li></ul>
  28. 33. Never too old
  29. 34. PROTECT <ul><li>Quarantine facilities for new arrivals </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate! </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate at the right age </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate sick animals </li></ul>
  30. 36. PROTECT <ul><li>Quarantine facilities for new arrivals </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate! </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate at the right time </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate sick animals </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid spread of disease </li></ul>
  31. 38. PREVENT
  32. 39. CONTROL <ul><li>Recognise a problem early </li></ul>
  33. 40. CONTROL <ul><li>Recognise a problem early </li></ul><ul><li>Get EVERYONE involved </li></ul>
  34. 41. CONTROL <ul><li>Recognise a problem early </li></ul><ul><li>Get EVERYONE involved </li></ul><ul><li>Shut the area/shelter </li></ul>
  35. 43. CONTROL <ul><li>Recognise a problem early </li></ul><ul><li>Get EVERYONE involved </li></ul><ul><li>Shut the area/shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Euthanasia </li></ul>
  36. 44. CONTROL
  37. 45. Think <ul><li>PREVENT </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECT </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL </li></ul>
  38. 46. Teamwork! <ul><li>eds_catherding_low.MPG </li></ul>
  39. 47. The Plan <ul><li>Principles of disease prevention & control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bug, Host, Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent, Protect, Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infectious diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parvovirus in dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parvovirus in cats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat flu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kennel cough </li></ul></ul>
  40. 48. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>The bug </li></ul><ul><li>Small virus </li></ul><ul><li>Very hardy and difficult to kill </li></ul><ul><li>Faecal-oral transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Likes rapidly dividing cells </li></ul>
  41. 49. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>The host </li></ul><ul><li>Puppies </li></ul><ul><li>At time of weaning </li></ul><ul><li>Change of diet, stress, disease </li></ul>Canine parvovirus (and other causes of diarrhoea)
  42. 50. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>The environment </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of lots of virus </li></ul><ul><li>Other diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul>Canine parvovirus (and other causes of diarrhoea)
  43. 51. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>The disease </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhoea, often bloody </li></ul><ul><li>Vomiting </li></ul><ul><li>Miserable and lethargic </li></ul><ul><li>Dead litters </li></ul>
  44. 52. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>Prevent </li></ul><ul><li>Most vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>Foster pregnant bitches and litters </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene </li></ul>
  45. 53. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>Protect </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose of faeces </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate where possible </li></ul><ul><li>Staff for isolation/clean last </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinate </li></ul>Canine parvovirus (and other causes of diarrhoea)
  46. 54. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>The vaccine works well </li></ul><ul><li>Stops disease and shedding </li></ul><ul><li>When and how frequently you give it will depend on the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Pups get immunity directly from mother’s milk – maternal antibody </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal antibody protects pups BUT interferes with vaccine </li></ul>
  47. 55. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>Maternal antibody gives protection in first weeks of life </li></ul><ul><li>Amount depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Immunity of mum </li></ul><ul><li>Mum’s milk production </li></ul><ul><li>How much puppy suckles </li></ul>
  48. 56. Age of pup (weeks) 0 4 8 12 16 Maternal antibody level PREVENT
  49. 57. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>If in doubt vaccinate </li></ul><ul><li>Start early and finish late! </li></ul>
  50. 58. Canine parvovirus <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Be suspicious early </li></ul><ul><li>Alert your vet </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene very important </li></ul><ul><li>Euthanasia </li></ul>Canine parvovirus (and other causes of diarrhoea)
  51. 59. Feline parvovirus <ul><li>= Feline Panleukopenia </li></ul><ul><li>= Feline Infectious Enteritis </li></ul>
  52. 60. Feline Parvovirus <ul><li>The bug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very similar to the dog </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can spread to dogs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The host </li></ul><ul><li>3. The environment </li></ul>
  53. 61. Special cases <ul><li>wobblycat.avi </li></ul>
  54. 62. Feline Parvovirus <ul><li>Prevent </li></ul><ul><li>Protect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination is very good </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISOLATE! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Euthanasia? </li></ul></ul>
  55. 63. Cat flu <ul><li>The bug(s) </li></ul><ul><li>There are lots of them – viruses and bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Cat-cat spread </li></ul><ul><li>Some are very good at living outside the body – FOMITES </li></ul><ul><li>Can be infected with no signs – ‘Carriers’ </li></ul><ul><li>Latent infection </li></ul>
  56. 64. Cat flu <ul><li>2. The host </li></ul><ul><li>Kittens are very vulnerable (> 6 weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Adults can get ill too </li></ul>
  57. 69. Cat flu <ul><li>3. The environment </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of bugs and lots of cats </li></ul><ul><li>Bugs survive well outside the cat </li></ul><ul><li>Carriers </li></ul>
  58. 70. Cat flu <ul><li>3. The environment </li></ul><ul><li>Stress makes it worse </li></ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul>
  59. 71. Cat flu <ul><li>PREVENT </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul>
  60. 72. Cat flu <ul><li>2. PROTECT </li></ul><ul><li>Keep quarantined until vaccinated </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul><ul><li>reduces amount of disease/virus </li></ul><ul><li>does not prevent infection </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate cats with flu </li></ul>
  61. 73. Cat flu <ul><li>3. CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>After infection takes time to see disease </li></ul><ul><li>One sneeze = TROUBLE! </li></ul><ul><li>Call your vet </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate </li></ul><ul><li>Clean </li></ul>
  62. 74. Kennel cough <ul><li>1. Bug </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of bugs </li></ul><ul><li>2. Host </li></ul><ul><li>Most dogs </li></ul><ul><li>3. Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Many kennels </li></ul>
  63. 75. Kennel cough <ul><li>kennel cough.avi </li></ul>
  64. 76. Kennel cough <ul><li>Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Snotty noses </li></ul><ul><li>Some mildly ill </li></ul><ul><li>Few very ill </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul>Kennel cough
  65. 77. Kennel cough <ul><li>1. Prevent </li></ul><ul><li>Quarantine new dogs </li></ul><ul><li>2. Protect </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines may help </li></ul><ul><li>3. Control </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate </li></ul><ul><li>Fomites! </li></ul><ul><li>Cats/humans </li></ul>Kennel cough
  66. 78. Think <ul><li>PREVENT </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECT </li></ul><ul><li>CONTROL </li></ul>
  67. 79. Thank you <ul><li>Centre for Evidence based Veterinary Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>School of Veterinary Medicine and Science </li></ul><ul><li>ICAWC </li></ul><ul><li>Shelters and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Brigita </li></ul>

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