—Rebecca Self, Chaparral, New Mexico. Today's Christian Woman, "Heart to Heart."
The Bible, An Introduction To The Bible In Five
Sagano Bamboo Grove – Japan
The Bible What is it? What’s it about? Why study it?The Bible is the Word of God!
Bibliology• Bibliology is a whole semester course• Bibliology is a lifetime study• Bibliology is essential for Bible understanding• Copyright by Norman L. Geisler 2009• Copyright by Norman L. Geisler 2008• Copyright by Norman L. Geisler 2005• Many of the following slides were copied or edited by David L. Kooyers, 8-2012
The Bible:The Bible is a co-authored book. a. God is the primary author; b. Men of God were the secondary authors. c. The result is that one and the same set of words are both God’s and man’s.So, whatever God said in Scripture, they said. Andwhatever they said, God said.
The Source of Inspiration 1. Who? God 2. How? By Revelation 3. When? 1500 B.C. to A.D. 100
How God Spoke to the Prophets1. By angels (Gen. 18, 19)2. By dreams (Dan. 7:1; cf. Num. 12:6)3. By visions (Isa.1:1; Ezek. 1:1; 8:3; 11:24; 43:3; cf. Hosea 12:10)4. By miracles (Ex. 3:2; Jud. 6:37;Jonah 1:1; 4:6)5. By nature (Psa. 19:1)6. By an audible voice (1 Sam. 3:4)7. By an inner voice (Hosea 1:1; Joel 1:1 etc.)8. By the Urim and Thummim (Ex. 28:30; Num. 27:21)9. By casting lots (Prov. 16:33)10. By other prophetic writings (Dan. 9:1-2)
A. The Source of InspirationB. The Means of Inspiration 1. Men of God Heb. 1:1.--“God who at various times and in different ways spoke in time past to the fathers by the prophets.” Zech. 7:12.--“They made their hearts like flint, refusing to hear the law and the words which the Lord of hosts had sent by His Spirit through the former prophets.” 2 Peter 1:21.—“For prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.”
The Bible is 100% Human1. It was written by human beings (about 40 of them).2. It was written in human languages (Hebrew & Greek).3. It has human literary styles (poetry, prose & history)4. It has Human literary forms (parables, metaphors, similes, symbols & hyperboles).5. It reflects different human thought patterns (logical, practical, a memory lapse).6. It reveals human emotions (weeping, rejoicing, and anger).7. It has specific human interests (medical, herdsman, shepherd, and nature).8. It expresses human culture (kissing, foot washing, veils, and reclining at meals).9. It utilizes other written human sources (Jasher-- Josh. 10, Wars of the Lord—Num. 21:14, pagan poets (Acts 17:28, 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12).10. It reflects human limitations (matter, space, & time).
How God Spoke to the Prophets How God Spoke through the ProphetsMoses:—“Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord.” (Ex. 24:4). I will put My words in his mouth, and he shall speak to them all that I command him” (Deut. 18:18).Isaiah:—“Take for yourself a large tablet and write” (Isa. 8:1).David: “The Spirit of the Lord speaks by me; his word is on my tongue” (2 Sam. 23:2).Micaiah: “As the Lord lives, what the Lord says to me, that I will speak” (1Kings 22:14).Zechariah: He spoke of “the law and the words which the Lord of hosts had sent by His Spirit through the former prophets” (Zech. 7:12).Paul: “…you accepted it not as the word of men but as what it really is, the word of God” (1 Thes. 2:13).Peter: “For prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit” (2 Peter 1:21).
2 Pet 1:21, Men Moved By The Holy Spirit • 2 Peter 1:21 for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God. • present passive • Acts 27:15 and when the ship was caught in it and could not face the wind, we gave way to it and let ourselves be driven along.
The Process of InspirationThe Fact: The Bible is co-authored: God is the primary author Men of God are the secondary authors.The Means: What it is not—It is not verbal dictation (Different styles, vocabularies, and interests are reflected). What it is—Providential guidance “For prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved *driven, carried along+ by the Holy Spirit” (2 Peter 1:21).The Prophetic Model: 1. Not merely a prompter (of ideas); 2. Not a secretary (receiving dictation of words); 3. But like a teacher (implanting the exact meaning) and a co- author of a book (concurring in the written expression of it).
Inspiration Is…• God’s sovereign, supernatural, superintendence of every aspect of the prophets lives• To the extent that their vocabulary, language, writing style, personality, and circumstances• Are so sovereignly superintended by God that He can call what the prophets wrote as His word.
A. The Source of InspirationB. The Means of InspirationC. The Nature of Inspiration 1. A Prophetic Writing 2. The Written Word of God 3. What the Bible Says, God Says
What Scripture Says, God SaysGOD SAYS... SCRIPTURE SAYS…Gen. 12:3 Gal. 3:8Ex. 9:16 Rom. 9:17SCRIPTURE SAYS… GOD SAYS…Gen. 2:24 Matt. 19:4-5Psa. 2:1 Acts 4:24-25Psa. 2:7 Heb. 1:5Psa. 16:10 Acts 13:35Psa. 95:7 Heb. 3:7Psa. 97:7 Heb. 1:6Psa. 104:4 Heb. 1:7Isa. 55:3 Acts 13:34There is an interchangeability between the two.
What Scripture Says, God SaysScripture Says in Psa. 2:1 … by the Holy Spirit, through the mouth of our father David… (Act 4:25 NAU)Scripture Says in Psa. 2:7 to which of the angels did He [God] ever say, "YOU ARE MY SON (Heb 1:5 NAU)Psalm 16:1 …of David… …he [God] saith also in another psalm… (Act 13:35Psalmist says, “For he is our Hebrews 3:7 Therefore, just as theGod “…Psa 95:7 Holy Spirit says…
What Scripture Says, God SaysGOD SAYS... SCRIPTURE SAYS… Gen. 12:3 Gal 3:8“Now the Lord “The Scripture…preachedsaid to Abram…” …to Abraham…saying”SCRIPTURE SAYS… GOD SAYS… Gen. 2:24 Matt. 19:4-5“*Author of Genesis+ “He *God+…said, ‘…a mansaid,…‘a man shall shall leave his father andleave his father and mother….’”mother….”’
The Result of Inspiration1. It is divinely authoritative (Mt. 4:4, 7, 10).2. It is imperishable (Mt. 5:17-18).3. It is infallible (Jn. 10:35).4. It is historically reliable (Mt. 12:40; Mt. 24:37).5. It is scientifically accurate (Mt. 19:4-5).6. It has ultimate supremacy (Mt. 15:3, 6).7. It is inerrant (without error) (Mt. 22:29).
It is infallible“If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom theword of God came—and the Scripturecannot be broken….” (John 10:35)
What Jesus & Apostles Affirmed about the OT1. Creation of the universe (Gen. 1) John 1:3; Col. 1:162. Creation of Adam and Eve (Gen. 1-2) 1 Tim. 2:13-143. Marriage of Adam and Eve (Gen. 1-2) 1 Tim. 2:134. Temptation of the woman (Gen. 3) 1 Tim. 2:145. Disobedience and sin of Adam (Gen. 3) Rom. 5:12; 1 Cor. 15:226. Sacrifices of Abel and Cain (Gen. 4) Heb. 11:47. Murder of Abel by Cain (Gen. 4) 1 John 3:128. Birth of Seth (Gen. 4) Luke 3:389. Translation of Enoch (Gen. 5) Heb. 11:510. Marriage before the flood (Gen. 6) Luke 17:2711. The flood and destruction of man (Gen. 7) Matt. 24:3912. Preservation of Noah and his family (Gen. 8-9) 2 Peter 2:513. Genealogy of Shem (Gen. 10) Luke 3:35-3614. Birth of Abraham (Gen. 11) Luke 3:3415. Call of Abraham (Gen. 12-13) Heb. 11:816. Tithes to Melchizedek (Gen. 14) Heb. 7:1-3
What Jesus & the Apostles Affirmed About the OT17. Justification of Abraham (Gen. 15) Rom. 4:318. Ishmael (Gen. 16) Gal. 4:21-2419. Promise of Isaac (Gen. 17) Heb. 11:1820. Lot and Sodom (Gen. 18-19) Luke 17:2921. Birth of Isaac (Gen. 21) Acts 7:9-1022. Offering of Isaac (Gen. 22) Heb. 11:1723. The burning bush (Ex. 3:6) Luke 20:3224. Exodus through the Red Sea (Ex. 14:22) 1 Cor. 10:1-225. Provision of water and manna (Ex. 16:4; 17:6) 1 Cor. 10:3-526. Lifting up serpent in wilderness (Num. 21:9) John 3:1427. Fall of Jericho (Joshua 6:22-25) Heb. 11:3028. Miracles of Elijah (1 Kings 17:1; 18:1) Jas. 5:1729. Jonah in the great fish (Jonah 2) Matt. 12:4030. Three Hebrew youths in furnace (Dan. 3) Heb. 11:3431. Daniel in lion’s den (Dan. 6) Heb. 11:3332. Slaying of Zechariah (2 Chron. 24:20-22) Matt. 23:35
It is inerrant (without error)Jesus replied: “You are in error because youdo not know the Scriptures or the power ofGod” (Matt. 22:29). “Thy Word is truth” (Jn.17:17).
A Writing from GodEx. 24:4.—“Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord.”Isa. 8:1.—Isaiah was told, “Take for yourself a large tablet and write.”Jer. 26:2.– Do “not omit a word.”2 Tim. 3:16.—“All Scripture [writing] is given by inspiration of God….”John 5:39.—“You search the Scriptures…and they speak of Me.”John 10:35.—“The Scripture cannot be broken.”1 Cor. 2:13.—“words…taught by the Holy Spirit.”Mat. 4:4, 7, 10.—“It is written…” (92x)Lk. 24:27.—“He expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning Himself.”Rev. 22:18.—Do not add to “the words of the book of this prophecy.”
A Bad Argument:1. The Bible is the words of human beings.2. Human beings err.3. Therefore, the Bible errs.
The Error:• Human beings do not always err. And…• Human beings did not err when moved by God who cannot err (2 Peter 1:20-21).• “God can draw a straight line with a crooked stick.”
More and Earlier NT Mss. # Manuscript Copies Time Gap in Years 25New Testament 5686 500 Homer 643 Demosthenes 1400 200 Herodotus 1400 8 Plato 1200 7 Tacitus 1000 20 Caesar 1000 10 Pliny 750 7 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
The Testimony of the ScrollsNoted Ms. Expert: Sir. Frederick Kenyon “The interval between the dates of original composition and the earliest extant evidence becomes so small as to be in fact negligible, and the last foundation for any doubt that the Scriptures have come down substantially as they were written has now been removed. Both the authenticity and the general integrity of the books of the New Testament may be regarded as finally established” (Kenyon, Bible and Archaeology, 288)
The Testimony of the ScrollsSir Frederick Kenyon’s Testimony“The number of mss. of the New Testament, of early translations from it, and of quotations from it in the oldest writers of the Church, is so large that it is practically certain that the true reading of every doubtful passage is preserved in some one or the other of these ancient authorities. This can be said of no other book in the world” (Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts, 55).
Translations Are Helpful• The old quotations from it…• My family was visiting a church and the minister announced they had both Spanish and English Bibles for use during the service. My youngest son tugged at my sleeve and whispered, "Mommy, I want one of those Spanish Bibles."• "Dont be silly, you cant read Spanish," I quickly rejoined.• Holding out his own Bible to me, my kindergartner explained, "Mom, I cant read English either." Todays Christian Woman, "Heart to Heart."
Jesus Is The Central Theme• John 1:45 Philip found Nathanael and said to him, "We have found Him of whom Moses in the Law and also the Prophets wrote-- Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph."• Acts 10:43 "Of Him all the prophets bear witness that through His name everyone who believes in Him receives forgiveness of sins."• Luke 24:44 Now He said to them, "These are My words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled."• Acts 3:18 "But the things which God announced beforehand by the mouth of all the prophets, that His Christ would suffer, He has thus fulfilled
Jesus Said So Many Times Matthew 5:17 Luke 24:27 John 5:39 Hebrews 1O:7
Jesus in Both Testaments• In the Old • In the New• Shadow • Substance• Type • Truth• Ritual • Reality• Preincarnations • The Incarnation• Branch of David just • Branch of David in full budding bloom
Jesus in Every Section• I. Law---------Foundation for Christ• II. History-----Preparation for Christ• III. Poetry-----Aspiration for Christ• IV. Prophecy--Expectation of Christ• V. Gospels-----Manifestation of Christ• VI. Acts--------Propagation of Christ• VII. Epistles---Interpretation of Christ• VIII. Revelation--Consummation in Christ
From God to Us: The Three LinksI. Inspiration—From the mouth of God.II. Canonization—Collected by the people of God.III. Transmission—Copied by scribes of God.
Jesus said: "But the Comforter, which is the HolyGhost . . . shall teach you all things, and bring allthings to your remembrance, whatsoever I have saidunto you." (Jn. 14:26)Peter said: "For the prophecy came not in old time bythe will of man: but holy men of God spoke as theywere moved by the Holy Ghost.” (2 Peter 1:21)
And The Bible is the Word of God Jesus said so: "If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken." (Jn. 10:34-35) “Laying aside the commandment of God, you hold the traditions of men…, making the word of God of no effect through your traditions” (Mk. 7:8, 13).Paul said so: "All scripture is given by inspiration of God…." (2 Tim. 3:16) "Not as though the word of God hath taken none effect.” (Rom. 9:6)
Jesus “was without sin" (Heb. 4:15); "had no sin" (2 Cor. 5:21); “was without blemish or defect" (1 Pet. 1:19); “was pure" and "righteous" (1Jn. 2:1; 3:3).Likewise,The Bible "is God-breathed" (2 Tim. 3:16); "is out of the mouth of God“ (Mt. 4:4); "is perfect" (Psa. 19:7); "cannot be broken" (Jn. 10:35).
A Good Analogy:The Living Word The Written Word (Savior) (Scripture) Divine Nature Divine Nature Human Nature Human Nature One in Person One in Propositions Without Sin Without Error
The Bible is a Spirit Uttered Book:• "The Spirit of the LORD spoke by me, and his word was on my tongue." (2 Sam. 23:2)• "It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God." (Mt. 4:4)• "How is it when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you into all truth.” (John 16:13)• "...not in the words which mans wisdom teaches, but [in words] which the Holy Spirit teaches.…” (1 Cor. 2:13)• "All scripture [writing] is given by inspiration of God…." (2 Tim. 3:16)
A Helpful Comparison:Study of Science Study of BibleMany Difficulties Many DifficultiesAssumed Explainability Assumed ExplainabilityMany are explainable Many are explainableContinued Research Continued Research
Error # 1 of the Critics: Presuming the Bible Guilty Until Proven Innocent.Like an American citizen, the Bible shouldbe presumed innocent until it is provenguilty.
What if we presumed...• Road signs were Gentlemen wrong?• Traffic signals were not right?• Labels on food were incorrect?• Numbers on currency were wrong?• Signs on restrooms were reversed?• Disaster would result!!!
GODGeneral Revelation no conflict Special Revelation(Facts of Science) (Facts of Scripture)Views of Scientists conflict Views of Theologians
Error # 3 of the Critics: Assuming That the Unexplained is not Explainable.• Science once had no explanation for meteors, eclipses, tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, or how the bumblebee could fly.• All these are now explained.• More will be explained in the future.• THE SAME IS TRUE OF BIBLE DIFFICULTIES!
Error # 4 of the Critics: Assuming that a Partial Report is a False ReportExample: The Inscription on the Cross:• Matthew- THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS.• Mark - THE KING OF THE JEWS.• Luke - THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.• John - JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.COMPLETE: THIS IS JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.
But even contemporary meteorologists speak of “sunrise" and “sunset."No scientist says: "Honey, look at the beautiful earth rotation!"
Error # 8 of the Critics: Presuming That the Bible Approves of All it RecordsThings the Bible records but does not approve. Satans lie (Gen. 3:4; cf. John 8:44); Davids Adultery (2 Sam 11); Solomons Polygamy (1 Kings 11:1); That Fools say "There is no God" (Psa. 14:1).
Error # 9 of the Critics: Taking Figures of Speech Literally. All the Bible is literally true, but--Not all the Bible is true literally (vs. figuratively)
Poetry-- "When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons ofGod shouted for joy?” (Job 38:7)Parables-- "There was in a city a judge, which feared not God,neither regarded man. And he said ‘because this widow troubles me,I will avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me.’" (Lk.18:1-5)Allegory--"Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, theother by a freewoman.... Which things are an allegory: for these arethe two covenants." (Gal. 4:24)Metaphors--"And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity...and setson fire the course of nature." (Js. 3:6)Similes--"The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed,which a man took, and sowed in his field." (Mt. 13:31)
Hyperboles--"And there are also many other things which Jesusdid, the which, if they should be written every one, I suppose thateven the world itself could not contain the books that should bewritten." (Jn. 21:25)Satire --"Blind guides, who strain out a gnat and swallow acamel." (Mt. 19:24)Figures of speech--"O God! Therefore the children of men puttheir trust under the shadow of thy wings.” (Psa. 36:7)Anthropomorphism--"God repented of the evil, that he had saidthat he would do unto them; and he did it not." (Jonah 3:10) ButGod does not repent: “The strength of Israel will not lie norrepent: for he is not a man, that he should repent.” (1 Sam.15:29)
Error # 10: Forgetting That Only theOriginal Text, Not Every Copy of Scripture, is Without Error Ahaziah was 42. Ahaziah was 22. (2 Chrn. 22:2) (2 Kings 8:26 KJV] Solomon had Solomon had 4,000 40,000 stalls. stalls. (1 Kings 4:26) (2 Chrn. 9:25)
Note Several Important Things:1. These errors are found in copies, not in the originals.2. They are rare.3. They affect no doctrine of Scripture.4. We usually know which one is correct by the context.
What if you received this message?"Y#U HAVE WON TEN MILLION DOLLARS" Would you collect the money?
And if you received this message, you would have no doubt! "Y#U HAVE WON TEN MILLION DOLLARS" "YO# HAVE WON TEN MILLION DOLLARS" "YOU #AVE WON TEN MILLION DOLLARS"Note:1. Even with mistakes, 100% of the message comes through.2. The more errors, the more sure you are of the message.3. The Bible has many less errors in the copies than this message does.
Error # 11 of the Critics: Failing to Understand the Context of the PassageAn old adage: "A text out of context is a pretext.”
For ExampleThe Bible says "there is no God." (Psa. 14:1)The Context: The "fool" said this.
Other Examples of a text out of context:The Bible says: "The mustard seed...is the smallest of all seeds." (Mt. 13:31-32) But science says it is the orchid seed.The Context: However, the mustard seed was the smallest one "which a man took and sowed in his field" (Mt. 13:31), not the smallest in the world.
A Text out of ContextThe Bible says: Pauls companions "heard" the voice (Acts 9:7), but also that they did not "hear" the voice (Acts 22:9).The Context: They heard the sound, but did not hear (i.e., understand) the meaning.Illustration: “I can’t hear you. Please speak louder.” You heard the sound but not the meaning.
Mark Twain said: It is not the part of theBible I dont understand that troubles me the most. It is the part of the Bible I do understand that troubles me the most.Turning the Logic Right Side Up: We should not criticize the Bible; We should let the Bible criticize us! "For the word of God is alive, andpowerful, and sharper than any two edgedsword...and is a discerner (Lt. critic) of thethoughts and intents of the heart." (Heb.4:12)
No one has ever demonstrated an error in the Bible, but-- We have seen that there are many errors in the critics.
The Unique Nature of the Content of Scripture A. The Bible has great diversity. B. Yet the Bible has amazing unity. C. This is best accounted for by Deity (one Mind behind it all).
The Great Diversity of the Bible: It was--1. --written in two major languages;2. --by some forty human authors;3. --who held numerous occupations;4. --who lived on three different continents;5. --who penned 66 different books;6. --on hundreds of topics;7. --spanning some 1600 years.
The Amazing Unity of the Bible It has:1. One theme--salvation (2Tim. 3:15),2. One person--Christ (Lk. 24:27),3. With one goal--to glorify God (1Cor. 10:31).
The Bible states we have: 1. One problem—sin; 2. One cure—salvation; 3. Through one person—Christ;
The Conclusion:I. Uniqueness of Its Composition: The Bible is a co-authored book. a. God is the primary author; b. Men of God were the secondary authors. c. The result is that one and the same set of words are both God’s and man’s. So, whatever God said in Scripture, the human author said. And whatever the human author said in Scripture, God said.
I find my Lord in the Bible Where ever I chance to look, He is the theme of the BibleThe center and heart of the Book; He is the Rose of Sharon, He is the Lily fair, Where ever I open my Bible The Lord of the Book is there.
He, at the Book’s beginning, Gave to the earth its form, He is the Ark of shelter Bearing the brunt of the storm,The Burning Bush of the desert, The budding of Aaron’s Rod, Where ever I look in the Bible I see the Son of God.
The Ram upon Mt. Moriah, The Ladder from earth to sky,The Scarlet Cord in the window, The Serpent lifted high, The smitten rock in the desert,The Shepherd with staff and crook, The face of my Lord I discover Where ever I open the Book.
He is the Seed of the Woman, The Savior Virgin-born; He is the Son of David, Whom men rejected with scorn,His garments of grace and of beauty The stately Aaron deck, Yet He is a priest forever, For He is Melchizedek.
Lord of eternal glory Whom John, the Apostle saw; Light of the golden city, Lamb without spot or flaw,Bridegroom coming at midnight, For whom the Virgins look. Wherever I open my Bible, I find my Lord in the Book. Author wishes to remain unknown