Old Testament Introduction Notes


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By Mike Smith
This is compiled from many sources, impossible to give everyone credit. Use to the glory of God and furtherance of the truth.

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Old Testament Introduction Notes

  1. 1. The Bible: A Library of Books <ul><li>Our English word Bible is from the Greek neuter plural, biblia which derived in turn from byblos , the Greek word which designated the papyrus reed strips of which “books” were made in ancient times. </li></ul><ul><li>Our Bible is divided into 2 main parts the Old Testament and the New Testament. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixty-six books in all - 39 O.T. & 27 N.T. </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Bible: A Library of Books <ul><li>The Old Testament was written in Hebrew with the exception of a few passages written in Aramaic </li></ul><ul><li>(Jer. 10:11; Ezra 4:8 to 6:18 also 7:12-26; and Dan. 2:4 to 7:28) </li></ul><ul><li>The New Testament was written in Koine (common, “Vulgar”) Greek. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Bible: A Library of Related Books <ul><li>Mostly written from between around </li></ul><ul><li>1500 B.C. to 100 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Written by many different penmen most of whom did not know each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Amazingly, the completed whole is a single story with a single theme, namely, Redemption through Christ Jesus ! </li></ul><ul><li>Purports itself to be a record of progressive Revelation. Isa. 48:10-ff; Heb. 1:1-2; </li></ul><ul><li>Lk. 24:27; Acts 3:24-ff; 10:43; </li></ul><ul><li>Ps. 119:160; Ps. 139:17 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>It’s part of God’s inspired Word! </li></ul><ul><li>2 Tim. 3:15-17; 2 Peter 1:16-21 </li></ul><ul><li>It’s Understandable </li></ul><ul><li>Prov. 2:1-6; 23:23; Ps. 119:130 </li></ul><ul><li>To more clearly understand God’s whole message to man - Gal. 3:19-25; Mt. 5:17 </li></ul><ul><li>There are types and shadows in the Old Law. </li></ul><ul><li>Col. 2:14, 16, 17; Heb. 8:5; 10:1, 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What if, never knew of Adam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Cor. 15:22; 45-47 Found in 7 N.T. verses </li></ul></ul>Why Should We Study the Old Testament?
  5. 5. Why Should We Study the Old Testament? <ul><li>In it God teaches principle’s of </li></ul><ul><li>“ what to do” positive teaching </li></ul><ul><li>and “what not to do” </li></ul><ul><li>negative teaching. 1 Cor. 10:5-11 </li></ul><ul><li>God wants us to learn it. Romans 15:4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What three important things can it give us? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More reasons to study Old Testament? </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1) The First 17 books of the O.T. (Genesis – Esther) </li></ul><ul><li>A. The first 5 books of Moses (Gen. - Deut.) </li></ul><ul><li>are historical in nature. Knowledge of them is critical, for they serve as the foundation for the rest of the Bible. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The next 12 books (Joshua - Esther) are also historical. </li></ul><ul><li>1. The first 9 (Joshua - 2 Chron.) are records of Israel’s living in the land of Canaan (Pre-Exile history). </li></ul><ul><li>2. The last 3 (Ezra-Esther) concern Israel’s return to the Land after the Babylonian Captivity (Post-Exile). </li></ul><ul><li>C. Thus, 5 of the books are Pre-Canaan ; 9 are In- </li></ul><ul><li>Canaan and 3 are Post-Exile (in Canaan again). </li></ul>Overview of the Old Testament
  7. 7. Overview of the Old Testament <ul><li>2) The Middle FIVE Books of the O.T. </li></ul><ul><li>(Job – Song of Solomon) </li></ul><ul><li>A. The preceding 17 books are National and Historical; these 5 books deal with problems of the heart – They are individual and personal in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Those 17 were written in prose; </li></ul><ul><li> These 5 in Hebrew poetry . </li></ul>Overview of the Old Testament
  8. 8. Overview of the Old Testament <ul><li>3) The Last 17 books of the O.T. (Isa-Mal). </li></ul><ul><li>A. The first 5 are “Major Prophets,” setting the tone of Prophesy. </li></ul><ul><li>B. The last 12 are “Minor Prophets,” similar in tone to the first 5. </li></ul><ul><li>1. The first 9 (Hosea – Zephaniah) </li></ul><ul><li>are all Pre-Exilic . </li></ul><ul><li>2. The last 3 (Haggai – Malachi) </li></ul><ul><li>are all Post-Exilic . </li></ul>Overview of the Old Testament
  9. 9. Overview of the Old Testament <ul><li>4) Consider the obvious design of this order. </li></ul><ul><li>A. The first and last groups of 17 books are both divided into smaller groups of 5-9-3 books. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Between them (at the heart of the O.T.) are the 5 books which deal with the emotions of the human heart. </li></ul><ul><li>C. There were about 40 writers, covering more than 1500 years, writing for different purposes, with no idea about the collection of books (The “Canon”) which we now have. </li></ul><ul><li>D. Surely a Divine Hand was controlling – This is Revelation . (An “uncovering,” “opening up,” of the Mind of God. </li></ul>
  10. 10. PERIOD BOOKS DATE IMPT. MAN Beginning Gen.1-5 4004 B.C Adam Flood Gen. 6-11 2348 B.C Noah Patriarchal Gen. 12-50 1921 B.C. Abraham E. Bondage Ex. 1-15 1706 B.C. Joseph Wanderings Ex.16 – Deut.34 1491 B.C. Moses C. Canaan Joshua 1-24 1451 B.C. Joshua Judges Jud 1-1 Sam 8 1400 B.C. Samuel U.K. 1Sa.9 -1Ki.11 1095B.C. David Div. K. 1 Ki.12-2Ki.20 975 B.C. Elijah K. of Judah 2Ki. 21-25:7 722 B.C. Josiah Cap. Babylon 2Ki. 25:8 -21 607,587B.C. Daniel Rest. Jews Ez. Neh. Est. 537,517B.C. Zerubbabel Ez Neh
  11. 11. <ul><li>Include Genesis-Deuteronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Are known as a unit in the Hebrew scriptures as the Torah (Law or Teaching) </li></ul><ul><li>In the Greek Septuagint known as the Pentateuch, penta meaning five and teuchos with its secondary meaning of fabric or a case for holding papyrus rolls, hence used for the roll or book itself. Thus meaning “fivefold volume,” this term being used since the 3 rd century A.D. </li></ul>The Pentateuch or Torah
  12. 12. <ul><li>Traditionally conservative Jews and Christians have held that Moses was in large part responsible for the Pentateuch. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the Old and New Testaments ascribe to Moses the “authorship,” of this body of literature. (Josh.1:7; Dan. 9:11-13; </li></ul><ul><li>Lk. 16:29; Jn. 7:19; Ac. 26:22; Rom. 10:19) </li></ul><ul><li>While each book of the Torah deals with God’s covenantal relationship with His people, each book is nevertheless, distinct and has its own subject matter. </li></ul>The Pentateuch or Torah
  13. 13. In the beginning ray-sheeth' God el-o-heem' created baw-raw' the ayth heavens shaw-mah'-yim, shaw-meh' and the ayth earth eh'-rets Gen. 1:1 pronunciation of Hebrew words Genesis
  14. 14. The Book of Beginnings <ul><li>All that is to be developed later in scripture is planted in Genesis. It serves as the introduction to the Pentateuch and all other scripture. </li></ul><ul><li>Genesis importance may be seen in that it is quoted or alluded to more than 200 times in the N.T. </li></ul><ul><li>Genesis means, Origin; Source; Generation; Birth. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Moses is believed to be the one who compiled this book, even though in scripture he is never mentioned to have written it. </li></ul><ul><li>He is listed as the writer of the other 4 books at least 40 times </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions of the different writers may be recognized by the recurring phrase, “These are the generations of…” </li></ul>Genesis
  16. 16. <ul><li>Genesis can clearly be divided into two main parts – Chap. 1-11 & 12-50. </li></ul><ul><li>First section (Chap. 1-11) is arranged around four outstanding events. </li></ul><ul><li>Second part (12-50) is arranged around four outstanding persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Tying them all together is the idea of the Sovereignty of God. </li></ul>Genesis
  17. 17. Genesis <ul><li>The Book of Genesis is not a Complete or universal history of the world or mankind </li></ul><ul><li>It is rather the first chapter in the history of the saving of mankind from sin and eternal loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Genesis in 12 Words : </li></ul><ul><li>4 Events: Creation, Sin, Flood, Nations </li></ul><ul><li>4 People: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph </li></ul>
  18. 18. Contribution of the Book of Genesis to the Bible: <ul><li>It is the Foundation of ALL Bible history and doctrine. </li></ul><ul><li>This sweeping panorama from Eden to Ur to Haran to Canaan to Egypt covers more time than the rest of the Bible; and it introduces all that is to follow. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps us in the study of the Book of Revelation because the first 3 chapters of the Bible are so closely related to the last 3 chapters of the Bible. </li></ul>
  19. 19. GENESIS REVELATION In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth 1:1 I saw a new heaven and a new earth 21:1 The darkness he called night 1:5 There shall be no night there 21:25 God made the two great lights (sun and moon) 1:16 The city has no need of the sun or the moon 21:23 In the day you eat of it you shall surely die 2:17 And there shall no longer be any death 21:4 Satan appears as the deceiver of mankind 3:1 Satan disappears from the scene forever 20:10 A garden into which defilement entered 3:6-7 A city into which defilement will never enter 21:27 I will greatly multiply your pain 3:16 No longer any mourning, or crying, or pain 21:4 Cursed is the ground because of you 3:17 There shall no longer be any curse 22:3 They were driven from God’s presence 3:24 They shall see the face of Deity 22:4 Access to the tree of life disinherited in Adam 3:24 Access to the tree of life reinstated in Christ 22:14
  20. 20. Christ In the Book of Genesis <ul><li>He is the Creator of All Things… Gen. 1:1 ; Jn. 1:1-4; Col. 1:15-17; Heb. 1:2; 11:3 </li></ul><ul><li>He is the Seed of Woman… Gen. 3:15 ; Isa.7:14; 9:6-7; Gal. 4:4 </li></ul><ul><li>He is the Seed of Abraham… Gen. 22:18 ; </li></ul><ul><li>Gal. 3:8; 16, 26-29 </li></ul><ul><li>He is seen in many Types (A type is a historical fact which is a picture of a spiritual truth); especially is this true in the case of Joseph. </li></ul>