Revolutions 1685-1730: When King Charles II died in 1685 his other brother Duke of York ruled as James II. He told the Governors to bully, and disperse any of the colonial protesters. He also increased taxes on Chesapeake tobacco.
Dominion: In protest Massachusetts defied the new laws. Their answer was “The laws of England are bound within fower seas, and does not reach America”.
The King tried to make a super colony out of 5 New England states, and N.Y. , and all of Jersey, and call it ‘The Dominion’. The ‘Dominion’ was to enforce the ‘Navigation Acts’.
Glorious Revolutions: The Anglican bishops wrote in secret to William of Orange, to help the Protestants over King James, at the same time the Dutch faced war with France again in 1688.
In the colonies they were getting rid of the ‘Dominion’ , but Jacob Leisler was coming to power in N.Y after ‘Andros’ was forced out. Contrary to his scheme he polarized the colony along ‘Ethnocultural’ & class lines.
Resolution: In Maryland, Massachusetts, and N.Y. the rebels all vow loyalty to the new King, but wonder what William III would do with them? They worried a lot in Massachusetts about restoring a point of charter 1629; about home rule, Puritan & Republican rule. Compromise in N.Y. was harder. Leisler and his Dutch overbearing pals were at the disadvantage to the richer, and more cosmopolitan rivals.
Leisler as told to leave, and release his political prisoners, after fighting started, with casualties on both sides, Sloughter sailed into the harbor, Leislers remaining men fled. They wanted to kill Leisler, and for 20yrs Leisler, and Anti-Leisler forcers fought for power .
Compromise: The crown had to work it out between ‘Imperial Power’ & ‘Colonial Autonomy’. R.I & Ct. colonies had to submit to legislation.
As the result, the colonies intertwined more and more with the empire. The colonist saw them as part of a transatlantic empire. There is a lot of history both pro & con on ‘compromise’.
Men & Money: William of Orange put England into war with France again. The cost and scale was the first full push with the ‘Glorious Revolution’. Historian J. Brewer said that 1690’s England “developed a fiscal-military state…dominated by the task of waging war”. In contrast to France, England was able to do it with out despotism of an absolutist monarchy.
Between 1689-98 The English built 61 ‘new war ships’ the best and largest in Europe.
Colonial and Indian War: During the 9 yrs war the English naval forces were of little use to the colonists. The English had 150 badly trained officers, they thought to us the grater numbers of the colonists; against only 12,000 French through Canada.
Neutrality from any side did the Indians no good. A colonist said, after he asked for peace “The Iroquois will answer “We can not live with out war”. The Iroquois kept making trouble with the colonies with their southern raids. Of course the French promoted all type activities of such kind. So the English left the colonist once again to do it for the crown.
War of Spanish Succession: The peace of 1697 lasted 5 yrs. By 1702, Louis XIV rebuilt his military to fill the throne of Spain with his grandson Philip de Bourbon.
The English war effort failed in the colonies. In 1702 the Carolina colonists attack San Agustin, the capital of Florida, but the Spanish forces held the fort.
The English abandoned treaties with France or Spain at Utrecht. The English commit the empire to a maritime commerce, the shift elevated the American colonies to a new importance.
Union: The peace treaty with France & Spain recognized the new English union with Scotland. A Scottish king would ascend the throne, his name James I. An independent Scotland would have put a catholic enemy on the northern boarder.
The Scots merchants & politicians looking for their own empire, almost got one right in the middle of the Spanish at Darien, located on the Isthmus of Panama. They became a major sea power. It fails so the Scot have to subordinate them selves with Parliament. That they do; therefore, now they can lay claim to wealth in the colonies.
Pirates: England found piracy a useful tool to attack the more powerful Spanish empire. New York, South Carolinas, and Jamaica were home to many of them. ‘Privateers’ were given licenses by the Governors to plunder the enemy. They would then fence the gold & silver to fund the colonies.
By the 1700’s they became a liability to those who gave them the licenses in the first place. The pirates became more disreputable, and counter-productfull to the culture they were to service.
There were many perils to piracy and against the powers of the new empires they were put down harshly.
Commerce and Empire: The British built their powers on the French, and the fact that their navy now rivaled the Dutch, they had to accept British power at sea.
During the 18 th century London became the top finance center of Europe, over Amsterdam.
In England a great share of military money went into the Navy, and it became a material sight of ‘British Patriotism’.
None of the colonies wanted the Navigation Acts’ , but they didn’t want to end it, just get the best deal they could in the mercantile framework of it.
The Atlantic: Despite growing British shipping emigrants declined in the 18 th century as compared to the 17 th . New recruitment invented America as an asylum from landlords, religious, and political oppression all over Europe, with the impression immigrants needed to be Protestants.
The new emigration now had fewer Brits, but more Scots, Germans, and because of slavery, more Africans. The colonial population became more and more less British, and there was an increased gap between those who had freedom, to those who were in slavery.
News: By 1730 more shipping was arriving from England with a greater frequency. This meant more newspapers, pamphlets, and more family mail, back and forth across the Atlantic.
In 171 a Boston Editor declared “The news of London was the news that meant more and concerned all”. This was become more and more colonists were involved with over seas commerce, and were vulnerable to European Wars.
Trade: The British empire now has a multilateral trading system, with a system of billing. The merchants in London used ‘Bills of Exchange’ to balance their books of ‘Credit’ & ‘Debits’ . The ‘Navigation Acts’ locked the Chesapeake & West Indies into shipping tobacco & sugar directly to England.
In Value the Chesapeake grain exports swelled from £11,500 in 1740 to £130,000 in 1770. The free colonists enjoyed more disposable income than most British subjects, they paid less than ¼ unlike other English tax payers.
Poverty: Thru 1775-60 there was a growing number of poor people. This occurred in the seaports area, especially the winter, when ice shut the harbors. Elsewhere it could happen when British collectors cancelled credit for debts. History paints a picture of going to the frontier to make it big, the truth is a lot different.
Goods. 1770’s the American colonies took in about 10% of British exports, by 1772 it would rise to 37%.
Now there was a two way buying front, with the working class wanting good that the upper class had. As consumers it was the insulting line between wealthy & a commoner. The compunction made both the elite and common people live beyond their means and acquire a great amount of debit to England and abroad.
English Emigrants: During a cold war the crown revived it, they sent thousands of demobilized troops, and sailors to the new world, because the were saturating the English labor pool (not smart, because in a few yrs they would help Gen. G. Washington) or sometimes they were charged with crimes, and were sent anyway as convicts (more for George W.)
From 1718-75 50,000 ‘convicts’ were sent over, more than ½ of free English emigrants. Because the colonies had to pay for the convicts, they felt this as an insult by the mother country.
Scots: When English emigration slowed the Scots fill the quota, 145,000 from 1707-1775, they were poorer so they had more reason to come over. ½ of them were of the ‘Ulster’s’ in N. Ireland. The other were both from the highlands & the lowlands. The highlanders did have the greater poverty rate, made so by rising rent on the land.
Germans: At 100,000 Germans mostly from the Rhineland's they were second only to the Scots, in the 18 th century. The Rhinelander's did it, because of a thing called ‘The Big Push’, It had to with all the principalities of Germany and the costs of war always looming over head in taxes , and death. All lot of them all went to Pennsylvania to get away from taxes that were used to support some one else war, and in that state they did not ‘Conscript’ for war.
Pluralism: The new people to American only found ½ of what they thought they were looking for. They escaped ‘Official persecution’ ,but now they had to share it with people not of their own. The shock of diversity, and ethnic groups they were used to now contained, The Protestant’s. Even thought these groups didn’t like each other, they shared a common goal. They had to do this because none of them had the numbers to make the others, conform to their beliefs, or drive them out (funny that’s why they left !!). Read of the Lenni Lenape Raiders, they were from after William Penn's death.
Africans: History paints a great migration to the new world in the 18 th century, not so. It is b, but they were not doing for themselves, they were the slaves. Remember 1% of the blacks in the British colonies were free prior to the U.S.A.’s civil war. During the 18 th century the British gained the lead on slaves 2 to 1 over the Portuguese, 2.5 mil to 1.8. The French came in 3 rd with 1.2 mill. All British slaves went to the colonies, the port’s, to Brazil, the French to the Caribbean.
All though theses countries did not actually ‘Catch slaves’, they all paid the chiefs in Africa in goods from Europe. They caused kidnappings, and gave premiums for the best, and large lots of slaves caught.
The Capitan's had tow ways to make money, pack them tight, and take the loss from death, or pack them loose, and make up from death?
New Negroes: After weeks at sea the ships reach the points of ‘Sale’. Lots of tricks were used to make appearance's for the sale look good
The biggest thing for this part of a slaves life was destination; they even knew in Africa, where they were sent meant death in a 1yr or a life of work in the states.
Sometimes in some ports ‘Masters’ would favor certain males. They became Drivers. They got better food , and privileges, and women (of course all children were not his). Death rate’s are wide, case in point the ‘further north’ the better. The masters in the west Indies were not hampered by cost’s of a slave, they were just tools, but in the colonies they were ‘Workers’ if feed, and sleep were provided you could get many more years, and perhaps a free slave from birthing, it was a cost occurrence to the colonies, plus the slaves grew in numbers that imports were no longer necessary.
African-Americans: In the north black were discourage to have family's , because the owner was out his ‘property’ during the down time. Slave time in S.Caroloina or Georgia was a lot like the Caribbean, but with out the heat and disease’s. Long Hrs, toil, and if you were not nice server punishments would follow.
You were put under the ‘Task system’ this was developed after they found out, its easier to catch a fly with sugar, than salt! You had to clear so many feet of canal, or crush so many bushels of corn, then you got the rest of the day off. Up north they were buying pocket watch's so they could get to work on time or be fined, and have to make up work on the week ends.
Slaves made up 40% of the population of a few states, but it rarely concerned northern master, and only sometimes southern ones. The slaves even thought separated, still they came together in song and dance, and they gave us a lot of stuff. The slaves saved what they could, they lost a lot from Africa, but served the U.S. in ways we could still discover.
I love Ranch dressing, but the Africans- they had Bar-be-que sauce down to a pat !! Yummy good!!
The largest black deaths were in the Indies, even during the civil war of the U.S. Even with the high death rate of black baby’s deaths, those in the U.S. did not match those in the Caribbean.