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Enhancing grammar

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  • Meaning-based – best sentence best expressed X situation. LOOK AT THISYou should open your mouth.You might want to open your mouth.You are opening your mouth.You opened your mouth.
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    • 1. Using the IWB to ...
      Enhance the Teaching of Grammar
    • 2. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      New equipment – New possibilities
      The new equipment allowsteachers and pupilsto focus on grammatical structures that convey meaning and draw student attention to:
      the form,function, and use of grammar in context in a text.
    • 3. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar Instruction
      How do learners learn grammar?
      Research suggests that learners learn by….
      Noticing – the learner perceives that the structure (form, meaning and/or use) is new in some way.
      Recognizing – the learner accesses previous knowledge about the grammatical structure.
      Producing – the learner is able to use the grammatical structure appropriately.
      in context!
    • 4. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar Instruction
      Why teach grammar in context?
      Isn’t it better to teach the grammar structures in isolation in a grammar lesson?
      No. Research has shown that grammar should be taught as a component of language instruction (just as grammar is only a “component” of language) and not be treated as a separate entity.
      How should grammar be taught?
      In context! Learners need to recognize and understand the message as expressed in the grammar in aparticular context.
    • 5. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar Instruction
      Why do students need to learn the meaning of a grammatical structure?
      Meaning is contained in a grammatical structure just as meaning is contained in a word. Learners need to understand / produce this “grammatical” message .
      Can’t they learn the “grammatical” message just by teaching the structure in discrete sentences ?
      David Nunan (1998) says “that grammar and context are often so closely related that appropriate grammatical choices can only be made with reference to the context and purpose of the communication.” Therefore, the learner needs the complete picture.
    • 6. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      6
      What aspects of grammar do learners need to know?
      Grammatical structures not only
      have FORM, they are also used to express MEANING in context-approriate USE.
      Example: You should open your mouth for
      the dentist.
      MEANING:I recommend,I suggest
      USE: to give advice in a polite way
      FORM: SHOULD+VERB(base form)
    • 7. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar Instruction
      How can we teach grammar in context?
      Get students to actively interact with the text!
      • Annotating text - by highlighting/circling parts of words, whole words, phrases, sentences,and writing notes ‘in the margins’.
      • 8. Manipulating text - by moving parts of words, whole words, phrases, sentences, hiding them, and substituting alternatives .
      • 9. Addingto the text (e.g., word or sentence) or deleting parts of the text (e.g., word or sentence).
    • English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      8
      When can we use the IWB to teach grammar?
      Any time during the lesson!
      Present the grammar point in context from a
      written or oral text (e.g., dialog, article, poem, story)
      songorchant
      pictureorvideo (trigger)
      Find the meaning in the grammar!
      Relate to MEANING,, and FORM, and USE in that specific (con)text.
    • 10. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      9
      How can the IWB facilitate the teaching of grammar?
      The IWB encourages students to
      visualize grammar and their thinking about it
      interpret meaning conveyed by a given grammatical sturcture
      make inferences about a given grammatical structure
      manipulate grammatical forms
    • 11. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      10
      How can “clickers” facilitate the teaching of grammar?
      Clickers allow students to.. .
      actively participate in a non-threatening manner
      check their understanding of a grammatical structure
      Have a “quick practice” session to develop automaticity
    • 12. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      11
      How can we use the IWB to teach grammar?
      On the IWB, you can
      highlight and annotate text
      manipulate text
      add and delete text
      practice and review
      display “clicker” activities
    • 13. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      12
      Highlight and Annotate
      The IWB can be used to (for example):
      highlight grammatical structures (e.g., verb phrases; verb endings, connectors)
      highlight parts of a sentence (e.g. the head noun, prepositional phrase)
      highlight parts of speech
      Annotate a text (e.g., lots of past simple – probably a narrative)
      Sample activities can be found on the course site under “Classroom Activities.”
    • 14. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      13
      Manipulate
      The IWB can be used to (for example):
      move letters to form a word or move words to form a sentence.
      move sentences to form a paragraph.
      hide and reveal a part of a word, a whole word or a larger text.
      categorize grammatical forms, meanings or use (e.g., parts of speech, base + irregular verb form).
      Sample activities can be found on the course site under “Classroom Activities.”
    • 15. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      14
      Add and Delete
      The IWB can be used to (for example):
      Add or delete parts of a word (e.g., word formation and word families)
      add or delete words or phrases from asentence or larger text
      Move to reveal.
      Sample activities can be found on the course site under “Classroom Activities.”
    • 16. English Onboard Enhancing Reading
      15
      Practice
      The IWB can be used to (for example):
      do any online, interactive grammar activities
      review homework and class work – just scan and show
      check understanding using
      clicker activities
      Sample activities can be found on the course site under “Classroom Activities.”
    • 17. English Onboard Enhancing Grammar
      16
      The End

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