Meaning-based – best sentence best expressed X situation. LOOK AT THISYou should open your mouth.You might want to open your mouth.You are opening your mouth.You opened your mouth.
Using the IWB to ... Enhance the Teaching of Grammar
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar New equipment – New possibilities The new equipment allowsteachers and pupilsto focus on grammatical structures that convey meaning and draw student attention to: the form,function, and use of grammar in context in a text.
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar Instruction How do learners learn grammar? Research suggests that learners learn by…. Noticing – the learner perceives that the structure (form, meaning and/or use) is new in some way. Recognizing – the learner accesses previous knowledge about the grammatical structure. Producing – the learner is able to use the grammatical structure appropriately. in context!
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar Instruction Why teach grammar in context? Isn’t it better to teach the grammar structures in isolation in a grammar lesson? No. Research has shown that grammar should be taught as a component of language instruction (just as grammar is only a “component” of language) and not be treated as a separate entity. How should grammar be taught? In context! Learners need to recognize and understand the message as expressed in the grammar in aparticular context.
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar Instruction Why do students need to learn the meaning of a grammatical structure? Meaning is contained in a grammatical structure just as meaning is contained in a word. Learners need to understand / produce this “grammatical” message . Can’t they learn the “grammatical” message just by teaching the structure in discrete sentences ? David Nunan (1998) says “that grammar and context are often so closely related that appropriate grammatical choices can only be made with reference to the context and purpose of the communication.” Therefore, the learner needs the complete picture.
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar 6 What aspects of grammar do learners need to know? Grammatical structures not only have FORM, they are also used to express MEANING in context-approriate USE. Example: You should open your mouth for the dentist. MEANING:I recommend,I suggest USE: to give advice in a polite way FORM: SHOULD+VERB(base form)
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar Instruction How can we teach grammar in context? Get students to actively interact with the text!
Annotating text - by highlighting/circling parts of words, whole words, phrases, sentences,and writing notes ‘in the margins’.
Manipulating text - by moving parts of words, whole words, phrases, sentences, hiding them, and substituting alternatives .
Addingto the text (e.g., word or sentence) or deleting parts of the text (e.g., word or sentence).
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar 8 When can we use the IWB to teach grammar? Any time during the lesson! Present the grammar point in context from a written or oral text (e.g., dialog, article, poem, story) songorchant pictureorvideo (trigger) Find the meaning in the grammar! Relate to MEANING,, and FORM, and USE in that specific (con)text.
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar 9 How can the IWB facilitate the teaching of grammar? The IWB encourages students to visualize grammar and their thinking about it interpret meaning conveyed by a given grammatical sturcture make inferences about a given grammatical structure manipulate grammatical forms
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar 10 How can “clickers” facilitate the teaching of grammar? Clickers allow students to.. . actively participate in a non-threatening manner check their understanding of a grammatical structure Have a “quick practice” session to develop automaticity
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar 11 How can we use the IWB to teach grammar? On the IWB, you can highlight and annotate text manipulate text add and delete text practice and review display “clicker” activities
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar 12 Highlight and Annotate The IWB can be used to (for example): highlight grammatical structures (e.g., verb phrases; verb endings, connectors) highlight parts of a sentence (e.g. the head noun, prepositional phrase) highlight parts of speech Annotate a text (e.g., lots of past simple – probably a narrative) Sample activities can be found on the course site under “Classroom Activities.”
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar 13 Manipulate The IWB can be used to (for example): move letters to form a word or move words to form a sentence. move sentences to form a paragraph. hide and reveal a part of a word, a whole word or a larger text. categorize grammatical forms, meanings or use (e.g., parts of speech, base + irregular verb form). Sample activities can be found on the course site under “Classroom Activities.”
English Onboard Enhancing Grammar 14 Add and Delete The IWB can be used to (for example): Add or delete parts of a word (e.g., word formation and word families) add or delete words or phrases from asentence or larger text Move to reveal. Sample activities can be found on the course site under “Classroom Activities.”
English Onboard Enhancing Reading 15 Practice The IWB can be used to (for example): do any online, interactive grammar activities review homework and class work – just scan and show check understanding using clicker activities Sample activities can be found on the course site under “Classroom Activities.”