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  • 1. Reading Works! 4 Textbook
  • 2. Reading Works! 4TextbookPhilippine Copyright 2012 by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INCAll rights reserved. Printed in the PhilippinesEditorial, design, and layout by University Press of First AsiaNo part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any meanselectronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage andretrieval systems, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Exclusively distributed by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INC 4/F SEDCCO 1 Bldg. 120 Thailand corner Legazpi Streets Legaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, Philippines Tel. No.: (632) 893-8501 * Fax: (632) 817-8700 ISBN 978-971-46-0296-0AuthorFaye Angeli D. Vitan is pursuing her master’s degree in reading at the University of the Philippines–Diliman,where she also earned her bachelor’s degree in secondary education, major in English and minor in journalism. Sheis currently a middle school teacher at Reedley International School and a language trainer at the Rarejob OnlineLanguage Tutorial. She obtained a Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) certificate fromthe Canadian TESOL Institute. Prior to joining Reedley, Ms. Vitan served as an ESL online teacher at the NativeEnglish Online Academy.ConsultantCorazon Y. Delgado holds a master’s degree in education, major in English, and a bachelor’s degree in elementaryeducation both from the University of the Philippines–Diliman. She is presently a part-time professor of English atFar Eastern University–Makati. Ms. Delgado was a former faculty member of the Colegio San Agustin–Makati, whereshe served as the academic coordinator in reading and the head teacher for grades 4 and 5. She was a part-time collegeprofessor of English at the De La Salle University–Manila and a full-time professor of English at the Far EasternUniversity–East Asia College, where she was also a staff member of the English Resource Center.ReviewerDiana G. Caluag is pursuing her master’s degree in education, major in reading, at the University of the Philippines–Diliman, where she earned her bachelor’s degree in secondary education, major in English (cum laude). She is presentlyan English instructor at the University of the Philippines Integrated School. Ms. Caluag taught high school Englishat St. Paul College in San Rafael, Bulacan from 2005 to 2006. She has attended and facilitated numerous academicseminars and workshops. She was also a founding member and former chairperson of the University of the PhilippinesLiteracy and Language Educators Association of Diliman.
  • 3. To the Pupils The Reading Works! series was especially designed and created for you, the21st century learner. It aims to make you see that reading is still an important andenjoyable activity even in this very modern world dominated by super computers andhi-tech gadgets. To do this, the selections were specifically written to match youractual experiences as a family member, as a pupil, as a community member, and asa Filipino citizen. Each textbook is divided into four units. Unit 1 will let you get to know yourselfthrough your views, ideas, and feelings as a person. Unit 2 will help you develop adeeper and more meaningful relationship with others, particularly your family, yourfriends, and the people in your community. Unit 3, will help you prepare for the futureand its many challenges. Finally, Unit 4 will tell you more about your role in ensuringa better tomorrow for yourself, your family, your community, and the world. Each unit contains useful discussions and activities which will help you becomea critical, highly skilled, and well-rounded person. • Connect – contains activities that will relate your stock knowledge and previous experiences to the lessons • Search – contains activities that will help you discover the meaning of unfamiliar words and phrases • Download – contains specially written stories, poems, essays, and scripts which will engage your interest • Click – contains comprehension questions which will measure your understanding of the reading selection • Link – contains discussions and exercises on important reading skills • Upload – contains activities that will help you apply what you have learned in each lesson It is hoped that through this book, you will be able to learn not only a varietyof readings skills, but also important life lessons which will help you become the bestperson you can possibly be. Happy reading!
  • 4. Table of ContentsUnit I Knowing MyselfChapter 1 Discovering the Beauty within Me .......................................... 2Lesson 1 Yes, I Can! ...........................................................................................2 (Using Reference Materials)Lesson 2 Uniquely Smart ................................................................................12 (Using the Dictionary)Lesson 3 The Goodness in Me ........................................................................22 (Identifying Parts of a Book)Lesson 4 Afraid No More .................................................................................34 (Identifying Fiction and Nonfiction/Reality and Fantasy)Chapter 2 Learning More about Myself .................................................... 41Lesson 1 Creating a New Me ......................................................................... 41 (Identifying the Elements of a Short Story)Lesson 2 I Love .................................................................................................51 (Myths/Sequencing Events)Lesson 3 The Hero in Me ................................................................................61 (Folktales/Making Character Inferences)Lesson 4 My Rights to Live Right ...................................................................70 (Essay/Making an Outline)Unit Test ......................................................................................................... 81Unit II Growing with OthersChapter 3 Loving My Family ....................................................................... 86Lesson 1 Ohana! ..............................................................................................86 (Using Antonyms to Unlock Meaning)Lesson 2 The Perfect Love ...............................................................................92 (Parables/ Using Synonyms to Unlock Meaning)Lesson 3 Connecting Lives ...........................................................................100 (Personal Narrative/Using Homonyms to Unlock Meaning)Lesson 4 We Are Family! ..............................................................................107 (Poetry)
  • 5. Chapter 4 Appreciating My Friends ........................................................ 115Lesson 1 A Friend Indeed! ............................................................................115 (Skimming and Scanning)Lesson 2 Building Friendships .....................................................................125 (Identifying Author’s Purpose/Fact or Opinion)Lesson 3 Can We Still Be Friends? ..............................................................132 (Parts of an Essay/Identifying Main Idea and Topic Sentence)Lesson 4 Gratitude .........................................................................................141 (Songs/Identifying Supporting Details)Unit Test ....................................................................................................... 149Unit III Gearing Up for SuccessChapter 5 Planning for My Future ............................................................ 154Lesson 1 My Goals ........................................................................................154 (Simile and Metaphor/Compare-and-Contrast Essay)Lesson 2 Shaping Up! ...................................................................................161 (Personification/Recognizing Cause and Effect)Lesson 3 Money Matters ...............................................................................169 (How-to Essay/Analyzing Affixes)Lesson 4 Sharpening My Skills! ...................................................................177 (Persuasive Essay/Using Compound Words to Unlock Meaning)Chapter 6 Aiming High and Beyond! ....................................................... 182Lesson 1 Years from Now, I Will Be .............................................................182 (Idioms/Giving Directions)Lesson 2 Following Your Dreams .................................................................190 (Quotations/Using Quotation Marks)Lesson 3 People in the Community ..............................................................198 (Using Speech Balloons or Thought Bubbles and Comic Strip)Lesson 4 Do Not Give Up! .............................................................................207 (Biography, Autobiography, and Interview)Unit Test ........................................................................................................ 215
  • 6. Unit IV Keeping Up with the WorldChapter 7 Caring for Our World ............................................................... 220Lesson 1 The Rich Earth ..............................................................................220 (Travel Brochure/Using Word Analogies to Unlock Meaning)Lesson 2 Nature’s Warning ..........................................................................227 (Photo Essay/ Analyzing Parts of a Newspaper)Lesson 3 A Cry for Help ................................................................................235 (Adaptation/Identifying Types of Lead)Chapter 8 Celebrating Differences ........................................................... 244Lesson 1 There Is Hope .................................................................................244 (Allegory/Identifying News Elements)Lesson 2 A Variety of Color ..........................................................................251 (Denotation and Connotation/Using Contractions)Lesson 3 The Words of the World .................................................................259 (Understanding Internet Language)Lesson 4 Friends in Foreign Lands ..............................................................266 (Writing an E-mail/Friendly Letter)Lesson 5 Hand in Hand for a Better Tomorrow ..........................................273 (Filling out Forms)Unit Test ........................................................................................................ 279Bibliography
  • 7. UNIT 1 Knowing Myself This unit is all about you. You will meet characters who willguide you in discovering more about yourself. You will also learn aboutmany things that will help you reach your full potential.
  • 8. Chapter 1 Discovering the Beauty within Me This chapter will allow you to know and demonstrate yourabilities. You will display your talents and express your ideas. Youwill also know how you can use books to learn new information. Atthe end of this chapter, you are expected to be more confident inshowing the things you can do and the good things that are in you. Lesson 1 Yes, I Can! Connect Have you ever joined a competition or a contest? What do youthink people should have to win competitions? Rank the following from 1–5 according to importance. Write 1 asthe most important and 5 as the least important. ___ Supporters __ Experience___ Confidence ___ Knowledge ___ Luck2 Reading Works! 4
  • 9. Search Choose the best meaning of each underlined word. Encircle theletter of your answer.1. Since Erwin was a popular student, he did not see Julia as a strong contender in the competition. a. close friend b. opponent c. supporter2. Julia was reserved and only had a few close friends. a. boastful b. outgoing c. quiet3. She quickly glanced at the audience and saw several banners. a. looked b. waved c. smiled4. The quizmaster announced Julia’s name as winner so loudly, jolting her back to reality. a. surprising b. freezing c. asking5. With a thudding heart, Julia answered the question. a. comforting b. pounding c. hurting Download Julia will be competing with Erwin, a student who is known for his Let’s find out what attitude intelligence. Most people believe that will Julia show throughout Julia will not win against Erwin. the competition and what it will do for her. Knowing Myself 3
  • 10. The Quiz Show Faye Angeli D. Vitan Excited and nervous at the same time, beads of sweat started to form on Julia’s forehead. “What is the smallest fish in the world and where can it be found?” the quizmaster asked. With sweaty palms, Julia reached for the buzzer. She had been waiting for this day—the championship round of the General Information Quiz Bee. Julia read lots of books and browsed the Internet to search for more general information. She listened attentively to the lectures of Mr. Montes, her social studies teacher. Julia can still remember the day when Mr. Montes shared his plans to the class. “At the end of this month, we are going to have a General Information Quiz Bee. Each class in the fourth grade will choose a representative by class eliminations.” “I’m sure Erwin will win. He’s so smart!” said one of Julia’s classmates.4 Reading Works! 4
  • 11. “That remains to be seen. Everybody has a chance toparticipate. I’m giving you two weeks to do research and study forthe class eliminations. All of you should do your best,” Mr. Montesexplained. Although she did not say it loudly, Julia wanted to winthe contest. She always liked memorizing facts and knowinginformation about all kinds of topics. Julia knew that Erwinmight not see her as a strong contender. Unlike Erwin, she wasreserved and had few close friends. She did not like performing,too, compared to Erwin who was known to be a good dancer. “I’m not shy. I just like being quiet,” Julia would say wheneverpeople would ask why she seemed to be shy. “And I don’t lackintelligence either. I have good grades,” she would add. True enough, Julia emerged as the top student during theclass eliminations. Most of her classmates were surprised butnot everyone was convinced that she would be able to win thechampionship. “Erwin won the eliminations in his class. He won by 15 points.He’ll surely win the championship,” one of Julia’s classmatesexclaimed. “I bet he will. He won the science quiz show last year,” saidanother. “Just do your best, Julia. You’ve come this far. Don’t let otherpeople put you down,” Mr. Montes said to Julia. BUZZZZZZ! sounded the three buzzers almost all at the sametime. Knowing Myself 5
  • 12. Julia looked at the judges, hoping to be given the chance to answer the last question for the difficult round of the contest. She needed to answer the last question correctly to tie her score with Erwin’s. “Contestant number 2,” called one of the judges. Releasing a sigh of relief, Julia held the microphone and answered, “The smallest fish is Pandaka pygmaea and it can be found in Lake Buhi.” “The smallest fish is Pandaka pygmaea found in Lake Buhi. That is correct, contestant number 2!” the quizmaster said. “Since that’s the last question for the difficult round, may I ask the scorer to tally the scores,” added the quizmaster. Julia crossed her fingers, hoping she was right when she mentally calculated the scores. She glanced at the audience and saw several banners with Erwin’s name on them. Then she saw her friends who also brought a banner for her. “It doesn’t matter if I have fewer banners. I have come this far and not everybody gets this chance,” Julia thought to herself, remembering what Mr. Montes said. “Here are the final scores. Contestant number 1 got 60 points, while contestant numbers 2 and 3 both got 75 points. This means that contestant numbers 2 and 3 will compete for the clincher round of our General Information Quiz Bee. Thank you contestant number 1,” the quizmaster declared. Julia looked at Erwin. It was just the two of them left. She heard loud cheers for both Erwin and her.6 Reading Works! 4
  • 13. “You can do it, Julia!” cheered voices from the crowd. Shebeamed at them with a quiet confidence. “Go Julia!” more cheering voices filled the area. “In the Internet, what does www mean?” asked thequizmaster. BUZZZZZ! sounded Erwin’s buzzer. BUZZZZZ! sounded Julia’s buzzer a second later. Biting her lips, Julia knew that Erwin would get the answercorrectly. She pressed the buzzer too late. Erwin gave hisanswer. “I’m sorry contestant number 3, that is wrong,” said thequizmaster, jolting Julia back to reality. “Contestant number 2,you have the chance to answer the question correctly. If you areright, you will be the champion of this General Information QuizBee.” Julia closed her eyes for a moment trying to remember theanswer. Images and words went through her mind. Steppingforward with a thudding heart, Julia said, “www stands for WorldWide Web.” “That is correct! Congratulations contestant number 2. Youare the new champion of the General Information Quiz Bee!”announced the quizmaster. After the announcement of the winner, Erwin walked towardJulia. He shook her hands and smiled at her. Mr. Montes came upthe stage to give Julia the trophy. She heard the crowd cheeringher name. She heard people congratulating her. She made it. Shewon the championship. Knowing Myself 7
  • 14. Click1. What day was Julia waiting for? Why was she waiting for it?2. How did Julia prepare for it?3. Why did some students think that Erwin would win the quiz bee?4. If you were Julia, how would you feel about it?5. Based on the line, “I’m not shy. I just like being quiet,” what kind of student is Julia?6. If you were the writer of the story, how would you end it? Why? LinkSources of Information in the Library Contestants in quiz competitions like Julia and Erwin areexpected to know a lot of information. Usually, the person whoknows more has better chances of winning. Even in everyday life, itis helpful if you are knowledgeable about many things. The libraryprovides materials about common and relevant information. Theseare called reference materials. Basic reference materials are dictionaries, thesauri,encyclopedia, periodicals, yearbooks, and atlases. To find the meaning of words, use the dictionary or thethesaurus. These materials also provide information on thepronunciation, origin, syllabication, and part of speech of words. To find general information on different topics, the encyclopediacan be used. It is a set of books arranged alphabetically. It covers awide range of subjects from almost all branches of knowledge. To know the current issues and events in a particular place, referto the periodicals. These include newspapers and magazines. To identify the important people and events of a particular year,a yearbook can be used. It gives information about what happened8 Reading Works! 4
  • 15. during a particular year, including important events in the lives offamous and influential people. To determine the location of a place, turn to an atlas. Itcontains relevant information about places such as capital cities andlandmarks.Activity 1 Determine the reference material you should use to answer thefollwing questions. Write only the letter of your answer on the spaceprovided. a. Dictionary d. Yearbook b. Encyclopedia e. Atlas c. Periodical____ 1. Who is Princess Diana?____ 2. What is the latest in fashion?____ 3. What is the capital of Malaysia?____ 4. What is the meaning of the word arrogant?____ 5. What was the strongest typhoon that hit the Philippines last year?Activity 2 Visit the library and find the answers to the following questions.Write your answer to each question and the title of the referencematerial that you used.1. What is the meaning of the word abstract? Answer __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Reference: __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Knowing Myself 9
  • 16. 2. What two movies are shown in theaters today? Answer __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Reference: __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________3. What are the names of the bodies of water that surround the Answer __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Reference: __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________Activity 3 Choose a partner and discuss the answers to the followingquestions. Write your answers on the space provided.1. What is the difference between a dictionary and a thesaurus? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________2. What is the difference between a newspaper and a magazine? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________10 Reading Works! 4
  • 17. 3. In what way is an encyclopedia similar to an educational Web site? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Upload How you look at yourself should not depend on how popular youare or how many friends you have. Just like Julia, there is somethingunique about you that makes you special. In this activity, show what you can do with confidence. Thinkof a talent that you have or a skill that you have learned. Show thistalent or skill in class. Tell your teacher and classmates how youlearned about this talent or skill. Knowing Myself 11
  • 18. Lesson 2 Uniquely Smart Connect Read the sentences below. Put a  in the box that shows thethings you can do. 1. I can climb a tree. 2. I can sing a song well. 3. I can draw an animal quickly and neatly. 4. I can deliver lines from a poem I have learned with proper intonation and appropriate facial expressions. 5. I can greet and make friends with other people without feeling shy. Why do you think you can do some of the things above? Why doyou think there are some things that you cannot do that well? Search Look up the meaning of the words below by using a dictionary.Write your answers on the space provided.1. abilities – ____________________________________________________________2. logic – ___________________________________________________________3. psychologist – ___________________________________________________4. acquire – ______________________________________________________5. prefer – ________________________________________________________12 Reading Works! 4
  • 19. DownloadMost people often thinkthat being smart means But do you know that people whogetting only high grades can play basketball well, those whoin school. can sing well, and those who can confidently talk to other people are also considered smart? Find out why. What Kind of a Smart Are You? Faye Angeli D. Vitan Have you ever wondered why some kids are good at solvingmath problems but not as good as others in playing sports? Whydo you think some are good at drawing but not in writing? Whyis it that some are good at relating to people but not as good asothers in expressing themselves? Knowing Myself 13
  • 20. This is because people have different abilities or intelligences. It is not true that only kids who are good at math or science are the only ones who are smart. If you are good at adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing, you are logic smart. If you are good at playing basketball, volleyball, dancing, or anything that uses a lot of body movements, you are body smart. If you are good at playing musical instruments, you are music smart. You are picture smart if you are good at drawing, painting, or taking pictures. You are word smart if you are good with words whether in speaking or in writing. People who can make friends with different kinds of people are people smart. People who are good at expressing what they think and feel are self smart. An American psychologist named Howard Gardner believes that people have the ability to acquire different types of talents, skills, and learning. But some people prefer to focus on developing only one or only some of these. Still, some try to develop several abilities. How about you, what kind of a smart are you?14 Reading Works! 4
  • 21. Click1. What are the different smart types or kinds of intelligences discussed in the essay?2. According to the essay, why do people have different abilities?3. What is the main idea of the essay?4. Is it possible for someone to excel in more than one intelligence? Why or why not?5. Why do you think some people focus on developing only one intelligence?6. What type of intelligence do you want to develop more? Why? LinkThe Dictionary The words intelligence and logic are words that cannot be easilydefined. They are considered as big words. Big words are those thatcan have different meanings to different people. To know the exactmeaning of words, especially of big words, you can use the dictionary. The dictionary is used to find the meaning of words, to knowthe correct pronunciation of words, and to see the correct spellingand syllabication of words. Some dictionaries also show the origin ofwords. Knowing Myself 15
  • 22. (•) DENOTES SYLLABLE BREAKS PRONUNCIATION (see first pages of a dictionary for key) ACCENT MARKS (primary and secondary) PART OF SPEECH e bi•as (bi’ s) n. 1. A line cutting diagonally across the grain of fabric. 2. Preference or inclination that inhibits impartiality; prejudice. –adv. On a diagonal; aslant. –v. –ased or assed, –as•ing or as•sing. To cause to have a bias; prejudice [OFr. biais, oblique]. INFLECTED FORMS OF THE WORD ETYMOLOGY (word’s history)Source: http://ykonline.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/Courses/LifeSkillsEnglish/Quarters/ firstquarter.html (accessed on 27 June 2011) A dictionary contains many words. Even though these wordsare arranged alphabetically, it can still be difficult for a reader tofind a specific word quickly. Because of this, printed dictionaries useguide words. Guide words are words found on the top corners of thepages. The word on the upper left corner represents the first wordwritten on a particular page while the word on the right representsthe last word on the page. Guide words help a reader to find wordseasily.16 Reading Works! 4
  • 23. Sample Page of a DictionaryGuide word Guide wordshowing the showing thefirst word on last word onthe page the pageSource: http://www.antimoon.com/how/cobuild-review-page2.gif (accessed on 20 May 2011) Knowing Myself 17
  • 24. To find words using online dictionaries, words are typed inthe search box. Type the words you want to search in the box, then click Search or press Enter. Source: http://mashable.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/07/dictionarycom.PNG (accessed on 20 May 2011) Dictionaries also contain stress marks to help readers pronouncewords correctly. A stress mark (´) is a mark placed above a vowelsound to indicate emphasis on a syllable. For example, the word record can have two different meaningsdepending on where you put the stress. If you say “récord,” you arereferring to a list of items. If you say “recórd,” you are referring tothe act of writing or of noting items.Activity 1 Choose the guide words that can help in finding the followingunderlined words in a dictionary. Encircle the letter of the correctanswer.1. People should appreciate what other people can do. a. appraisal–apricot b. appetite–appoint c. apron–aquarium d. Arabic–arc18 Reading Works! 4
  • 25. 2. A graceful dancer is an example of a body smart person. a. grab–grading b. gossip–government c. graduate–grain d. gram–grandfather3. The guitar is one of the most common musical instruments that people can play. a. impossible–improper b. insist–inspiration c. instead–insult d. intake–intelligent4. A psychologist studies the way people feel, think, and act. a. power–proverb b. psychic–pub c. prudent–psalm d. public–puff5. People smart are those who can easily talk and be friends with strangers. a. storm–strand b. string–strong c. study–style d. stove–strapActivity 2 Use a dictionary to find the meaning of the following words. Takenote of the stress for the correct meaning of each word. Then useeach word in a sentence.1. cónduct Meaning: ______________________________________________________ Sentence: ______________________________________________________ Knowing Myself 19
  • 26. condúct Meaning: ______________________________________________________ Sentence: ______________________________________________________2. ínvite Meaning: ______________________________________________________ Sentence: ______________________________________________________ invíte Meaning: ______________________________________________________ Sentence: ______________________________________________________Activity 3 Pair up and answer the following questions:1. In what situations can a dictionary be helpful to pupils like you? Give at least two.2. How does a dictionary help you enrich your vocabulary? Upload Think about a famous person you admire. Research informationabout this person on the Internet. Use two or more Web sites to getbetter information. Complete the paragraph on the next page withinformation you found out about this particular person. Share yourfindings with the class.20 Reading Works! 4
  • 27. I admire ____________________________________________________. (name of the person)He/she is known for ________________________________________. (field where the person excels)He/she started his/her career when ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. (events/situations that helped the person become famous)I also found out that he/she _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. (additional information that interests you)I want to be like him/her because _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. (personal reasons for admiring the person) Knowing Myself 21
  • 28. Lesson 3 The Goodness in Me Connect What are the things that come to your mind when you hear thewords thank you? Write two to three things you would like to thank yourclassmates for. In two to three minutes, move around the classroomand show your classmates your thank-you note. For example: Thank you for sharing your snack with me. 1. Thank you, Abby, for sharing your... 2. 3. From: ________________ What do you feel about your classmates’ thank-you notes to you?22 Reading Works! 4
  • 29. Search Find the meaning of the underlined words by using a printeddictionary or going online. Write your answers in your notebook.1. Plants and vegetables bloom in Kali’s garden all-year round.2. Gani thinks that Kali is a simple-minded person for giving out half of his harvest to poor people.3. A terrible storm destroyed Kali’s house.4. It is an absurdity to write a book with nothing but salamat.5. The Sultan ordered his guards to summon Kali.6. “Thank you” should come from truly grateful hearts. Download You will meet two different men in the selection you Kali and Gani both wrote books filled are about to read. They are with the words salamat or thank you. Kali and Gani. But when they sold them to the Sultan, Kali’s book cost three bags of gold while Gani’s book cost nothing. Read on to know how this happened. Knowing Myself 23
  • 30. The Book of Salamat (A Philippine folktale) Adapted by Faye Angeli D. Vitan Once there were two neighbors named Kali and Gani, who earned their living by planting and selling vegetables. Even though they were poor, both men were proud of what they do. The soil was rich in their gardens, making different plants and vegetables bloom all year round. But during the harvest season, Gani would always earn more than Kali. Gani would sell all his crops at a high price while Kali would give half of his produce to their poor neighbors. And whenever the neighbors would say salamat or thank you to Kali, he would write it on a blank book where he kept all the thanks he received. These would remind him of the times he was able to help others and this made him happy. “I do not understand you, Kali. Why do you keep on giving these people your harvest? You work so hard and then you just give it away. You’re a fool,” Gani told Kali. “I earn enough to feed myself. I have a house to live in and clothes to keep me warm. I am more than happy to share what I have,” Kali reasoned out.24 Reading Works! 4
  • 31. “Ha! What a simple-minded person you are, Kali. As forme, I will be able to build a bigger house next year. I willalso buy more clothes. I hope you will not regret what youare doing,” said Gani. Kali just smiled and continued working.He also wanted a more comfortable house but the “thanks”that he received from other people were more precious to him.Every night, he would read his book containing all the thanksspoken to him. On the other hand, Gani continued working andbuilding his house of stone. He even hired a gardener to workon his garden. One night, a terrible storm came and destroyed the woodenhouse of Kali while Gani’s stone house stood strong against thewinds. Kali did not have enough money to build another house.The vegetables he planted were also destroyed. “How could Istart again?” Kali thought to himself. Then he thought of anidea that he hoped would work. He got his book and went to thepublic market to sell it. Knowing Myself 25
  • 32. “Salamat for sale! Salamat for sale! Who wants to buy my Book of Salamat?” Kali shouted. People who passed by him and heard him thought he was crazy. Who would buy a book with nothing but salamat? Because of the absurdity of what he was selling, word spread across town until it reached the Sultan. The Sultan became curious of the man selling the book. He ordered his men to summon Kali. He wanted to see for himself what this farmer was selling. “Show me what you are selling, Young Man,” the Sultan ordered. Kali showed his book to the Sultan. The Sultan opened the book and saw the word salamat written all over its pages in clear and honest handwriting. “This man is no fool,” the Sultan thought. “How much would you want for the book?” asked the Sultan. “I shall sell my book for whatever it will weigh in gold,” answered Kali. The Sultan asked his servants to get a piece of gold and a weighing scale. He placed the book on one end of the scale and the gold on the other. The book was heavier. He asked his servants to add more gold26 Reading Works! 4
  • 33. and still the book was heavier. And no matter how many pieces of gold were on the other end, the book was still heavier. The Sultan then decided to give Kali three bags of gold. “There, Young Man, start your life anew with those bags of gold.” Kali built a big stone house and bought more land for planting. Gani got jealous of Kali’s fortune and wondered how he could get richer. When he learned how Kali became richer, he bought a thicker and heavier book. Then he filled its pages with the word salamat. He went to the Sultan and tried to sell the book. The Sultan asked his servants to weigh the book with the pieces of gold just like what he did with Kali’s. The Sultan placed a bag of gold but the book was lighter. The Sultan took half of the gold pieces but the book was still lighter. Finally, the Sultan just placed some gold dust but the book was still lighter. “How can this be? I worked long nights to fill that book and it costs nothing?” Gani exclaimed. “Poor man! No matter how many times you write salamat in your book, if it doesn’t come from a really grateful heart, then it is meaningless,” the Sultan told Gani. Click1. How did Kali and Gani earn their living?2. Why was Gani earning more than Kali?3. Why did Kali list down every salamat said to him? Why do you think Kali had to remind himself of the good things he did? Knowing Myself 27
  • 34. 4. Based on the selection, what kind of person was the Sultan? How about Kali and Gani? Explain your answer.5. What do you think does the statement “People are essentially good if they are given a chance to be one” mean? LinkParts of a Book In the early times, books were expensive because they werehandwritten just like Kali’s Book of Salamat. But when the printingpress was invented in the 15th century, more books were made. Andbecause there are more books now, it is important that you knowhow to choose wisely the books that you will read. Knowing theparts of a book can help you choose which ones will best give you theinformation you need. A book has three basic parts: the front matter, the body, and theback matter. The front matter has the following pages:• Title page – It contains the book title, the author, and the publisher of the book. A book title can already give you an idea of what a book is all about.• Copyright page – The copyright page shows the legal rights of the publishing company to print and sell the books.• Preface or Introduction – This gives an overview of a book. The author explains the purpose of the book and what the reader can expect from the book.• Table of contents – The table of contents gives an outline of topics covered by the book. It presents the flow or arrangement of the inside of the book with corresponding pages. The content of the book is called body. It contains the ideas and the lessons the author wants to share with the readers.28 Reading Works! 4
  • 35. The back matter refers to the pages after the body. It usually has the following pages:• Index – This part gives an alphabetical listing of topics or important words that can be found in the book. It also provides the pages where a particular topic or word can be found.• Glossary – This is like a small dictionary that contains key terms used in the book. It gives the definition of the terms based on how they are used in the body. It may also include the pronunciation of words.• References or bibliography – These pages show a list of the sources of information the author used in writing the book. By listing them down, the author acknowledges the ideas of other people or other writers which had helped him or her come up with the book. These lists can also help readers find books of the same topic.Activity 1 Study the following pages. Name the part of the book shown.Write your answer on the space provided. 1. _______________________ Knowing Myself 29
  • 36. 2. _______________________ 3. _______________________30 Reading Works! 4
  • 37. 4. _______________________5. _______________________ Knowing Myself 31
  • 38. Activity 2 Read the following situations. Write on the space provided thecorrect part of the book to be used to find the information needed.1. Alyssa wants to find the page of the story that she has to read for her English class. ___________________________2. Joey wants to find out the meaning of the word photosynthesis which he has read about in the book. ________________________3. Helen has to research for more information about the topic she has read. She has to find other books of the same topic. ___________________________4. Mino wants to read about the overview of the book. ___________________________5. Justin needs to scan the pages where the topic matter is discussed. ___________________________Activity 3 Choose a partner and discuss your answers to the followingquestions:1. How do the table of contents and the index differ in arranging the topics in a book?2. How can a glossary help a reader?3. What are the similarities and differences of a printed book and an e-book?32 Reading Works! 4
  • 39. Upload Sometimes, you have to be reminded of the good things youdid so that you can do more good things for others. In the Book ofSalamat, Kali wrote down the word salamat over and over again forhim to remember that he was able to help others. By keeping hisgood deeds in mind, he was encouraged to continue the good acts hehad started. Refresh your memory about the good deeds you have done forother people. It can be as simple as sharing your school things witha classmate or as big as sacrificing something for a friend. Use theguide questions below to write a paragraph about your good deeds.Write your paragraph on a sheet of paper.1. What good deeds have you done for another person?2. Why did you do such deeds? What encouraged you to do those things?3. How do you feel about doing good deeds? Knowing Myself 33
  • 40. Lesson 4 Afraid No More Connect What do you fear the most? Why are you afraid of it? List downpossible reasons. I am afraid of __________________ because… ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ . Search Identify what the arrows indicate. Choose your answer from thegiven words below. Write your answers inside the box. beak feathers prey talons 1. 2. 4. 3.Sources of pictures: http://patrioticcoloringpages.com/eagle/free/002-bald-eagle-drawings.gif http://www.wpclipart.com/animals/birds/C/chicken/running_chicken.png (Both are accessed on 27 June 2011.)34 Reading Works! 4
  • 41. DownloadEagles are considered as the kingof all birds. They are birds that rise Ellie is a 40-year-old eagle who hasabove storms. Let me introduce you to face a painful process in his life.to Ellie the Eagle. Find out why he has to overcome his fears and go through the changes in his life. The Brave Eagle Faye Angeli D. Vitan I am forty years old and yet I am still afraid. But even if I feel scared, I believe that I am ready to take on this special yet painful stage of my life. I am Ellie the Eagle. Eagles like me can live up to seventy years old. No other bird can reach that age. But now after living my life for forty years, my talons can no longer grab a prey. They are not as strong and sharp as Knowing Myself 35
  • 42. they used to be. If I cannot grab a prey, I will have no food. I will go hungry and I will eventually die. I am a carnivore, you see. I only eat meat. If only I can eat plants, I would live longer but I am not created that way. My beak that used to look strong and fierce is now bent. I look old and weak with my bent beak. And oh, my majestic wings! The feathers that used to look so good on me are now old, too. They are now stuck on my chest. Because of this, I am having a hard time flying when flying had been so easy for me before. I have to make a difficult decision. I have to face a painful process of change. I have to face my fears so I can live for thirty more years. Tomorrow at daybreak, I will leave my nest and my old life just like other eagles that have lived before me. I will fly to the top of the mountain and live there for 150 days. I will knock my bent beak on a wood until it plucks out. Can you imagine yourself knocking your lips on something hard? It will bleed. It will surely hurt me. But I just have to do it because after my old beak is knocked out, a new one will grow. I will have a strong and fierce beak once again. But the pain does not stop there. The new beak that I will have will help me pluck out the old talons I have now. It will be36 Reading Works! 4
  • 43. like losing one’s hands. I can just imagine the agony that I will go through. But again, I just have to do it. Like my beak, new talons will grow. My new talons will help me grip my prey better. The last stage of this process is the most painful one. With my new talons, I will have to pluck out my feathers one by one. It will feel terrible. Perhaps, I will cry or shout in pain. But if I do not do this, I will not be able to fly as high as I did before. I am scared. But I have to overcome my fear if I want to live for thirty more years. Tomorrow, I will face my fear so I can soar high again. Click1. What was Ellie the Eagle afraid of?2. Why was he afraid of the process of change that he has to undergo?3. What should Ellie do to live for thirty more years?4. What would happen if Ellie would not undergo the process of change?5. If you were Ellie, would you be willing to go through the same process? Why or why not?6. What is the message of Ellie’s story? Link Ellie’s story is a real story of how eagles live, but Ellie, the character,is fiction. Stories can either be fiction or nonfiction. Knowing Myself 37
  • 44. Fiction Fictional texts are writings that are imaginary. Some fictionwritings use real people and real events as their bases. Examples offiction writings are short stories, fairy tales, myths, parables, and fables.Fiction writings are usually written for entertainment purposes.Nonfiction Nonfictional texts are writings based on real events. Writingsthat focus on facts and information are nonfiction. Examplesof nonfiction writings are news stories, biographies, historicalaccounts, and references. Nonfiction writings are usually written to shareinformation. Texts are also classified as fiction and nonfiction based on thecontext of reality and fantasy. Reality refers to events that happenand that can happen in real life. It refers to things that are highlypossible to happen. Nonfictional texts are all about reality. Fantasy refers to events that usually include magic and unusualthings. It can also refer to people and events that are unbelievable.Fictional texts are rich in fantasies.Activity 1A. Tell whether the following titles are fiction or nonfiction. Write F if it is fiction and NF if nonfiction. Write your answer on the space provided before each number. _____ 1. “Snow White and the Seven Dwarves” _____ 2. “The Hare and the Tortoise” _____ 3. “The Life of Rizal”38 Reading Works! 4
  • 45. _____ 4. Philippine History _____ 5. “How to Prepare Desserts”B. Tell whether the following situations are fantasy or reality. Write F for fantasy and R for reality. Write your answer on the space provided before each number. _____ 1. A frog turns into a prince after a beautiful lady kisses him. _____ 2. An explorer from Europe goes to China and shares stories about his experiences. _____ 3. An inventor makes a time machine and visits different periods of history. _____ 4. A girl shares her excitement about the arrival of her baby brother. _____ 5. A boy enrolls in a school of wizardry to defeat a wicked witch.C. Visit your school library. Browse through the books. Find two books: a fiction book and a nonfiction. Share with your classmates how the two books are different from each other. Also, prove why the book is fiction and the other nonfiction.Activity 2 Discuss with a partner the following questions:1. Why do you think fairy tales are considered fiction?2. What do you think is the purpose of fiction writing? How about nonfiction? Knowing Myself 39
  • 46. Upload Think about your favorite book. Tell what it is about and why youlike it. Say whether it is fiction or nonfiction. Share with the class allabout your favorite book using the following guide questions:1. What is the title of the book? Who is the author?2. Is it fiction or nonfiction?3. What is the theme or the message of the book?4. What part of the book interests you the most? Why?40 Reading Works! 4
  • 47. Chapter 2 Learning More about Myself In this chapter, you will meet more characters who will helpyou know more about yourself. Through them, you will be given thechance to think about the things you love, the things you shouldchange about yourself, and the things that you can do for otherpeople. This chapter will also help you to be more aware of yourrights as a child. So continue the journey of learning more aboutyourself. Lesson 1 Creating a New Me Connect With a partner, discuss your answers to the following questionsand be ready to share it with the class:1. Have you ever lied before?2. Why do you think people lie sometimes?3. What will you feel if somebody lies to you? Search Read the given statements on the next page. Tell the meaningof the underlined word in each statement. Choose your answer fromthe words in the box below. Write your answer on the space providedbefore each number. angrily pleasantly spread out entertain countryside group of sheep Knowing Myself 41
  • 48. _____________ 1. Ali lives in a rural village where he takes care of his sheep._____________ 2. The shepherd boy tricked the villagers to amuse himself._____________ 3. Ali shouted that a wolf was chasing his flock._____________ 4. The villagers talked crossly at Ali for tricking them._____________ 5. The sheep were scattered when the wolf attacked them. Download Maybe you have heard of the saying, “Honesty is the Find out in the story best policy.” Lying, even you are about to read just for fun, is not a good what will happen if you thing to do. consistently lie and make fun of people.42 Reading Works! 4
  • 49. The Boy Who Cried Wolf One hot day, on the grassy hillside of a rural village, ashepherd boy named Ali felt so bored. He wanted to go homeand play, but his father ordered him to take care of their flock.Then an idea came to his mind to amuse himself. “Wolf! Wolf! A wolf is coming to eat our sheep. Help! Help!”Ali shouted. The villagers hurriedly ran to where Ali and his flock were.They armed themselves with weapons to kill the wolf. But whenthey reached the hillside, there was no wolf. What they saw wasa boy, laughing his heart out at them. “Hahaha! Hahaha! I got you there! Hahaha!” laughed Ali. “Don’t cry ‘wolf’ when there’s no wolf!” the villagers angrilytold him while they went back to the village. Later, Ali decided to pull his trick once again. “Help! Help! Abig bad wolf is chasing the sheep. Please help me!” Ali yelled. Knowing Myself 43
  • 50. Once again, the villagers ran to help Ali. But once again, a wolf was nowhere to be found. Instead, they found Ali rolling on the grass, laughing. “Why do you keep on shouting ‘wolf’? You’re just making fun of us,” the villagers said crossly at Ali. They went back to the village grumbling at how Ali made fun of them. After an hour, a real wolf came to attack Ali’s sheep. Ali quickly got up and loudly cried, “Wolf! A real wolf is attacking our sheep! Help me! Please help me! Please! Help!” Ali kept on crying for help but no one came. The villagers who heard Ali thought he was tricking them again. At sunset, the villagers searched for Ali because he did not return home. On the hillside, they saw a boy crying quietly on the grass. “A wolf really came. The sheep were scattered and I didn’t know where they were. I cried for help but nobody came,” Ali said while weeping. “If you did not trick us before, we would have come to help you. Nobody believes in a liar even if he is telling the truth,” one of the villagers said. Click1. What was Ali doing on the hillside?2. Why did Ali trick the villagers? If you were one of the villagers, how would you feel about Ali’s act? Why?3. Based on the selection, what kind of a boy was Ali?44 Reading Works! 4
  • 51. 4. What do you think will happen when Ali gets home after losing his sheep?5. Explain this statement: “Nobody believes in a liar even if he is telling the truth.” LinkElements of a Short Story “The Boy Who Cried Wolf ” is a well-known story throughout theworld. It has been adapted in different languages and in differentforms. A short story is generally a tale with a single plot and is meantto be read in one sitting. The selection “The Boy Who Cried Wolf”is an example of a short story. Short stories are made up of severalcomponents called elements. These include the setting, characters,plot, conflict, point of view, and theme. Setting refers to the time and place in which a story occurs.It answers the questions where and when a story happened. Somestories do not directly tell the setting. You just have to make goodguesses or infer based on other details that are mentioned in thestory. People, animals, and things that can move, speak, feel, and thinkin a story are called characters. A story has three basic parts: the beginning, the climax orturning point, and the ending or resolution. These basic parts makeup the plot of a story. The plot is the sequence of events in a story. The problem in a story is called the conflict. The point of view of a story refers to who is telling the story.If the narrator is not part of the story, it is told from a third-personpoint of view. If the narrator is a character in a story, it is told from afirst-person point of view. Most stories have messages or lessons. We call them the themeof the story. It answers the question, “What is the story about?” Knowing Myself 45
  • 52. Here are the short story elements of “The Boy Who Cried Wolf”: Title: The Boy Who Cried Wolf Setting: One hot day on a grassy hillside of a rural village Characters: Ali, villagers, Ali’s father, flock of sheep, and wolf Plot: Ali, a shepherd boy, tricked the villagers into thinking that his flock of sheep was being attacked by a wolf twice. So when a real wolf came to eat his sheep, nobody responded when he called for help because the villagers thought Ali was still tricking them. Conflict: The villagers did not believe Ali when he called for help. Point of view: Third-person point of view Theme: Nobody believes in a liar even if he is telling the truth. Pointing out these elements means that you have understood thestory you have read. Identifying these elements can also help you inretelling or summarizing the story. A summary is a shortened version of a story. It recounts themain events without changing the message of the story. Peopleusually summarize stories when they retell them to another person.For example, when you want to share a movie that you have watchedto a friend, you are going to retell the important events in that movie.In a way, you are already summarizing. A good summary of a story presents the elements of a shortstory, and it does not mean that you have to include everything.When you make a summary, focus on the important details. Thethird-person point of view is used in making a summary.46 Reading Works! 4
  • 53. Here is a sample summary of “The Boy Who Cried Wolf.” One hot day, a shepherd boy named Ali tricked the villagers. He called for help and said that a wolf was attacking his sheep. The villagers immediately arrived to help him but they found out that Ali was just tricking them. Later in the afternoon, Ali tricked the villagers one more time by calling out that a wolf was attacking his flock. Once again, the villagers went to help him but they found out that Ali was just making fun of them. After an hour, a real wolf came to attack Ali’s sheep. He cried out for help but nobody came because the villagers thought that he was tricking them again.Activity 1 Think of a short story that you have read before. Point out theelements of that story by answering the questions below. Title: __________________________________________________________ Setting: Where did the story happen? ___________________________________________ When did the story happen? ____________________________________________ Characters: Who was the main character? __________________________________________ Who were the supporting characters? __________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Plot: What was the beginning of the story? _________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Knowing Myself 47
  • 54. What was the turning point of the story? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ What was the ending of the story? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Conflict: What was the problem of the main character? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Point of View: Who was telling the story? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Theme: What was the message of the story? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________48 Reading Works! 4
  • 55. Activity 2 Summarize the story you used in activity 1 by making a comicstrip. Draw only the main events in the story and then write three tofour sentences describing your drawing.Activity 3 Listen to the story that your teacher will read to you. Identifythe elements of the story. Then write a summary of it below. Limityour summary to two paragraphs with four to six sentences each. Knowing Myself 49
  • 56. Upload Everyone has bad traits or habits that need to be improved orchanged. As the popular saying goes, “Nobody is perfect.” Just likeAli, there are things about you that you should change. No matterhow easy or difficult it would be, it is never too late to change. Think of one habit or trait that you think you should change soyou can become a better person. Write a short essay about this. Giveways on how you can change or avoid that bad habit.50 Reading Works! 4
  • 57. Lesson 2 I Love… Connect Rank the following from 1 to 5 according to how important theyare to you, with number 1 being the most important and number 5being the least important. Write your rankings in the circles. family health love wealth power Why is number 1 the most important to you? Why is number 5the least important? Explain your answers below. Knowing Myself 51
  • 58. Search Use each word in a sentence. Write your sentence on the spaceprovided.1. gold: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________2. family: ____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________3. happiness: ___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________4. important: ____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Download It is common for people to think that riches and money Sure, having money may have its can make them happy. They benefits. But riches are not only can buy anything they need about money. Riches can also and want. They can go to come in the form of people—the places and can easily have people who love us. In this story, friends. find out what a greedy king learned about riches.52 Reading Works! 4
  • 59. King Midas and the Golden Touch (A myth) Many years ago, there lived a king named Midas. His kingdomwas one of the biggest in the land and his army was one of thestrongest. King Midas also had the largest number of gold in theentire land. It was said that there was a big room in his palacewhere he stored all of his gold. He loved gold so much that he spenta lot of his time in this room counting his gold. “One hundred and two, one hundred and three, one hundredand four…” King Midas counted. “Haha! I am the richest man inthe world. I have all of these gold things with me. But I need tohave more,” added the king. While the king was busy counting his gold, his daughter,named Marigold, went inside the room. “Papa! Can we play in the garden? I want to breathe somefresh air,” Marigold said. Knowing Myself 53
  • 60. “My princess, why don’t you ask a servant to play with you? I am quite busy here,” King Midas explained. “Papa, you can count your gold later. I want to play with you and not with the servants,” Marigold insisted. “Marigold, just play with someone else. I am very busy here. Do I need to be angry with you for you to obey me?” the king said loudly. “Okay, Papa.” Marigold said in a small voice before walking away. King Midas continued counting his gold. Deep in his heart, he wished that he could have more and more gold. Suddenly, a god appeared in front of him. “Midas, you are very rich. There is no other king that has more gold than you,” the god said. “That could be true. But I wish that I could have more gold,” King Midas said. “If you think there is nothing that could make you happier than gold, I will give you the golden touch,” said the god. “Oh, there’s nothing that I want more than gold. What do you mean by the golden touch?” the king asked eagerly. “Whoever has the golden touch will turn everything into gold with his touch. Since you said that gold can make you happy, you will have the golden touch beginning tomorrow,” the god said before vanishing. King Midas was so happy that he could hardly sleep that night. He woke up very early the next day to test what he just learned from the god. He wanted to know if what the god said was true. King Midas tried to touch the things around him—54 Reading Works! 4
  • 61. his bed, pillow, table, vases, and many more. True enough, allthe things he touched turned into gold. What the god had saidwas true! King Midas spent the entire morning turning things intogold. He was very happy until it was time for him to eat. Whenhe touched his food, it turned into gold. When he touched hisdrink, it also turned into gold. He was very hungry already buthe could neither eat nor drink because everything he touchedturned into gold. Then Marigold came in bringing some flowers for herfather. “Papa, Papa! Here are some golden flowers I saw in ourgarden. I’ve brought them for…” Marigold had not finished whatshe was saying when King Midas embraced her. The King washappy to see his daughter, but forgot that he has the golden touch.Upon touching his daughter, Marigold turned intoa golden statue. “Marigold! Oh no! Not you…” KingMidas cried. The king cried becausehe lost everything thatwas dear to him. He calledout to the god, hoping thatthe golden touch would betaken away from him. “Oh, god! Please takeaway this golden touch. Knowing Myself 55
  • 62. This is not a gift! This is a curse! Please! Help me!” King Midas cried loudly. “Why are you crying, Midas? I thought gold makes you happy,” said the god who appeared before the king. “I thought gold would make me happy but I was wrong. I cannot eat nor drink. And now Marigold has turned into gold, too. I cannot be happy without my daughter. She is the only family I have,” King Midas said. “So you don’t think that gold is the most important thing in the world?” the god asked. “No, not anymore. There are more important things than gold,” King Midas explained. The god instructed the king to get a pitcher of water from the spring in their garden. “Sprinkle that water on the things you have turned into gold. They will return to their original state,” the god said. King Midas hurriedly sprinkled water on Marigold and then on the food that turned into gold. He also sprinkled water on all the things he touched that morning. He learned to be contented with the gold he had and learned to give importance to what truly mattered to him—his daughter, Marigold. Click1. What was the most important thing for King Midas at the beginning of the story?2. Based on the selection, what kind of a father was King Midas before he got the golden touch?56 Reading Works! 4
  • 63. 3. What is the golden touch?4. How did King Midas learn that gold is not the most important thing in the world?5. If you were the god, would you give King Midas another chance? Why or why not?6. Is the golden touch a gift or a curse? Explain. LinkMyths Myths are examples of short fiction. The story “King Midas andthe Golden Touch” is a myth. Myths are stories that show situations involving gods andgoddesses. These gods and goddesses are fictional. They are createdto show how people can be rewarded when they do something goodand how people can be punished when they do something bad. Theyare also created to explain why certain things happen. Most myths are told in chronological order. This means that thestory is told according to the time that the events happened. A goodway to understand stories is by sequencing events in chronologicalorder.Sequencing Events To sequence means to arrange in a series or to put in order. Instories, sequencing means arranging the events in a story based ontime. For example, if you are going to arrange the story of your life,you would start it when you were a baby because that happened first.Then it would be followed by the time when you were a toddler. Next Knowing Myself 57
  • 64. would be when you were in preschool and finally now that you are inthe fourth grade. Knowing how to sequence events is a way of understanding astory better. It also helps in identifying the most important eventsand the least important ones that happen in the story.Activity 1A. Use the numbers 1–5 to arrange the sequence of events of the story “King Midas and the Golden Touch.” Write your answers on the space provided. _____ A god appeared before King Midas and gave him the golden touch. _____ King Midas spent his days in a room counting gold and had no time for his daughter. _____ The king sprinkled water on Marigold and all the things he had turned into gold. _____ The food and Marigold all turned into gold. _____ King Midas cried to the god and asked that the golden touch be taken away from him.B. Read the sentences below. Arrange them in a logical order to complete the story of “Icarus and Daedalus.” Write numbers 1–7 on the space provided. Number 1 was done for you. _____ With broken wings, Icarus fell from the sky to the ocean deep.58 Reading Works! 4
  • 65. _____ Once there was king who ordered Daedalus to build a maze 1 for the Minotaur so that it cannot escape. _____ The king did not want anybody to know about the maze and the Minotaur, so he ordered that Daedalus and his son Icarus should be imprisoned in a high tower. _____ Icarus flew so high that the sun melted the wax in his wings and the wind blew his feathers away. _____ Using the feathers from the birds that fly outside the prison, Daedalus made some wings. _____ Daedalus and Icarus escaped by flying out the window of their prison. _____ With his skill, Daedalus finished the maze in no time.Activity 2 Using the Internet, look for a myth that interests you and thenread about it. Write five to seven sentences that sequence the mainevents of the myth you have read. Title: __________________________________Event 1: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________Event 2: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Knowing Myself 59
  • 66. Event 3: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________Event 4: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________Event 5: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________Event 6: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________Event 7: ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Upload The story “King Midas and the Golden Touch” shows how peoplesometimes forget the more valuable things in life such as family andfriends. Think of five people you value most in life. Then preparepictures or drawings of these people. Make a short PowerPoint presentation using the pictures orillustrations you collected. Under each picture or illustration, writeone to two sentences explaining why you value the person.60 Reading Works! 4
  • 67. Lesson 3 The Hero in Me Connect List the things that come into your mind when you see or hearthe word hero. Write your answers inside the sun rays. hero Knowing Myself 61
  • 68. Search Find the words listed on the left from the grid below. The wordsare all related to dike. Encircle these words. barrier drainage block wall dam waterway ditch D I T C H A B I A T R O E C L V M N L R E A O L S G I U C H C L R H M O I E K A Y A W R E T A W A B A R R I E R D R A I N A G E Download The story that you will read is about an ordinary boy doing Read on and find out an extraordinary thing on an how his heroic act ordinary school day. saved his country.62 Reading Works! 4
  • 69. The Little Dutch Boy (A folktale) In a Dutch neighborhood, classes for that day had just ended.George, a fourth grade pupil, had just said goodbye to his friends.Carrying his school bag on his back, he started walking home. George walked on a road beside the sea every single schoolday. But instead of walking on sand on the shores, George walkedalong the dikes. Dikes are barriers preventing passage of water tolow-lying areas. On his way home that day, George felt small drops of rainbeginning to trickle down from the sky. He looked up and sawdark clouds gathering above his head, ready to pour heavy rain.George walked faster. While walking, George heard a soft gushingsound before him. After several steps, George saw a thin line of water flowingout from the dike. He rushed to see why water was flowing outand found out that there was a small hole on the dike. He lookedaround him hoping that someone older can help him fix thehole. George knew how important the dikes were. They protecttheir country from being submerged in water. George shouted for help hoping that somebody would hearand help him. Unfortunately, the rain poured harder, the windsgot stronger, the waves crashed harder, and the skies got darker.The hole on the dike got bigger. George scrambled to look forsomething in his bag that could fit the hole to stop the water. Knowing Myself 63
  • 70. He tried to put a pen. It stayed for a while but the crashing waves sucked it through the hole. He tried to roll his handkerchief and fit it in the hole. The handkerchief got soaked and water still gushed out. Finally, George decided to try plugging the hole with his point finger and it fit just right. Throughout the long rainy night, George stood there with his finger plugged to the hole. He can feel the coldness of the seawater and the chill of the night wind. George wanted to go home because he was hungry and tired. He hoped for somebody to come along and help him. But it was too rainy and too dark; nobody came to help him. The next morning, people discovered a lifeless boy lying near the dike with his finger still in the hole of the dike. They knew that the little Dutch boy saved them and that without him their country would have been flooded with the seawater. Click1. Why are dikes important? What can they do?2. What happened to the dike in George’s place?3. What did George do?64 Reading Works! 4
  • 71. 4. What happened to George at the end of the story?5. If George did not do what he did, what do you think would have happened? Would you do the same thing he did?6. Do you consider George a hero? Why or why not? LinkFolktales Folktales are stories popularized in a particular place. Thesestories are usually about the heroic deeds of a person in that place,tragic events, or grand celebrations. Fables, fairy tales, and oldlegends are considered as folktales. Folktales may vary in the waythey are told since they have been passed on from one generation toanother and from one place to another. Folktales are rich in characters, both good and bad ones. Oneway to decide whether a character in a story is good or bad is by making character inferences.Character Inferences Character inferences are conclusions or judgments that arebased on a character’s actions, feelings, and thoughts. Inferences arenot directly written in a text. They are the reader’s own judgmentbased on what is written. In the story “The Little Dutch Boy,” you can infer that Georgeis a hero because his act of putting his finger in the hole of the dikesaved his people. Knowing Myself 65
  • 72. Activity 1A. Read the following sentences and make inferences on the given characters. Choose from the words below. Write the letter of your answer on the space provided. a. adventurous b. charitable c. courageous d. greedy e. lazy f. naughty ______ 1. Andres Bonifacio led the Filipino people to fight for freedom against the Spaniards. ______ 2. Juan Tamad would lie down under the guava tree and wait for the ripe fruits to fall to the ground so he can eat them. ______ 3. King Midas wanted more gold even if he already had so much. ______ 4. Mother Teresa gave food and provided shelter to the poor people in India. ______ 5. Christopher Columbus traveled to the Americas to look for new land.B. Read the story below and then answer the questions that follow. Encircle the letter of your answer. Once there was a hare who always talked about how fast he could run. He would ask anyone to compete with him in a race. The hare won every time, so he talked even more of how fast he was as a runner. Then a turtle decided that he had enough of the hare’s bragging. So when the hare asked the turtle to compete with him, the turtle agreed. The hare and the turtle started the race. The hare ran fast leaving the turtle behind. The hare saw that the turtle is still far from him so he decided to rest for a while. But the hare fell asleep. The turtle passed by the sleeping hare and continued to walk slowly to66 Reading Works! 4
  • 73. the finish line. When the hare finally woke up, the turtle was almost at the finish line. He tried to run fast to overtake the turtle but he failed; the turtle got to the finish line first. For the first time in his life, the fast hare was beaten by a slow turtle. 1. Which of the following shows that the hare was boastful? a. The hare always won the races. b. The hare always talked about how fast he was. c. The hare asked everyone to compete with him. d. The hare asked the turtle to compete with him. 2. What could be on the hare’s mind when he stopped to rest? a. The hare was already very tired. b. The hare saw something that interested him. c. The hare was confident that he could win the race. d. The hare wanted to see how slow the turtle was. 3. Based on the selection, what could best describe the turtle? a. The turtle was determined to finish the race. b. The turtle was angry for being looked down upon. c. The turtle was annoyed with the hare because he was so boastful. d. The turtle wanted to prove himself to the hare.C. Read the story below and then answer the questions that follow. Encircle the letter of your answer. There was once a girl named Pina who lived with her sick mother. One stormy night, the lights went out and Pina’s mother was having a hard time because of her sickness. The mother asked Pina to look for her medicine and to give her some clean clothes. Pina got annoyed every time she was disturbed from Knowing Myself 67
  • 74. her sleep. So, she was just lazily searching for the things that her mother needed. Because she was too sleepy to move, Pina kept on asking her mom where she can find the medicine and clothes. Finally, her mother got angry and said, “Oh, goodness! I hope you’ll have lots of eyes so you can see well and find what you are looking for!” The next morning, the mother searched for Pina, but Pina was nowhere to be found. What the mother found instead was a newly grown fruit in their garden with many eyes—the pineapple, which is known in Filipino as pinya. 1. Which of the following showed that Pina was uncaring of her mother? a. She was not in a hurry to find the things that her mother needed. b. She kept on asking her mother where the things can be found. c. She decided to transform herself into a pineapple. d. She did not want to be disturbed from her sleep. 2. What feeling did Pina’s mother show in these lines: “Oh, goodness! I hope you’ll have lots of eyes so you can see well and find what you are looking for!” a. Pina’s mother was understanding of her daughter. b. Pina’s mother was annoyed. c. Pina’s mother hated Pina for not finding things. d. Pina’s mother liked to tease her. 3. What do you think the mother felt when she realized that what she said to Pina came true? a. The mother was happy that her wish for Pina came true. b. The mother was curious how her wish for Pina came true. c. The mother was sorry that her wish for Pina came true. d. The mother was angry at Pina for making her wish come true.68 Reading Works! 4
  • 75. Activity 2 Find a folktale in the library or from the Internet. Makeinferences on the characters’ traits based on your notes. Use thefollowing guide. Title: ___________________________________________ Character 1: _____________________________________________________ Trait(s): __________________________________________________________ Bases: ____________________________________________________ Character 2: ______________________________________________ Trait(s): __________________________________________________ Bases: ____________________________________________________ Upload Heroes are people who think about helping or saving otherpeople even if it means risking their lives and sacrificing their owncomforts. For the Dutch, George was a hero for saving their countryfrom floods. George was an ordinary boy who did an extraordinarything. You can also be a hero in your own way. By helping an old ladycross the street or by helping your parent take care of your youngerbrothers or sisters, you are already doing a simple heroic act. Act out a situation in which a fourth grader like you can be ahero. Do this with a group of four or five members. Role-play it inclass. Knowing Myself 69
  • 76. Lesson 4 My Rights to Live Right Connect Write below three to five things you think you need to live a goodlife. Share and explain your answers with a partner. Search Using a printed or an online dictionary, find the meaning ofthe following underlined words. Write your answers on the spaceprovided.1. The United Nations listed down children’s rights to help protect them and to provide them with a good life. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________70 Reading Works! 4
  • 77. 2. These rights were laid out during the Declaration of Children’s Rights. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________3. Children can ask for help from different social organizations. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________4. Social organizations believe that children should stand up for their rights. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Download Do you know that being Do you also know that to study able to play and have in a school is also your right? fun is your right? Learn more about your rights in the following selection. Knowing Myself 71
  • 78. The Rights of a Child (Based on the Declaration of the Rights of the Child) Children are young members of a community. Because they are still young, children are usually unable to protect themselves. Because of this, some children are unaware or helpless when other people abuse them. To stop this from happening, the United Nations came up with a list of children’s rights which should be followed by all countries in the world. On 23 February 1923, leaders from all over the world gathered in Geneva, Switzerland to talk about the rights of children. These brought about the writing of five basic children’s rights. In 1959, leaders from different countries met again to review the basic rights of children. This event was called the Declaration of the Rights of the Child which listed 12 basic rights.72 Reading Works! 4
  • 79. Based on the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, here arethe rights of a child: 1. A child has the right to be born. 2. A child has the right to be given a name. 3. A child has the right to eat, to become healthy and strong. 4. A child has the right to have clothing. 5. A child has the right to have a shelter. 6. A child has the right to grow with values. 7. A child has the right to a formal education. 8. A child has the right to grow in a clean environment. 9. A child has the right to live in a peaceful place. 10. A child has the right to play and enjoy. 11. A child has the right to develop and improve his or her abilities and talents. 12. A child has the right to medical care. These are the things that parents and adults should give achild regardless of whether he or she is rich or poor, weak or strong,boy or girl. When one or more of these rights are violated or notfollowed, the child can ask help from an adult he or she trusts. Thechild can also go to government offices and social organizations toseek protection. In the Philippines, children who need safety can stay in theDepartment of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). Thereare also social organizations that help the government protectyoung children such as Bantay Bata, CRIBS Foundation, Homefor Good Foundation, and Philippine Children’s Fund. All theseorganizations believe in one thing—for children to stand up fortheir rights! Knowing Myself 73
  • 80. Click1. What world organization came up with the list of the rights of children?2. Why did leaders from all over the world decide to identify children’s rights?3. In the Philippines, which organizations fight for children’s rights?4. What children’s rights are violated when chilren are left to live on the streets and are forced to ask for alms?5. Based on the selection, what does “stand up for your rights” mean? Link “The Rights of a Child” is an example of an essay meant toinform and explain children’s rights.Essay An essay is a nonfiction text that is written to inform, explain,describe, or convince. An essay has three major parts: introduction,body, and conclusion. The introduction is the first paragraph and presents the topicof the essay. The body explains the topic further. The conclusionends the discussion of the topic. To easily understand an essay, youcan make an outline.74 Reading Works! 4
  • 81. Making an Outline An outline is a list of the main ideas and the subtopics of agiven text. Aside from helping you understand the essay better, anoutline can also serve as your guide in writing the essay. There are two types of outlines: topic outline and sentenceoutline. A topic outline uses key words or phrases to suggest ideas.A sentence outline uses full sentences to show the flow of ideas. Here is a sample topic outline. Title The Rights of a Child Use Roman I. Declaration of Children’s Rights numerals for the main ideas. A. First convention in 1923 B. Second convention in 1959 II. List of children’s rights III. How to ask for help when rights Use capital letters for the are violated subtopic under A. Ask a trusted adult the main ideas. B. Go to government or social organizations IV. Social organizations that help protect children A. Bantay Bata B. CRIBS Foundation C. Home for Good Foundation D. Philippine Children’s Foundation Knowing Myself 75
  • 82. Here is a sample sentence outline. The Rights of a Child I. The Declaration of Children’s Rights resulted from the meetings of world leaders where they talked about the rights of children. A. The first convention was held in 1923. B. The second convention was held in 1959. II. There are 12 basic rights of a child. III. There are things which the child can do when his or her rights are violated. A. The child can ask an adult for help. B. The child can go to government or social organizations. IV. These are some of the organizations that can help a child: A. Bantay Bata B. CRIBS Foundation C. Home for Good Foundation D. Philippine Children’s FoundationActivity 1 Tell whether the following statements are true or false. Write Tif the sentence is true and F if it is false._____ 1. An outline is a list of main ideas and subtopics in a given text._____ 2. The two types of outlines are word outline and sentence outline._____ 3. A capital letter should be used to show a main idea in a text._____ 4. Outlines can be used as a guide in writing._____ 5. An essay does not need to have a body.76 Reading Works! 4
  • 83. Activity 2A. Read the given essays and then complete their outlines. Use the guide questions in doing the outlines. Essay 1 Earth is made up of landforms and bodies of water. Water covers two-thirds of Earth while land only covers one-third of it. The bodies of water are classified into two: saltwater and freshwater. Oceans and seas are examples of saltwater. Rivers, lakes, and waterfalls are freshwater. These bodies of water have no taste compared to saltwater. The different landforms are also classified into two: lowlands and highlands. Lowlands include plains and valleys. The middle portion of Luzon is a great plain while the province of Cagayan is a valley. Highlands include mountains and plateaus. Mt. Apo is an example of a mountain while Baguio City is an example of a plateau. Essay 1 I. Earth is covered by land and water. A. (What portion of Earth is land?) ___________________________________________________ B. (What portion of Earth is water?) __________________________________________________ Knowing Myself 77
  • 84. II. The bodies of water are classified as saltwater or freshwater. A. (What are the kinds of saltwater?) __________________________________________________ B. (What are the kinds of freshwater?) __________________________________________________ III. (How many kinds of landforms are there. What are they?) _______________________________________________________ A. Plains and valleys are examples of lowlands. B. (What are examples of highlands?) __________________________________________________ Essay 2 Vertebrates are animals with a backbone or spinal column. Vertebrates include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Mammals are animals with mammary glands such as monkeys, lions, dogs, and cats. Mammary glands help mammals feed their young through their breasts. Mammals reproduce by giving birth. Human beings are mammals. Birds are animals with wings and feathers. Examples of birds are eagles, parrots, and mayas. Most birds can fly. Birds reproduce by laying eggs. Reptiles and amphibians are quite similar in physical appearance but they are not the same. Reptiles are animals with four limbs and can live in water or on land. Lizards78 Reading Works! 4
  • 85. and snakes are examples of reptiles that live on land. Thecrocodile is a reptile that lives in water. Amphibians are animals that also have four limbs. Theycan live both in water and on land like turtles and frogs. Mostreptiles and amphibians reproduce by laying eggs with hardshells. Essay 2 I. Vertebrates are animals with backbones. (What are the different types of vertebrates?) A. _____________________________________________ B. Birds are example of vertebrates. C. _____________________________________________ D. _____________________________________________ II. Mammals are animals with mammary glands. A. (What are examples of mammals?) _____________________________________________ B. They feed their young through their breasts. C. (How do they reproduce?) _____________________ III. (What are birds?) ________________________________ A. Eagles, parrots, and mayas are examples of birds. B. (How do they reproduce?) _____________________ Knowing Myself 79
  • 86. IV. Reptiles and amphibians are cold-blooded animals with four limbs. A. (Where do reptiles live?) ___________________________ B. (Where do amphibians live? ) _______________________ C. Most reptiles and amphibians reproduce by laying eggs with hard shells.Activity 3 Study the topic outline below. Write a short essay based on theoutline. Write your essay on a sheet of paper. My Life I. My family A. My parents and their work B. My siblings and their work or school II. About me A. Things that I like B. Things that I can do C. Things that I value III. More about me A. My ambition B. My motto in life Upload The essay “The Rights of the Child” is meant to inform childrenabout their rights. At the same time, it is meant to remind adultsabout how they should treat children. With four of your classmates,create a poster to remind people of your rights as a child. Put yourposters around the school premises.80 Reading Works! 4
  • 87. Unit TestA. Read the story below. Then answer the questions that follow. Encircle the letter of your answer. Pygmalion and Galatea Once there was a sculptor named Pygmalion. Pygmalion was popular in his town because of his beautiful statues. However, he was also known to be a woman hater. He promised himself never to get married. One day, Pygmalion decided to make a statue of a maiden. He spent days and nights creating the statue. His statue was so beautiful that he fell in love with it. He named the maiden statue Galatea which means “white.” He treated her like a real person. He bought her fine clothes and expensive pieces of jewelry. The goddess of love, Aphrodite, saw Pygmalion’s love for the maiden statue and decided to make Galatea a real woman so that she could be with Pygmalion. When Pygmalion arrived home one day, he saw his beloved Galatea alive and real, waiting patiently for him. He was so happy and thanked Aphrodite by giving her some offerings in her temple. Soon after, Pygmalion and Galatea got married and had a son named Paphos. Knowing Myself 81
  • 88. 1. What does Pygmalion do? a. draws paintings b. makes statues c. creates pots and vases d. builds houses 2. Why did Pygmalion promise never to get married? a. He hated women. b. He did not believe in marriage. c. He was not capable of loving. d. He wanted to spend all his time sculpting. 3. Why did Pygmalion fall in love with Galatea? a. Galatea was so beautiful. b. Galatea was one of his creations. c. Pygmalion really loved his statues. d. Pygmalion wanted to have someone to love. 4. What made Aphrodite decide to make Galatea a real person? a. She wanted to create beautiful women. b. She saw that Pygmalion really loved Galatea. c. She wanted Pygmalion to make a statue for her. d. It was her job to help people in love because she is a goddess. 5. All the sentences describe Pygmalion’s feelings when he saw Galatea except: a. Pygmalion was delighted to see Galatea alive. b. Pygmalion was thankful that Galatea became real. c. Pygmalion was annoyed that Galatea is not a statue anymore. d. Pygmalion was surprised to see his statue become a real person. 6. What changed with Pygmalion at the end of the story? a. He stopped being a sculptor. b. He stopped being a woman hater. c. He started believing in goddesses. d. He started having an interest in miracles.82 Reading Works! 4
  • 89. 7. From which point of view was the story told? a. narrator’s b. Galatea’s c. Pygmalion’s d. Aphrodite’s 8. What is the main conflict of the story? a. Pygmalion was a woman hater. b. Pygmalion loved a maiden statue. c. Pygmalion did not like to get married. d. Aphrodite made Galatea alive and real. 9. What is the message or the theme of the story? a. People who love truly are rewarded. b. Statues can become real people. c. Woman haters also fall in love. d. Nothing is impossible. 10. What type of short fiction is “Pygmalion and Galatea”? a. myth b. fable c. folktale d. fairy taleB. Tell whether the given sentences are true or false. Write T if the sentence is true and F if false. _____ 1. Fiction refers to texts that are imaginary or made-up. _____ 2. An atlas is a reference material that shows word meaning, origin, and pronunciation. _____ 3. The table of contents presents the flow of topics in a book with their corresponding pages. _____ 4. Setting refers to the people, things, and animals that move, feel, and speak in a story. _____ 5. A myth is a story that may happen in real life and which involves gods and goddesses. Knowing Myself 83
  • 90. C. Complete the sentences below. Choose from the words inside the box. Write your answer on the space provided. folktale essay encyclopedia outline atlas index theme plot 1. Maps can be found in an _______________ while words can be found in a dictionary. 2. “King Midas and the Golden Touch” is a myth while “The Little Dutch Boy” is a _______________. 3. The _______________ refers to the message of the story while the conflict refers to the problem of the main character in the story. 4. A summary is a shortened version of a text while an _______________ is a list of the main ideas in a text. 5. A fairy tale is a fiction while _______________ is a nonfiction.D. Study the given sentences and then arrange them logically to come up with a story. Write 1–5 on the spaces before each number with 1 as the first event. _____ When Demeter found out that Persephone was gone, she got so sad that plants and trees did not grow anymore, making people hungry. _____ Aside from being a harvest goddess, Demeter was also known to have a beautiful daughter named Persephone. _____ Because of Persephone’s beauty, the god of the underworld, Hades, fell in love with her. _____ Once upon a time, people believed that Demeter was the goddess of harvest who made plants grow and trees bear fruits. _____ Hades decided to get Persephone and make her live with him in the underworld.84 Reading Works! 4