Aggression:Why Do We Hurt Other People?     Can We Prevent it?             Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e          Copyrig...
What Is Aggression?An aggressive action is intentionalbehavior aimed at causing eitherphysical or psychological pain.     ...
What Is Aggression?Hostile aggression is an act ofaggression stemming from feelingsof anger and aimed at inflicting pain. ...
What Is Aggression?Instrumental aggression isaggression that serves as a means tosome goal other than causing pain.       ...
What Is Aggression?• Is Aggression Inborn, or Learned? Scientists do not agree on whether aggression is innate or learned....
What Is Aggression?• Is Aggression Inborn, or Learned? Freud postulated that humans have innate instincts toward life, Ero...
What Is Aggression?• Is Aggression Instinctual? Situational? Optional? Even in the most aggression-prone species, aggressi...
What Is Aggression?• Aggressiveness and Culture Berkowitz (1993) suggests that humans seem to have an inborn tendency to r...
What Is Aggression?• Aggressiveness and Culture Whether or not this aggressive action is expressed depends on the interact...
What Is Aggression?• Aggressiveness and Culture In humans, innate patterns of behavior are infinitely malleable; thus, cul...
What Is Aggression?• Aggressiveness and Culture The evidence is inconclusive on whether or not aggression has an instinctu...
Chapter OutlineII. Neural and Chemical Influences     on Aggression              Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e           ...
Neural and Chemical Influences onAggressionThe amygdala is an area in the core ofthe brain associated with aggressivebehav...
Neural and Chemical Influences onAggression  Serotonin and Testosterone  Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that may  in...
Neural and Chemical Influences onAggression • Alcohol and Aggression  Alcohol serves as a disinhibitor and leads  people t...
Neural and Chemical Influences onAggression • Pain, Discomfort, and Aggression  Both animal and human studies show that  p...
Chapter OutlineIII. Social Situations and   Aggression               Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e            Copyright ©...
Social Situations and Aggression• Frustration and Aggression Frustration-aggression theory says that frustration, the perc...
Social Situations and Aggression• Frustration and Aggression The closer someone is to a goal, the greater the frustration ...
Social Situations and Aggression• Frustration and Aggression  Aggression also increases when  frustration is unexpected. T...
Social Situations and Aggression• Aggressive Objects as Cues                Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e             Cop...
Social Situations and Aggression• Imitation and Aggression  A major cause of aggression is social  learning. Bandura and a...
Social Situations and Aggression• Violence in the Media: TV, Movies,  and Video Games A number of long-term studies indica...
Social Situations and Aggression• Violence in the Media: TV, Movies,  and Video Games                  Aronson Social Psyc...
How To Reduce Aggression• Catharsis and Aggression The common belief that one can “blow off steam” and “get it out of your...
How To Reduce Aggression• Catharsis and Aggression According to this idea, performing an aggressive act relieves built-up ...
How To Reduce Aggression• Catharsis and Aggression However, controlled studies suggest that attempting to reduce one’s ang...
How To Reduce Aggression• Catharsis and Aggression Research has found that when people are allowed to express their aggres...
How To Reduce Aggression• What Are We Supposed to Do with Our Anger? Building empathy, for example by teaching empathy in ...
Chapter OutlineV. Could the Columbine Massacre    Have Been Prevented?             Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e         ...
Could the Columbine Massacre HaveBeen Prevented?  Aronson (2000) suggests that  although the violent acts of the  Columbin...
Could the Columbine Massacre HaveBeen Prevented?  What is necessary to acknowledge is  the social situation that children ...
Study QuestionsWhat factors other than instinct determine if an animal will behave aggressively?              Aronson Soci...
Study QuestionsWhat are cultural and regional differences in human aggressive behavior that have been documented throughou...
Study QuestionsWhat roles do the amygdala and testosterone play in aggressive behavior? What effect does serotonin have on...
Study QuestionsWhat is the relationship between gender, culture, and aggressive behavior?              Aronson Social Psyc...
Study QuestionsUnder what conditions is the consumption of alcohol related to aggressive behavior?              Aronson So...
Study QuestionsHow are pain and heat related to aggressive behavior?              Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e          ...
Study QuestionsHow does the frustration- aggression theory explain aggressive behavior? What situations produce frustratio...
Study QuestionsHow do aggressive stimuli increase the probability of aggressive behavior? What are data that support the r...
Study QuestionsHow does social learning theory explain aggressive behavior? What is evidence that supports the explanation...
Study QuestionsWhat are the assumptions of the catharsis hypothesis? Does engaging in aggressive or physical behavior redu...
Study QuestionsWhat are the advantages of teaching empathy in school? What effects could empathy training have on the prev...
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Supplemental Content 24: Aggression

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Supplemental Content 24: Aggression

  1. 1. Aggression:Why Do We Hurt Other People? Can We Prevent it? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  2. 2. What Is Aggression?An aggressive action is intentionalbehavior aimed at causing eitherphysical or psychological pain. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  3. 3. What Is Aggression?Hostile aggression is an act ofaggression stemming from feelingsof anger and aimed at inflicting pain. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  4. 4. What Is Aggression?Instrumental aggression isaggression that serves as a means tosome goal other than causing pain. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  5. 5. What Is Aggression?• Is Aggression Inborn, or Learned? Scientists do not agree on whether aggression is innate or learned. The debate has been raging for centuries. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  6. 6. What Is Aggression?• Is Aggression Inborn, or Learned? Freud postulated that humans have innate instincts toward life, Eros, and towards death and aggression, Thanatos. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  7. 7. What Is Aggression?• Is Aggression Instinctual? Situational? Optional? Even in the most aggression-prone species, aggression is an optional strategy and is determined by the organism’s previous social experiences and by the specific social context in which the organism finds itself. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  8. 8. What Is Aggression?• Aggressiveness and Culture Berkowitz (1993) suggests that humans seem to have an inborn tendency to respond to certain provocative stimuli by striking out against the perpetrator. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  9. 9. What Is Aggression?• Aggressiveness and Culture Whether or not this aggressive action is expressed depends on the interaction of these innate propensities with learned inhibitory responses and the nature of the social situation. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  10. 10. What Is Aggression?• Aggressiveness and Culture In humans, innate patterns of behavior are infinitely malleable; thus, cultures vary widely in the degree of aggressiveness. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  11. 11. What Is Aggression?• Aggressiveness and Culture The evidence is inconclusive on whether or not aggression has an instinctual component, but it is clear that aggression can be modified by situational factors. Two examples of this are aggression among the Iroquois and the regional differences in aggressive behavior in the United States. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  12. 12. Chapter OutlineII. Neural and Chemical Influences on Aggression Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  13. 13. Neural and Chemical Influences onAggressionThe amygdala is an area in the core ofthe brain associated with aggressivebehavior. But even if the amygdala isdirectly stimulated, whether or not theorganism will aggress depends onsituational factors. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  14. 14. Neural and Chemical Influences onAggression Serotonin and Testosterone Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that may inhibit aggressive impulses. Testosterone is a male sex hormone associated with aggression. A wide variety of studies have shown that men are more aggressive than women are. However, the research on gender differences is complex and results depend on situational and cultural factors. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  15. 15. Neural and Chemical Influences onAggression • Alcohol and Aggression Alcohol serves as a disinhibitor and leads people to be more likely to commit actions frowned upon by society; thus alcohol can foster aggression when people are provoked. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  16. 16. Neural and Chemical Influences onAggression • Pain, Discomfort, and Aggression Both animal and human studies show that pain will increase the probability that an organism will aggress. Other forms of bodily discomfort (heat, humidity, air pollution, offensive odors) may also act to lower the threshold for aggressive behaviors. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  17. 17. Chapter OutlineIII. Social Situations and Aggression Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  18. 18. Social Situations and Aggression• Frustration and Aggression Frustration-aggression theory says that frustration, the perception that you are being prevented from obtaining a goal, will increase the probability of an aggressive response. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  19. 19. Social Situations and Aggression• Frustration and Aggression The closer someone is to a goal, the greater the frustration when one is thwarted and the higher the probability that the person will act aggressively. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  20. 20. Social Situations and Aggression• Frustration and Aggression Aggression also increases when frustration is unexpected. The perception of relative deprivation, feeling that one has less than one deserves or has been led to expect or has less than similar people, can increase aggressive behavior. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  21. 21. Social Situations and Aggression• Aggressive Objects as Cues Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  22. 22. Social Situations and Aggression• Imitation and Aggression A major cause of aggression is social learning. Bandura and associates (1961) demonstrated social learning theory, the theory that we learn social behavior (for example, aggression) by observing others and imitating them. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  23. 23. Social Situations and Aggression• Violence in the Media: TV, Movies, and Video Games A number of long-term studies indicate that the more violence individuals watch on TV as children, the more violence they exhibit years later as teens and adults. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  24. 24. Social Situations and Aggression• Violence in the Media: TV, Movies, and Video Games Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  25. 25. How To Reduce Aggression• Catharsis and Aggression The common belief that one can “blow off steam” and “get it out of your system” is an oversimplification of Freud’s psychoanalytic notion of catharsis. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  26. 26. How To Reduce Aggression• Catharsis and Aggression According to this idea, performing an aggressive act relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behavior. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  27. 27. How To Reduce Aggression• Catharsis and Aggression However, controlled studies suggest that attempting to reduce one’s anger by acting violently increases, rather than decreases, subsequent aggression and hostility. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  28. 28. How To Reduce Aggression• Catharsis and Aggression Research has found that when people are allowed to express their aggression, they later feel greater dislike and hostility toward their victims. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  29. 29. How To Reduce Aggression• What Are We Supposed to Do with Our Anger? Building empathy, for example by teaching empathy in school, not only reduces aggressiveness but also can increase self- esteem, generosity, and positive attitudes. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  30. 30. Chapter OutlineV. Could the Columbine Massacre Have Been Prevented? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  31. 31. Could the Columbine Massacre HaveBeen Prevented? Aronson (2000) suggests that although the violent acts of the Columbine massacre were pathological, it would be a mistake to dismiss them as just the result of individual pathology. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  32. 32. Could the Columbine Massacre HaveBeen Prevented? What is necessary to acknowledge is the social situation that children and adolescents face in schools. Thus, making our schools safer by changing the negative, exclusionary social atmosphere may help reduce the frequency of violence in schools. Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  33. 33. Study QuestionsWhat factors other than instinct determine if an animal will behave aggressively? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  34. 34. Study QuestionsWhat are cultural and regional differences in human aggressive behavior that have been documented throughout history? What do these findings tell us about the importance of instinct in driving human aggression? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  35. 35. Study QuestionsWhat roles do the amygdala and testosterone play in aggressive behavior? What effect does serotonin have on aggressive behavior? What research findings support the influence of testosterone on aggressive behavior? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  36. 36. Study QuestionsWhat is the relationship between gender, culture, and aggressive behavior? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  37. 37. Study QuestionsUnder what conditions is the consumption of alcohol related to aggressive behavior? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  38. 38. Study QuestionsHow are pain and heat related to aggressive behavior? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  39. 39. Study QuestionsHow does the frustration- aggression theory explain aggressive behavior? What situations produce frustration? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  40. 40. Study QuestionsHow do aggressive stimuli increase the probability of aggressive behavior? What are data that support the relationship between aggressive stimuli and aggressive behavior? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  41. 41. Study QuestionsHow does social learning theory explain aggressive behavior? What is evidence that supports the explanations provided by this theory? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  42. 42. Study QuestionsWhat are the assumptions of the catharsis hypothesis? Does engaging in aggressive or physical behavior reduce future aggressive behavior? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  43. 43. Study QuestionsWhat are the advantages of teaching empathy in school? What effects could empathy training have on the prevention of school violence? Aronson Social Psychology, 5/e Copyright © 2005 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.
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