Looking for innovative ways of developing students’ entrepreneurship competence, this study addresses the relation between students’ intrapreneurship activity during their Higher education studies and the development of their entrepreneurship attitudes.
Developing students’ entrepreneurship attitudes is one of the major issues in Higher education. This paper addresses the relation between the educational leadership of university teachers and the development of students’ intrapreneurship attitudes during their Master’s studies.
Students’ intrapreneurship is defined as students’ activity within an existing learning organisation, referring to emergent intentions and behaviours that enhance the quality of study process and create innovative activity inside the institution . The categories for the assessment of students’ entrepreneurship attitudes were taken from the description of entrepreneur qualities of the “On line guide for starting a business” elaborated by the members of the CReBUS project . These categories are: Disciplined, Confident, Open Minded, Self Starter, Competitive, Creative, Determined, Strong People Skills, Strong Work Ethic, Passion, Mission, Vision, Goal, Competency, A Strong Team, Communication Skills, Interpersonal Skills, A "Can Do, Get It Done" Attitude, Inspiration and Ambition.
The empirical study is based on the written activities of 17 students (90% of the total number of students) during their first year of this Master program. Seven students started the Masters’ program in 2010 and ten students in 2011. Just the first year of studies (two semesters) has been analysed to allow comparison of both sets of students. The number of their interventions during the first year of studies was measured, as well as the number of those interventions that students did on their own initiative, starting a discussion in the forum of the Master’s program. The assessment of students’ entrepreneurship attitude was done in parallel by two of their teachers that were working with these students for one year in different modules of the Masters’ program. These teachers were not further involved in the research process, to avoid biased data analysis and interpretation. As already mentioned, 20 entrepreneurship categories had been assessed. For each category, a score was given to each student, following a six-point scale: 1=very low; 6=very high. The overall mean of the scores gives an indication of the perception evaluators have about students’ level of development of entrepreneurship attitudes and their preferences for such behaviour in the future.
Regarding the promotion 2010 (see Table 1), 260 interventions had been recorded. S tudents (N=7) were first grouped in two levels of intrapreneurship (high=over de median, N=3; low=the median and below, N=4). Then the data obtained about students entrepreneurship abilities were processed (M=5.48, SD=0.55). Students were regrouped into two levels of development of entrepreneurship attitudes (high=over the average, N=4; low=under the average, N=3). The students’ membership of both groups was compared using cross tabulation. The distribution of the students in the groups was almost identical for both intrapreneurship and entrepreneurship classification, with little differences in the rank of the students. In order to test The results indicate that the degree of association of both variables is high. These results confirm the existence of a strong relation statistically significant between intrapreneurship and entrepreneurship level. The same comparison of students’ intrapreneurship and entrepreneurship level was done for the promotion 2011 (see table 2)
A total of 479 interventions had been recorded. Taking in account the bigger number of students (N=10), they had been regrouped in three level groups Then the data received about students entrepreneurship abilities were processed (M=5.63, SD=0.72). Students were regrouped into three levels of development of entrepreneurship attitudes The membership of both groups was compared using cross tabulation. The cross-tabulation showed an association of levels with more differences in the rank of each student in each category Cramer’s V was used as the appropriate measure of association  (r=0.750, p=0.024). Cramer’s V indicates that the degree of association of the variables (levels) is high between both groups.
S tudents´ intrapreneurship inside their institutions during the study process could be related with students´ entrepreneurship attitudes development starting their professional life. T he fact that intrapreneurship can work as an indicator for entrepreneurship does not imply causality, because it is possible that the students who manifest strong intrapreneurship behaviour might have been entrepreneurs no matter how or what they were taught. Causality relation could be further explored in future, larger studies.
Some recommendations are put forward to suggest ways of helping students to develop intrapreneurship attitudes during their studies as a way of enhancing entrepreneurial competence. These recommendations had to be taken with prudence, considering the size of the sample and the socio-cultural frame of the study: The improvement of student’s intrapreneurship is much related with the ability of teachers of leading a study process that foster the development of students. Educational leadership cannot be improvised, it needs to be taught and practised from the very beginning of teacher education programs. It is suggested to university teachers to pay attention to the level of students’ intrapreneurship in the study process, as an indicator of their entrepreneurial competence. Focussing on the development of students’ competencies rather than acquiring of the contents of the study program or obtaining of the diploma should help to improve students’ life quality and wellbeing. This personalized attention should have continuity in the time, during all the university years. It implies to create a personal relation between students and teachers based on a real mutual interest of personal development and collaboration in common missions.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION-A PRIORITY FOR THE HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS 8 - 9 OCTOBER 2012 BUCHAREST, ROMANIA STUDENTS´ INTRAPRENEURSHIP IN HIGHER EDUCATION SETTINGS ANDITS RELEVANCE IN THE FORMATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ATTITUDES: A CASE STUDY FROM LATVIA Dr. paed. Manuel J. Fernández González, Dr. ing. Sergejs Vostrikovs Scientific Institute of Pedagogy, University of Latvia (LATVIA) firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Contents 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical frame 3. Methodology 4. Main Findings 5. Conclusions and Discussion 2
Theoretical frameAntoncic, B. and Hisrich, R.D. (2003), “Clarifying the intrapreneurship concept”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 7-24.CReBUS - Creating a business in the digital age - developing entrepreneurship competencies for young Europeans through eMentorship. (2012) Online guide for quick starting a business. http://www.crebus.eu/index.php? option=com_content&view=article&id=102:online-guide- final&catid=45:deliverables&Itemid=95&lang=en [2012.08.24]
Entrepreneur qualities1. Disciplined, 11. Mission2. Confident, 12. Vision,3. Open Minded, 13. Goal,4. Self Starter, 14. Competency,5. Competitive, 15. A Strong Team,6. Creative, 16. Communication Skills,7. Determined, 17. Interpersonal Skills,8. Strong People Skills, 18. A "Can Do, Get It Done" Attitude,9. Strong Work Ethic, 19. Inspiration10. Passion, 20. Ambition.
Methodology The empirical studyIntrapreneurship attitude measurement: Based on the written activities of 17 students (90% of the total number of students) during their first year of this Master program (seven in 2010 and ten in 2011) The total number of interventions and the number of interventions done on their own initiativeThe assessment of students’ entrepreneurship attitude: made by two teachers that were working with these students for one year. Teachers were not further involved in research process, to avoid biased data analysis and interpretation. 20 entrepreneurship categories had been assessed (six-point scale) 8
Main findings Phi was used as the appropriate measure to calculate the statistical significance of association (in 2x2 cross-tabulation): r=0.750, p=0.047 10
Main findings Cramer’s V was used as the appropriate measure of association r=0.750, p=0.024
Main findingsSummarizing the resultsThere is a statistically significant positive relation (r=0,763, p=.001) between students’ level of intrapreneurship activity and their level of development of entrepreneurship attitudes. 12
DiscussionStudents´ intrapreneurship could be related with students´ entrepreneurship attitudes developmentThe fact that intrapreneurship can work as an indicator for entrepreneurship does not imply causality
Some recommendationsEducational leadership cannot be improvised, it needs to be taught and practiced from the very beginning of teacher education programs.To pay attention to the level of students’ intrapreneurship in the study process, as an indicator of their entrepreneurial competence.This personalized attention should have continuity in the time. It implies to create a personalized relation between students and teachers.