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iNacol quality workshop october 2012


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iNacol quality workshop october 2012

  1. 1. About me 2
  2. 2. Leadership & TechnologyMy thinking has been influenced by: Doctoral research on leadership in technology-enhanced learning situations Consulting work with the BC online K-12 schools  Development of standards and quality review Policy and practice consultation with AB post-secondary Online support for community access facilitators Continuing research of online programs 3
  3. 3. About the Room…Where From US? From Canada?? International?Who K-12 Educator? Post-secondary Faculty? Administration / Government? Others?? 4
  4. 4. Questions for you to reflect on… 1. How can the existing quality assurance measures be used to evaluate K12 online and blended learning programs? 2. How can the evaluation process benefit learning outcomes and results without taking away from instructional delivery? 3. What are the top 3 barriers to achieving quality in online and blended learning programs? 4. What are some of the successes in applying a quality metric to online and blended learning programs? 5
  5. 5. Technology &Education – Collision course? MANAGING E-LEARNING IMPLEMENTATION:April 20, 2006 What Do Real Leaders Do? 6
  6. 6. Technologyin context… Students today depend too much upon ink. They don’t know how to use a pen knife to sharpen a pencil. Pen and ink will never replace the pencil. National Association of Teachers, 1907 7
  7. 7. Technologyin context… If technology is the answer, what is the question? The paradox of technology enhanced education is that technology changes very rapidly and human beings very slowly. It would seem to make sense for proponents of e-learning to begin with the students. Bates & Poole, 2003, p. xiii 8
  8. 8. It’s About Pedagogy… Technology is often viewed as pedagogically neutral (Moll, 2001) Yet the organization of learning and engagement of learners through educational technology is essential to pedagogy (Bednar, Cunningham, Duffy, & Perry, 1992; Gayol&Schied, 1997) 9
  9. 9. Assumptions underlying early e-Learning1. That people predictably transfer learning from one situation to another.2. That learners are passive receivers of wisdom – vessels into which knowledge is poured.3. That learning is the strengthening of bonds between stimuli and correct responses.4. That learners are blank slates on which knowledge is inscribed.5. That skills and knowledge, to be transferable to new situations, should be acquired independent of their contexts of use. 10
  10. 10. Pedagogical shift? 11
  11. 11. e-Learning Challenge A fundamental question in understanding quality in e- learning is not only how to define it, but how to foster quality instructional and leadership practices – “the aim when using technology is not to be as good as face-to- face teaching but better” (Bates & Poole, 2003, p.23). 12
  12. 12. 14
  13. 13. Defining Quality Qualitys economical importance comes from its perceived ability in business terms to lower costs, improve employee commitment, and ensure continuous improvement within a dynamic environment(Dawson & Palmer, 1995) Pedagogical meaning focuses on enhancing the process of learning and the interaction between the learner and the learning environment Despite all that has been written about quality, Wikipediasums it up best, stating quality is “perceptual, conditional and somewhat subjective” (Wikipedia, 2010, ¶1). 15
  14. 14. How can quality be achieved in K-12 e-learning even ifits description is fleeting and elusive? What does quality e-learning look like? How do you know it? Out-loud thoughts… 16
  15. 15. Quality & Standards The focus on quality in e-learning began with the examination of the quality of course materials and digital learning content provided to students. Standards were created to address the quality of the course – focus on instructional design, accessibility, resources, and assessment BC- rds.pdf Shift to standards on instructional delivery (accreditation) BC 17
  16. 16. Measuring QualityiNACOL Standards Society for Technology in Education Accreditation Criteria for Online Schools hools.pdf 18
  17. 17.  Standards, such as those published by such organizations as the International Society for Technology in Education and the International Association for K-12 Online Learning, simply fall short by describing a minimum, whereas quality’s focus should be on the maximum attainable. (Bates & Poole, 2003) 19
  18. 18. iNACOL Standards The online teacher knows the primary concepts and structures of effective online instruction and is able to create learning experiences to enable student success. The online teacher understands and is able to use a range of technologies, both existing and emerging, that effectively support student learning and engagement in the online environment. The online teacher plans, designs, and incorporates strategies to encourage active learning, application, interaction, participation, and collaboration in the online environment. The online teacher promotes student success through clear expectations, prompt responses, andregular feedback. The online teacher models, guides, and encourages legal, ethical, and safe behavior related to technology use. The online teacher is cognizant of the diversity of student academic needs and incorporates accommodations into the online environment. The online teacher demonstrates competencies in creating and implementing assessments in online learning environments in ways that ensure validity and reliability of the instruments and procedures. The online teacher develops and delivers assessments, projects, and assignments that meet standards-based learning goals and assesses learning progress by measuring student achievement of the learning goals. The online teacher demonstrates competency in using data from assessments and other data sources to modify content and to guide student learning. The online teacher interacts in a professional, effective manner with colleagues, parents, and other members of the community to support students’ success. The online teacher arranges media and content to help students and teachers transfer knowledge most effectively in the online environment. 20
  19. 19. iNACOL Standards Online Environment & Technology Active Learning & Engagement Inclusion & Accessibility Assessment Strategies Professional & Ethical Instructional Design 21
  20. 20. Arewe falling short?? Discussion... 22
  21. 21. 23
  22. 22. Standards-based approach… Missing from this approach is an examination of the extent of interaction between and among teacher and students – the “extent of contact between the teacher and those taught as well as the levels of socialization, sharing of experiences and visible involvement in the process of learning” (Koul, 2006, p.178). 24
  23. 23. Total Quality Management… Quality is not just about management process (learner achievement), customer satisfaction (learner opinion), or quantification of product (course content). Quality is the relations among learners and teachers in the learning community that describe, and are the evidence of, quality learning. 25
  24. 24. Quality and Interaction... “High quality interaction with learning materials, interaction between teachers and learners and interaction among learners, are all essential for effective learning.” Bates, A.W. (2006), p.222 26
  25. 25. Teachers and Quality Analysis of 400,000 students in 3000 schools found the most important predictor of quality was the teacher Teacher effect on student achievement was both additive and cumulative Rice (2003) The quality of a student’s teacher is the most important determinant of learning after family background. Hanushek (1992) 27
  26. 26. Importance of social interactionResearch conducted by Richard Light of Harvard: One of the strongest determinants of student success was not instructor teaching style, rather the ability to form and participate in small study groups Students who studied in groups:  More prepared for class  Better engaged in their studies  Learned significantly more than students who worked on their own Light, R.J. (2001) 28
  27. 27. Quality and Technology Ungerleider and Burns (2003) found that the effectiveness of technology use was correlated to the level of interactivity provided by the technology, or the engagement of the learner. understanding that interaction through the use of technology is pivotal to building insight into quality in e- learning 29
  28. 28.  Quality, then, is largely a result of the participation, negotiation between educational stakeholders, and interaction between and among students and teachers in the learning environment. 30
  29. 29. Managing Quality1. How can the existing quality assurance measures be used to evaluate K12 online and blended learning programs?2. How can the evaluation process benefit learning outcomes and results without taking away from instructional delivery?3. What are the top 3 barriers to achieving quality in online and blended learning programs?4. What are some of the successes in applying a quality metric to online and blended learning programs? 31
  30. 30. Discussion… 32
  31. 31. 33
  32. 32. Quality and Theory… Defining quality on the basis of standards is one approach, but to truly understand, analyze and assess quality it must be situated within a theoretical framework (Ellis,, 2007; Deepwell, 2007). 34
  33. 33. Community of Inquiry Model 35
  34. 34.  The idealized view of education, as a critical community of learners, is no longer just an ideal, but has become a practical necessity in the realization of relevant, meaningful, and continuous learning. It is within such a community of learners that the potential of e-learning will be fully realized. Garrison& Anderson, 2003, p.3 36
  35. 35. Research-based Garrison, Anderson, and Archer’s (2000) Community of Inquiry framework is the foundation for instructional practice 37
  36. 36.  The model is social constructivist in nature and grounded in John Dewey’s (1938) notion of practical inquiry. Since its initial formulation ten years ago, the Community of Inquiry framework has been used by educators worldwide to inform research and practice. Most recently, the development of a common CoI survey has resulted in a flurry of new research that is supporting understanding of online learning. 38
  37. 37. Theoretical FrameworkCommunities of Inquiry Survey: Link to Survey 34 question Likkert Scale  Teaching Presence  Social Presence  Cognitive Presence 39
  38. 38. British Columbia Context  35,000 educators  600,000 students  60 school districts urban/rural  Declining enrolment  55 public DL schools  18 independent DL schools  Online Choice: Open boundaries 40
  39. 39. Two lenses for measuring Compliance Quality•Funding •Participation•Curriculum-focused •Learner-focused•Supervision •Engagement•Assessment •Personal knowledge•Achievement •Success•Completion •Satisfaction
  40. 40. DL Quality Review ProcessInternal review by DL educators  Instructional/leadership review models for reflection on DL Standards supporting school planning processes  Collection and monitoring of data to shape DL practiceExternal Review (select DL school sites)  Initial meeting(s) with school staff and district staff  Review of DL achievement data, satisfaction info, etc.  Observation/discussion with instructional, support and admin staff  Sharing observations – external team and district/school staff  Post site review meeting (observations and data analysis, areas of strength /improvement)  Publication of external review formal report 42
  41. 41. BC Quality ReviewData-driven process analyzing: Student Success  DL achievement data, provincial exam data, Foundation Skills Assessment test results, satisfaction surveys, and district and school-level data Instructional Practice  Standards; research on emerging e-learning instructional practice; DL staff experience and practice; integration and use of educational technologies; strategies for supporting learner engagement; and learning resources Leadership Practice  Support of emerging DL instructional practices; parent, student & staff involvement, input, and satisfaction; planning and school improvement processes; and audit, School Act, and DL Agreement compliance 43
  42. 42. Quality Review Model Student Success (engagement, achievement & satisfaction) External Emerging Review Implementing Quality Practice - Instructional & Leadership -Sharing &Observing, Vali Practices Applying New dating, & StrategiesRecommending Internal Review (part of school planning process) 44
  43. 43. 45
  44. 44. Commonwealth of Learning Quality Assurance 46
  45. 45. Commonwealthof Learning Quality assurance is the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects of systems, projects or programs to maximize the probability of standards being achieved for specified performance indicators. (p. 15 Harvey and Green (1993) five interrelated ways of defining quality 1. Excellence: Learning as something exceptional, unique 2. Consistency: Learning is consistent and focused on common outcomes 3. Fitness for purpose: Meeting pre-determined requirements, needs or desires 4. Value for money: Return on investment in learning 5. Transformation: Quality as enhancement and empowerment 47
  46. 46. Quality Matters… Three primary components:  Quality Rubric – no matter what the rubric  A Peer Review Process – or accreditation  QM Professional Development – a focus on learning 48
  47. 47. Open Question Period 49
  48. 48. Quality: Final Words… In the final analysis, it is the teacher’s personal mastery of the ‘art of instruction’ and their sensitivities to the needs of students that determine course quality. Alley and Jansak, 2001 50
  49. 49. Resources as_vis=1&oi=scholart&sa=X&ei=DS- LT7vfEarUiALX6t3ZCw&ved=0CBoQgQMwAA Inquiry_model.pdf Draft%2014b.doc
  50. 50. Measuring Quality: Randy LaBonte 52
  51. 51. Quality Assurance in K12Online & Blended Programs Randy LaBonteDestiny Education Consulting @rlabonte 53
  52. 52. Managing Quality1. How can the existing quality assurance measures be used to evaluate K12 online and blended learning programs?2. How can the evaluation process benefit learning outcomes and results without taking away from instructional delivery?3. What are the top 3 barriers to achieving quality in online and blended learning programs?4. What are some of the successes in applying a quality metric to online and blended learning programs? 54
  53. 53. Sloan Consortium Sloan Consortium published a quality framework based on the five pillars of learning effectiveness, cost effectiveness and institutional commitment, access, faculty satisfaction, and lastly student satisfaction (Moore, 2005). The framework can be applied in educational settings as well as corporate training learning environments. A quick guide to its five pillars of quality is also available on their website for download. 55
  54. 54. 56