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Economic status• As a whole African Americans worse off• From 1965-1990 the unemployment rate of African Americans was about 2x that of whites• Between 1970 and 1990 the median income for whites rose by about 2500 dollars, while it only moved 300 dollars for blacks• Neighborhoods plagued by family disruption, drug use, and criminal activity
Signs of Success• African Americans held top positions in the government and public service sector in the 1990s• 2.4% or about 425,000 corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietors were owned and managed by the end of the millennium• Athletes such as Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and the Williams sisters enjoy fame and fortune
The 1980s• Jesse Jackson makes a bid for the 84 and 88 election, loses both• Jackson also orchestrated boycotts against major companies in an attempt to get economic parity for blacks, Coca Cola is first to sign agreement• 3 million blacks, 18% of democratic primary voters, vote in 1984• 6,056 black elected officials in 1985, compared to 1,469 in 1970• During Reagan-Bush years, black joblessness hovered at around 18%• President signs bill into effect MLK day into effect November 2nd 1983
The 1990s• Colin Powell appointed Joint Chiefs of Staff• Constance Berry Newman became first black director of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management• Black voter turnout in 92 8% of total• 16 African Americans gained new seats in house of representatives, bringing a record high 39 in the lower house
Million Man March• Took place on October 6th 1994• Hundreds of thousands of black men marched on washington D.C.
Reagans Replacement Efforts-William Bell (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) was replaced by Clarence Thomas-a young black conservative who opposed affirmative action-Arthur Flemming (US Commission on Civil Rights) was replaced by Clarence Pendleton-a black Republican-first time in 24 year history-commissions enjoyed pres. interference
Martin vs. Wilkins-George H. W. Bush-the court promoted white firefighters in Birmingham, Alabama to sue the city for making race-conscious promotions-A.M. felt betrayed-fair was NOT realistic
Bush Surprises-Bush favored A.M.-nominated Clarence Thomas to succeed Marshall-position in racial equality-A.M. were surprised and felt hope
Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill-fellow classmate tried to accuse him of sexual harassment-confirmed as the 2nd A.M. to serve as a justice on the Supreme Court-feeling of equality
Unequal Education by SupremeCourtThe Bell Curve: Intelligence & Class Structure in American Life-author Richard Herrnstein-Herrnstein rejected the idea that blacks and whites should be receiving the same education-schools didnt have room for blacks-improper education/lack of tech. for 21st century
Turning Tables-Colleges started promoting diversity-admitting students because of color-es: athletes, musicians, scholars, etc."Reverse Discrimination"-which forbid schools to allow entrance based on color
ViolenceRodney King:-beaten for no reason-officers free of chargeRiot!-4 days of damage-500$ million worth-38 dead and 4,000 arrested
Violence ContinuedAbner Louima: James Byrd:-sodomized -white men chained-tortured with him to their car wooden plunger -dragged to-injured bladder destinationAmadou Diallo:-45 rounds shot at *NO PROGRESS MADE him where he lived WITH EQUALITY!-grabbing his wallet
Women Writers• The uprising of African American women writers was one of the most vital trends to come about in the twentieth century.• Most writings were based on events and comings during the time between the 1960-1970s.• These women were tremendous writers and even bigger symbols of success during this time. Poets and novelist such as Rita Dove and Alice walker were winning awards for their writings.• Rita Dove was a poet who won the Pulitzer prize in 1986 for her Poetry book Thomas and Beulah. Novelist Alice Walker had won the Pulitzer Prize in 1982 for her novel The Color Purple.
Media• Blacks were beginning to make an impact on the big screen. There were African American play-writers, comedians, film-makers, and actors.• Blacks started to star in their own films around the 1980s, mostly with the help of popular black comedians such as Richard Pryor and Eddie Murphy who took film by storm with their creations. Mainly doing this by hitting the stereotypes that were so common and portraying them in the movies with humor. For example, in Murphys movies, he is usually playing a cool hip guy who teams up with not so hip white guys.• Movies were making an impact, those that had a strong message as a book such as The Color Purple were taking on by amazing directors. Whether it be a strong black director such as Spike Lee and John Singleton who are famous for Do the Right Thing and Boyz n the Hood or even a movie such as "the color purple" that was directed by Steven Speilberg who targeted a large interracial audience with a mostly black cast.• Blacks were on the tv everywhere as well. Coming in the 1980s and 90s shows like Diffrent strokes and the cosby show were making an impact. Integrating white and black actors on hit tv shows with a predominantly black cast, and them being the main center of focus for the most part was slowly bridging the gap as well.
Hip-Hop• Hip-Hop was a movement that originated in Bronx, New York in the 1970s.• Targeting mostly youthful blacks and latinos it became more of a culture and a way of life than just music.• Changed the way people were talking, dressing, and acting.• Rappers such as DJ Kool, P. Diddy, Run-DMC, saw this movement as a way to help the African American race, like a new gate had been opened.• A lot of the music back then delt with rebellion, current events, and things that were going on that they wanted to get acrross the minds of their listeners.• Even white rappers were tagging in and making an impact. Groups such as the Beastie Boys who were a group of Jewish Boys that had taken the sight of all.• Hip Hop also created a lot of controversy and was seen as innapropriate.• It was seen to most as a freedom of expression but to to others it was seen as explicit, dangerous, and violent.
Ending Apartheid• Fredrick Willem De Klerk lifted the ban that had been on the African National Congress for thirty years in 1990.• This released the main symbol for the black liberation movement Nelson Mandela. Who was in jail for over 28 years.• Mandela and Klerk were both granted the nobel peace prize in 1993 for bringing racial equality to South Africa.
International Stage• Blacks were now on the political scene, with people paving the way such as General Colin Powell. Powell was a military man in Vietnam, appointed as National Security Advisor by Reagan which made him the first African American in that position, then under Bush he became the first african american to be chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff.• Powell played a big part in the Persian Gulf War as well and yet blacks were still against it.• Blacks in democratic office voted against using force in the war.• Powell was still heavily supported by blacks and whites, still having the leadership quality, Powell wound up being appointed as Secretary of State.• Powell was the first black Secretary of State under George W. Bush.
Bill Clinton Elected• Bill Clinton inaugurated into on January 20, 1993• Promise of Racial Reconciliation during his tenure
Clintons 1st Term• President Clinton named 4 African Americans to his Cabinet o Also appointed more African American Judges than any previous President• Clinton Attempted to appoint for Yale classmate of his, Lanni Guinier, to head of Justice Departments Civil Rights division o 1st major racial controversy of his Presidency
President Clinton Continued. • Clinton was a popular President among the African American Population • Because of his Successful 1st term, Clinton was re-elected o 1st Democrat re-elected since Franklin Roosevelt • Nation experienced impressive growth
Problems Still Faced• President Clinton had originally planned much larger scale Welfare Reforms, but reforms were toned down after work with the Conservative Party o Conservative Party at the time had majority in both the House and the• Senate Welfare Reforms failed to truly address the poverty issue
President Clinton on the "RaceIssue"• One of Clintons most important initiatives as President was addressing the race problem• He began addressing this with the "One America" initiative o Presented with task of helping articulate a "Vision of Racial Reconstruction"• Created a board of racial diverse individuals• American public reacted in a variety of was to the news
"One America" Initiative Cont.• Board Members came to the conclusion that educating the Whites was the most effective way to combat racism• Al Gore was quoted saying that the formation of the board was "A necessary healing step"• In September 1998, advisory board presented its final report to President Clinton o Made Suggestions on: § Education § Health System § Criminal Justice System § Immigration
Final Suggestions of "One America"BoardThe Race Board that Clinton had created made 4 major Suggestions: 1. Create a permanent board. "The Presidents Council for One America" 2. Devise public education program to keep nation informed on race relations 3. Use the presidential leadership to push the leader of public sector to "make racial reconciliation a reality" 4. Engage "youth leaders in the efforts to
Looking towards a New Century• African Americans looked towards the upcoming century with cautious optimism o Conservative Ideas vs. New reforms