The use of power hasconsequences thataffect relationships andaccess toopportunities.
Masks have the power…• to disguise• to hide the identity or mood of a person• to transform the wearing into anotherbeing• to change the identity of the wearer• to give a sense of continuity betweenthe present and past• to empower• to protect
Masks are used forwarfare and asprotective devices incertain sports.http://silini4.s3ra.comhttp://thisisnodeclaration.blogspot.com/2009/02/from-canadian-design-resource.htmlto Protect
Horned MaskA Poro society mask.It projects power throughits horns to summonsthe power of the forest.
CongoMulandwa MaskEmpowers warriors withenergy and fierceness.
Masks protects against theunknown forces of the universe.Masks have played an importantpart in religious rites to preventand to cure disease.myorbit.tv johnnydepp-zone.com
the Plague 1347Doctors dressed to protectthemselves from the virusand from the rotten stench ofdeath and the plague.
IndonesiaSkull MaskIt scares off evil whileenhancing the spiritual andhealing powersof the shamanwho wears it.
Papau New GuineaGable MaskThis mask is hung overthe door of meeting placesfor men. It protects againstevil spirits for the maleelders.
Nigeria - Mba MaskUsed in plays for portraying self-admiringgirls.Maiden Spirit MaskRepresents the spirits of maidensreturning from the afterworld.
Totems• Believing that the human spirit couldtake animal form and vice versa, themakers of these masks fused manand bird or man and animal into onemask.www.costalart.com
In secret societiesonly the memberscan view the Totemworn by the elders atinitiation ceremoniesHaida Secret Society Maskhttp://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/tresors/treasure/images/240_1b.gif
Some African tribes believe that theanimal masks can help themcommunicate with the spirits who live inforests or open savannas.http://www.artyfactory.com/africanmasks/context/artist.htmhttp://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~bcr/African_Mask.html
Angola MukandaMen’s Initiation MaskIt symbolizes a female ancestorand used during male initiationrituals.
Day of the Dead• Celebrated in Mexico Nov 2ndtohonour dead ancestors• masks are made to look likeskeletons with the deceasedname written on the forehead.• These are brought to thegraveyard as offerings.
Death Maskshttp://www.egyptiandreams.co.uk/images/rulers/tut-death-mask.jpgThe funerary mask servedto guide the spirit of thedeceased back to its finalresting place in the body.They were commonlymade of cloth covered withstucco or plaster, whichwas then painted.For more importantpersonages, silver and goldwere used.
NigeriaBush Cow Helmet MaskUsed in funeral ceremoniesto lead the dead to thenext world.
Sri LankaKolam Sanniya MaskHas the power to healcontagious diseases likecholera.
Milwaukee Public Museumhttp://www.mpm.edu/collect/mask.htmlSome masksrepresent evil, orpotentially harmfulspirits and are used tokeep a requiredbalance of powerwithin a culture.
Discipline/Punish• to discipline andadmonish women,children, andcriminals.
Secret African societies use masks to escaperecognition while punishing marauders.http://www.johnnydepp-zone.com/boards/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=46102&p=1177617
• In many cultures, a judgewears a mask to protecthim from futurerecriminations.• the mask represents atraditionally sanctionedspirit from the past whoassumes responsibilityfor the decision levied onthe culprit.
NigeriaBishop MaskGives the wearerauthority in religiousmatters.
TibetBhairava MaskIt has the powerto defendlaws.
NigeriaEkpo Society MaskUsed by male societymembers to honour the deadby enforcing the laws.
CongoKifwebe Association MaskExercises social controland seeks contributions, andredistributes wealth.
CameroonBekorn Helmet MaskShows respect to aking and is worn tosymbolize bowing.
to Transform• Masks to transform areimportant for Halloween,Mardi Gras, or “maskedballs”• Give the wearer thepower to experiencebeing someone orsomething they are not.• Gives the wearer a newidentity and the freedomto act differently.
Venice 1268 - 1797• Masks concealed identities sopeople could do sinful acts orbreak the law with impunity.• The mask was an outlet to escapeeveryday life that didn’t allow forprivacy.• A few times a year (usually duringreligious festivals) masks werebanned• From Dec 26 – Shrove Tuesday,masks are encouraged andcontinue to this day – VenetianCarnival.
• Masks served an important social purpose ofkeeping every citizen on an equal playing field.• On October 17, 1797 Venice became part ofAustria and masked celebrations were outlawed.• Now masks are worn during the week longcelebration of Mardi Gras.http://touritaly.org/tours/venice/venice07.htm
Masks have long beenused in militaryconnections. A war maskwill have a malevolentexpression or hideouslyfantastic features to instillfear in the enemy.The ancient Greeks andRomans used battleshields with grotesquemasks or attachedterrifying masks to theirarmor, as did the Chinesewarrior.
Grimacing menpo, or mask helmets,were used by Japanese samurai.
Greek Comedy Tragedy MasksIn Ancient Greece, masks depicted an extensive variety ofpersonalities, ages, ranks, and occupations.Greek mask were designed to throw the voice with a built-inmegaphone device.thatwoman.wordpress.comIt was possible for the Greek to impersonate a number of differentcharacters during the play simply by changing masks and costumes.
1. Create a mask that givesthe wearer special powers whenworn.2. The mask must embody this powerin its appearance.• Write a reflection that explainshow the decision to wear thismask could have consequencesthat affect relationships andaccess to opportunities.• Explain the elements andprinciples of design you used tocreate your mask.TASK
Learning outcomes:• become increasingly independentin the realization of the creative process• utilize a broad range of waysto make meaning• develop an awareness of theirpersonal preferences.Examples of student work….try to determine what power is being expressed in each….
References:http://www.anymask.com/maskstore/historyofmask.htmlhttp://bun.i.hosei.ac.jp/~engl/cfs/single/maskfethr.htmlwww.getimmediate.com/ cooling-collar/Masks.htmlwww.thecostumer.com/ store/subcat.cfm?subcatID=223http://www.deviantart.com/deviation/15965662/http://www.deviantart.com/view/15556785/http://www.deviantart.com/view/15556696/http://www.deviantart.com/deviation/16785183/ise.uvic.ca/.../Rom/ UVic1998/ByScene/Rom1.5.htmlhttp://theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,18245417-16947,00.htmlwww.thecostumeshop.netMasks of the worldStudent examples courtesy of Mrs Catherine Ho