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SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes
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SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes

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Semantic Decision Rule Language (SDRule-L) is an extension to Object-Role Modelling language (ORM), which is one of the most popular fact based, graphical modelling languages for designing information …

Semantic Decision Rule Language (SDRule-L) is an extension to Object-Role Modelling language (ORM), which is one of the most popular fact based, graphical modelling languages for designing information systems. In this paper, we want to discuss how SDRule-L models can be formalized, analysed and applied in a business context. An SDRule-L model may contain static (e.g., data constraints) and dynamic rules (e.g., sequence of events). A reasoning engine is created for detecting inconsistency. When an SDRule-L model is used to manage linked data, a feasible way is to align SDRule-L with Semantic Web languages, e.g. OWL. In order to achieve this, we propose to map dynamic rules into a combination of static rules and queries for detecting anomalies. In this paper, we will illustrate a model reification algorithm for automatically transforming SDRule-L models that contain dynamic rules into the ones containing static rules, which can be formalized in Description Logic.

Published as: Yan Tang Demey, Christophe Debruyne: SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes. EC-Web 2013: 59-67

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • 1. SDRule-L: Managing Semantically Rich Business Decision Processes (short paper) Yan Tang Demey and Christophe Debruyne Vrije Universiteit Brussel STARLab 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 1
  • 2. Outline Introduction and Problem SDRule-L Approach Implementation Limitations, Future Work and Conclusions 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 2
  • 3. Introduction and Problem
  • 4. Introduction Semantic Decision Support Systems (SDSS) → requires proper capturing of business semantics to Fact-based Modeling (FBM) & Object Role Modeling (ORM) Fact-oriented modeling language Facts vs. Fact-types Example Fact: ”Christophe” knows ”Yan” Fact-types: [Person] knows (/known by) [Person] [Person] having (/ of) [Name] Important in FBM and ORM are ... grounding in natural language verbalization graphical notation ... for the involvement of non-technical domain experts 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 4
  • 5. Introduction However, FBM and ORM have ... limited support for modeling and reasoning over dynamic rules such as the sequence of events SDRule-L extends ORM to capture such rules How can we reason over such rules to support decision making? 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 5
  • 6. SDRule-L
  • 7. SDRule-L SDRule-L extends ORM by introducing constraints, operators and corresponding graphical notations such as: Sequence constraints; Cluster constraints; Implication- and negation constraints; Skipper. 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 7
  • 8. Sequence Constraints Relations between events: ness constraint on r1/r2 from Fig. 1 (O1). We use 𝒮𝒪ℐ𝒬(𝐷) – a DL dialect – to for- malize Fig. 1 (O2) as follows: ∃𝑟1. ⊤ ⊑ 𝐴 𝑟1 ≡ 𝑟1 ∃𝑟2. ⊤ ⊑ 𝐵 𝑟2 ≡ 𝑟2′ ∃𝑟1 . ⊤ ⊑ 𝐶 ∃𝑟2 . ⊤ ⊑ 𝐶 𝐶 ≡≤ 1𝑟1 . ⊤ ⊓ ∃𝑟1 . ⊤ ⊔≤ 1𝑟2 . ⊤ ⊓ ∃𝑟2 . ⊤ In what follows, we will use objectification to objectify roles. Sequence is a common constraint for an event. In SDRule-L, two events can have the relations as indicated in Table 1. Table 1. SDRule-L Sequence (𝐸 : event on the right of the connector;𝐸 : event on the left) ID Name Graphical Notation Verbalization 1 Succession 𝐸 is before 𝐸 2 Continuation 𝐸 is exactly before 𝐸 3 Overlap 𝐸 and 𝐸 overlap 4 Trigger 𝐸 triggers 𝐸 5 Terminator 𝐸 is terminated by 𝐸 6 Coincidence 𝐸 and 𝐸 are in parallel Allow us to use  𝐸 for denoting an event. An event contains two basic time indica- tors: begin time stamp (which we indicate as  𝑇 ) and end time stamp (indicated as  𝑇 ). 𝐸 is a valid event iff  𝑇 ≥ 𝑇 .  We  use  a  dot  “.”  to  indicate  the  holder  of  an  element.   For example, for an event  𝐸 , its begin time stamp is denoted by  𝐸 . 𝑇 . Given two >> _ _ -_ >> >> |=| Events have time stamps denoting the beginning and end of an event. 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 8
  • 9. Sequence Constraints Example: Device opening opened by Curtain sending sent by Message >> Device opening Curtain TRIGGERS Device sending Message. 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 9
  • 10. Cluster Constraints Treating a set of fact types as an object Modalities: Possible → ♦ Mandatory → Device receiving received by Signal opening opened by Curtain sending sent by Message Opening Curtain Listen and React Sending Message♦ 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 10
  • 11. Implication and Negation Device opening opened by Curtain sending sent by Message Device opening opened by Curtain sending sent by Message ¬ ¬ IF Device opening Curtain, THEN Device sending Message IF Device NOT opening Curtain, THEN Device NOT sending Message 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 11
  • 12. Skipper Used to ignored rules in a particular commitment. Device sending sent by Message ¶ EACH Device sending AT LEAST ONE Message (SKIPPED) 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 12
  • 13. Approach
  • 14. Approach 1) Parse SDRule-L Markup file 2) Translate fact-types into Description Logics 3) Process constraints in SDRule-L Commitment Static constraints translated into DL; Dynamic rules and higher-order constraints Adopt approach of Tao et al. 2010 Translate constraints into queries checking existence counterexamples 4) Notify user of problems 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 14
  • 15. Translating fact-types into DL Person “Employment” works for employs Company ⇓ Person with of Employment of with Company 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 15
  • 16. Translating fact-types into DL A “C” r1 r2 B A r1 r1’ C r2’ r2 B Translation into DL: ∃r1. A and ∃r1 . C and r1− ≡ r1 ∃r2. B and ∃r2 . C and r2− ≡ r2 C ≡ ≤ 1r1 . ∃r1 . ≤ 1r2. ∃r2 . 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 16
  • 17. Process SDRule-L Constraints Events – roles involved with sequence constraints – are ”cast” as being of the type ”event” and have a start- and end-time. A “C” r1 r2 B ... >> Event with of with of Timestamp 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 17
  • 18. Process SDRule-L Constraints Create SPARQL ASK queries checking existence of counterexamples Device opening opened by Curtain sending sent by Message >> Test general timestamp correctness ASK { ?x <.../#start> ?t1. ?x <.../#end> ?t2. FILTER(?t1 > ?t2) } Test sequence constraint ASK { { ?a <.../#sending_r1> ?rc1. ?rc1 <.../#start> ?t1. ?a <.../#opening_r1> ?rc2. ?rc2 <.../#end> ?t2. FILTER(?t1 >= ?t2) } UNION { OPTIONAL{ ?a <.../#sending_r1> ?rc1. } ?a <.../#opening_r1> ?rc2. FILTER(!BOUND(?rc1)) } } 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 18
  • 19. Process SDRule-L Constraints Create SPARQL ASK queries checking existence of counterexamples Device receiving received by Signal opening opened by Curtain sending sent by Message Opening Curtain Listen and React Sending Message♦ Test cluster constraint ASK { ?a a <...#Device>. OPTIONAL {?a <.../rec_r1> ?x1. OPTIONAL {?a <.../ope_r1> ?x2. FILTER(!BOUND(?x1) || !BOUND(?x2)) } ASK { ?a <.../sen_r1> ?b. OPTIONAL { ?a <.../rec_r1> ?c. FILTER(!BOUND(?c)) } 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 19
  • 20. Implementation
  • 21. Implementation SDRule-L Markup Parser Jena and Pellet Available as a module, part of a ”suite” 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 21
  • 22. Limitations, Future Work and Conclusions
  • 23. Limitations and Future Work Ambiguous paths → similar limitation arises in the graphical notation of external uniqueness constraints in ORM. Sequence on unconnected fact types Possible path 1 Possible path 2 Fig. 9. An example of a sequence applied on unconnected fact types and two possible paths of connections 5 Conclusion In this paper, we have discussed the most recent results concerning SDRule-L, which is a semantic decision support language. In particular, we have presented constraints A ra/rb B rc/re EC ra/rc rc/rd D ra/rd>> A ra/rb B rc/re EC ra/rc rc/rd D ra/rd>> A ra/rb B rc/re EC ra/rc rc/rd D ra/rd>> We currently only support sequence constraints with same ”starting point”. Similar limitation for Implication, and Cluster constraints. 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 23
  • 24. Conclusions 1. Formulated the problem of modeling and reasoning about aspects not supported by popular fact-based modeling languages 2. Extended ORM with SDRule-L 3. Translate SDRule-L into DL 4. Check constraint violation by looking for counterexamples 5. Implemented ideas, part of IDE 2013-08-27 @ EC-Web 2013| page 24

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