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Effective UML Modelling            Does Software Modeling Pay ?                     - empirical studies in UML -Dr. Michel...
Collaborate with us!    Your ideas on software engineering research?    Collaborate with us!                              ...
Outline of talk    - Introduction                                                                               Johan Musk...
Introduction Leiden Netherlands                                                                  Amsterdam                ...
Research Interest - Effectiveness of software modelling    - Quality of Modeling      When is a model good (enough)    - A...
State of the PracticeMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes   Leiden University. The university to disc...
Styles of Modeling                                                        Sketch             Communication                ...
Characteristics of Case Studies                    Your project here?Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Na...
Industrial use of UML diagrams                                                                                            ...
Statistics about Design Doc’s in general Typical Word document mixes: - Text and diagrams   500-800 words / diagram - Form...
Modelling style and model purpose                                                                                   Archit...
UML in practice                                                                 Sketch   Communication                    ...
UML for Design: Suitability of UML                                                    - UML is too formal                 ...
Quality of UML Models          - Can we distinguish styles by means of some            objective measure of model-quality?...
Quality Models    Existing models            Boehm              McCall                   ISO 9126           Rombach       ...
How to Define UML Model Quality?                                                                                          ...
How to measure goodness of UML model? - Design Heuristics - Completeness        - Interaction of classes must be described...
Automated Model Checking and Visualization       UML model                     Analysis Tool          Quality Metrics/Rule...
Screenshot of the MetricView tool                                                                                         ...
Design Heuristics for UML    – Metrics based on Chidamber & Kemerer OO metrics      Maintainability relates to Coupling, C...
Distribution of Coupling                           250                           200       number of classes              ...
MetricView Tool                                                                           MetaView                        ...
MetricView Tool                                                                    MetricView                             ...
3D visualization of design measurements               http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3HJ_QR9EG4 Supporting task-oriented ...
Industrial Experience with MetricView                     as Quality Assurance Tool    - Based on 15+ industrial projects ...
How do developers apply detail to UML models?                                                                             ...
How is Level of Detail distributed in a diagram?  Case 1                               Case 2     High detail             ...
Does the implementation resemble           the design?         design                                  implementation M.Sc...
Model - Source Code Conformance     Does the implementation look like the original design?                                ...
Does strictness of implementing a model differ                                                                            ...
Which factor most often drives developers to                                                                              ...
Findings from State of the Practice    - UML is used in many different ways    - Incompleteness          - Not all parts o...
Does Quality Matter? Experiment                                                                                   Effects ...
Example Question                                                                                                          ...
Does Quality Matter? Case Study     Parts of the design are more detailed than others                                     ...
Relation between UML-LoD and Code Quality           Select ‘defects’            in defect DB     Find classes in source   ...
Relation between Level of Detail                    •Does high LoD in sequence diagrams correspond to lower defect        ...
Economic Model for Cost of Quality                                                                                        ...
Cost of Modeling    Focus on effort    “Is there a correlation between class-count and the       effort spent in modeling?...
Empirical Data       Experiment        106 MSc students in (TU/e)                 Organized in 35 teams            Tas...
Results     Experiment                      40,00                      35,00                      30,00     Effort (hours...
Measurement of Modeling/Design                  in RUP Effort Distribution                                      modeling  ...
Impact of MDD on Effort Distribution                                                       as % of total project effort   ...
Cost of Modeling - Summary    - Size is not the issue    - Large variety in cost per       - Developer (expertise)       -...
The Use of UML and Software Quality                                                                                       ...
Benefits of Modeling                             Req. engineering                 Doing the right things  Modeling       ...
Do Models improve understanding?                                    Eye tracking experimentMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Mode...
Eye tracking UML designs: gazeplotsstructure                                                                              ...
Heatmap Person A                         structure                                         behaviourMichel Chaudron, Jeudi...
Heatmap Person B               There are large differences in styles of readingMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 Marc...
Overview Benefits of Modeling     Improved                           Improved                                            I...
What is next?    - Domain specific modelling (using UML)           - Domain specific tooling, V&V, generation    - Generat...
Concluding Remarks- UML modeling is being done in a variety of styles- Modelers ‘economize’ by focusing on complex and cri...
What is next?    Your ideas on research?    Collaborate with us!                                    chaudron@liacs.nl    -...
How often do design issues lead to problems?                                    70                                        ...
Opinions on Value of ModellingValue        Agile        MDA     “Loose                 UML”                               ...
Which classes are modeled?         Complexity and Coupling is higher for classes         that are modeled than not modeled...
Recommendations     - Apply Quality Assurance to UML modeling            - Use ‘coding conventions’ for UML:              ...
Maintenance paradox    - Maintainers of software would like better      documentation    - Even if UML models are created ...
Conformance   -    Between UML model and source code implementation   -    It is the degree of similarity between model an...
MetricView contributors    -    Johan Muskens    -    Christian Lange    -    Martijn Wijns    -    Dennis van Opzeeland  ...
Publications-    Journal Publications       -   Supporting task-oriented modeling using interactive UML views. PDF        ...
-    Workshop Publications          -     Towards Task-Oriented Modeling using UML.                C.F.J. Lange, M.A.M. Wi...
-    Journal Papers         Ariadi Nugroho, "Level of detail in UML models and its impact on model comprehension: A contro...
-    W. Heijstek and Michel R. V. Chaudron (2010) The Impact of Model Driven Development on the Software Architecture     ...
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Effecitve uml modeling quality asurance and its economics

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This presentation presents empirical evidence about the economic value of software modeling using UML in software development projects. It is based on research of dr. Michel Chaudron performed at Leiden University and TU Eindhoven in teh Netherlands. Please contact us if youwould like to collaborate.

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  1. 1. Effective UML Modelling Does Software Modeling Pay ? - empirical studies in UML -Dr. Michel R.V. Chaudron, Leiden Institute of Advanced Computer ScienceProgram director M.Sc. ICT & Business http:/iib.liacs.nl Leiden University. The university to discover.
  2. 2. Collaborate with us! Your ideas on software engineering research? Collaborate with us! chaudron@liacs.nl - Can we study your project (for free)? - We would like to study : - impact on maintenance, requirements - Communication in off-shored projects - UML-based test generation - Compare UML-based with MDA-based development - Measure risk exposure in iterative sw developmentMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  3. 3. Outline of talk - Introduction Johan Muskens - Modeling – State of the Practice - Styles of modeling Christian Lange - Quality of models - Costs of modeling Ariadi Nugroho - Benefits of modeling Werner HeijstekMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  4. 4. Introduction Leiden Netherlands Amsterdam Leiden EindhovenMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  5. 5. Research Interest - Effectiveness of software modelling - Quality of Modeling When is a model good (enough) - Analysis of Non-Functional Properties of component-based architectures (model-based) - What are the pay-offs of investing in early design/architecture? Fewer defects? Cheaper maintenance? … - Software DesignMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  6. 6. State of the PracticeMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  7. 7. Styles of Modeling Sketch Communication Recipe for constructionMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  8. 8. Characteristics of Case Studies Your project here?Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  9. 9. Industrial use of UML diagrams How UML is used B Dobing, J Parsons - Communications of the ACM, 2006 ClassMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  10. 10. Statistics about Design Doc’s in general Typical Word document mixes: - Text and diagrams 500-800 words / diagram - Formal UML & inventions 40-50% of diagrams is UML 60-50% of diagrams is not UML Text is used for: - Design decisions / Rationale - Elaboration/explanation - Linking to context ‘Design’ Tooling must support: models, sketches & text Uri Dekel, James D. Herbsleb: Notation and representation in collaborativeMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes object-oriented design: an observational study. OOPSLA 2007: 261-280 Leiden University. The university to discover.
  11. 11. Modelling style and model purpose Architecture and Design Description. IEEE Software 23(2): 40-46 (2006) C.F.J.Lange, M.R. V. Chaudron, J.Muskens: In Practice: UML Software understanding communicating managing complexity implementation blueprint Styles of using UML – as a sketch – thinking tool/understanding – for communicating system design – as a blueprint – guide the implementation work – as a implementation (MDA) Panel Leiden University. The university to discover.
  12. 12. UML in practice Sketch Communication More effort  More expensive Recipe for constructionMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  13. 13. UML for Design: Suitability of UML - UML is too formal - Informal information is Sketch added to diagrams - designers do use UML concepts Communication UML for Communication: Recipe for construction - Internationally standardized UML Blueprint: meaning seems to work - Ok UML for code generation: - Not formal enoughMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  14. 14. Quality of UML Models - Can we distinguish styles by means of some objective measure of model-quality?Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  15. 15. Quality Models Existing models Boehm McCall ISO 9126 Rombach … - Decomposition of characteristics - Bottom level: metrics - Differences in - Relations between characteristics - Vocabulary Boehm’s Quality ModelMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  16. 16. How to Define UML Model Quality? Framework for quality of UML models (Lange & Chaudron, 2005) The quality attributes of a UML model is determined by its purpose...Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  17. 17. How to measure goodness of UML model? - Design Heuristics - Completeness - Interaction of classes must be described in SD - Methods of CD must be called in SD - Consistency - Messages in SD must correspond to method in class diagram In many cases it can not be automatically determined whether a flaw is an incompleteness or an inconsistency - Correspondence - Dependencies in the implementation are allowed only if they occur in the designMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  18. 18. Automated Model Checking and Visualization UML model Analysis Tool Quality Metrics/Rules • Completeness Visualization of • Consistency model + metricsMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  19. 19. Screenshot of the MetricView tool = violation = ok Quality = absence of ‘bad things’ such as omissions, spaghettiMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  20. 20. Design Heuristics for UML – Metrics based on Chidamber & Kemerer OO metrics Maintainability relates to Coupling, Cohesion, … Highest coupling = 7 Highest coupling = 4Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  21. 21. Distribution of Coupling 250 200 number of classes 150 100 50 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 coupling System of several hundred classes 21Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  22. 22. MetricView Tool MetaView to visualize the (hidden) inter-diagram relations Example: Which classes contribute to a certain use case? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3HJ_QR9EG4 Supporting task-oriented modeling using interactive UML views, C.F.J. Lange, M. A.M. Wijns, and M. R.V. Chaudron, Journal of Visual Languages and ComputingMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover. Christian Lange 22
  23. 23. MetricView Tool MetricView The values of metrics are visualized on class diagrams using colors Example: Coupling- Between-Objects (CBO) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3HJ_QR9EG4 Supporting task-oriented modeling using interactive UML views, C.F.J. Lange, M. A.M. Wijns, and M. R.V. Chaudron, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing Christian Lange. Leiden University. The university to discover. 23
  24. 24. 3D visualization of design measurements http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G3HJ_QR9EG4 Supporting task-oriented modeling using interactive UML views, C.F.J. Lange, M. A.M. Wijns, and M. R.V. Chaudron, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing Christian Lange. Leiden University. The university to discover. 24
  25. 25. Industrial Experience with MetricView as Quality Assurance Tool - Based on 15+ industrial projects - If there are weak spots in the design, then these are indicated as ‘suspects’ by MetricView - MetricView indicates many weak spots that do not require improvement according to project architects (false positives?)  quality is not applied uniformly across UML models - The later MetricView is applied, the fewer ‘weak spots’ are removed from the design  process issueMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  26. 26. How do developers apply detail to UML models? Ariadi Nugroho, Michel R. V. Chaudron: A Survey of the Practice of Design - Code Correspondence amongst Professional Software Engineers. ESEM 2007: 70.0 Disagree Somewhat Disagree 61% 60.0 Neutral Somewhat agree 52% Percentage of the respondents 50.0 Agree 40.0 37% 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 Equal details Details proportional More details for Programmers for all parts to complexity critical parts determine details Developers apply more detail on critical and complex parts of a systemMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  27. 27. How is Level of Detail distributed in a diagram? Case 1 Case 2 High detail High detail Low detail Low detail Robin van den Broek B.Sc. Thesis in CS, 2009, Leiden University Leiden University. The university to discover.
  28. 28. Does the implementation resemble the design? design implementation M.Sc. Thesis, Dennis van Opzeeland TU/e Computer Science, System Architecture and Networking Leiden University. The university to discover.
  29. 29. Model - Source Code Conformance Does the implementation look like the original design?  X-Axis  Metrics of Design  Y-Axis  Metrics of Outlier Implementation  Points represent Classes  Points off the diagonal indicate outliersMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  30. 30. Does strictness of implementing a model differ Ariadi Nugroho, Michel R. V. Chaudron: A Survey of the Practice of Design - Code Correspondence amongst Professional Software Engineers. ESEM 2007: for different modeling constructs? 50.0 Loosely 36% Percentage of the respondents Somewhat loosely 45.0 Neutral 40.0 Somewhat strict Strictly 46% 35.0 30.0 31% 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 Package Dependency Inheritance Class and The order of structure relations relations method names method calls Developers favor to implement dependency and inheritance relations more strictly than other constructsMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  31. 31. Which factor most often drives developers to Ariadi Nugroho, Michel R. V. Chaudron: A Survey of the Practice of Design - Code Correspondence amongst Professional Software Engineers. ESEM 2007: non-correspondence? Percentage of the respondents 60 Never 50 Sometimes Often Very Often 48% 40 30 31% 29% 20 10 0 Meeting Impractical Incomplete Model doesn’t satisfy deadline model model requirements Among other factors, developers considered incomplete model more often drives them to non-correspondenceMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  32. 32. Findings from State of the Practice - UML is used in many different ways - Incompleteness - Not all parts of system are modelled - Disproportion - Different parts of the system are modeled different in level of quality - Inconsistency - Conflicting information in different views of one model Is this a problem?Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  33. 33. Does Quality Matter? Experiment Effects of Defects in UML Models, C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron, (ICSE 2006)- Subjects are given UML models- Ask questions about UML model - Two types • Which implementation matches the diagrams? • How do you interpret these diagrams? - Answer from the perspective of the developer.- Multiple-choice test (15 Questions) - 4 options + 1 option (“There’s something wrong, I can’t give an answer”)- + Background questions (possible confounding factors: training, experience, …) Leiden University. The university to discover.
  34. 34. Example Question Effects of Defects in UML Models, C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron, (ICSE 2006) Inconsistency: Message Name does not correspond to Method Message does not correspond to Method - Control (Q4) 12080 10070 Many don’t see the defect 80 64% don’t see the defect 6060 and just implement 4050 and just implement 2040 0 a b c d e(rror)3020 ?10- Suppose you are developer in this banking software project. It is your task to implement class0 ATM. Please indicate how you would implement the class ATM given these two UML diagrams? a b c d e(rror)A) B) C) D) E) Ring thegetCardInserted(){ getCardInserted(){ getCardInserted() getCardInserted() bell!c.requestPIN(); c.requestPIN(); { { Somethingdosomething; dosomething; c.requestPIN(); c.requestPIN(); isa.open() a.lock() dosomething; dosomething; wrong!} } a.acknowledge() a.validate() } } Leiden University. The university to discover.
  35. 35. Does Quality Matter? Case Study Parts of the design are more detailed than others attributes operations associationsMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  36. 36. Relation between UML-LoD and Code Quality Select ‘defects’ in defect DB Find classes in source component C2 defect component C2 code that were requires I2 requires I3I2 requires uses requires I3 I2.g uses I2.g density uses I3.h repaired for solving this uses I3.h defects O rder OrderDetail * 1 -date P ce or repro ss Parser A er nalys DC B reator DF B iller Inherita R nce elator DC B hecker S tis Filte ta tic r StatisticC lculator a -quantity Find corresponding -status -taxS tatus SA A A T.B T +calcTax() +calcS ubTotal() +calcTotal() +calcW eight() +calcTotalW eight() Paym ent 1 -am ount 1 classes in UML models Credit -num ber -type -expDate Cash -cashTendered Check -nam e -bankID +authorized() + authorized() OrderDetail O rder LoD per class * 1 -date P ce repro ssor P rse a r A lys na er DC B reator DF B iller Inherita ceR n elator D C eck B h er S tisticFilte ta r StatisticC lc r a ulato -quantity Determine LoD -status -taxS tatus SA A A T.B T +calcTax() +calcS ubTotal() +calcTotal() +calcW eight() +calcTotalW eight() Paym ent 1 -am ount 1 for CD and SD -num ber -type -expDate Credit Cash -cashTendered Check -nam e -bankID +authorized() + authoriz ed()Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  37. 37. Relation between Level of Detail •Does high LoD in sequence diagrams correspond to lower defect density? and Defect Density = 1 class Level of Detail for Sequence Diagrams is significantly (negatively) correlated with defect density. More detailed model => fewer defectsMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  38. 38. Economic Model for Cost of Quality From: H. Krasner, Cost of Quality, 1998 Cost of SQ = Achievement Cost + Non-conformance CostMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  39. 39. Cost of Modeling Focus on effort “Is there a correlation between class-count and the effort spent in modeling?” Sources: ‐ Experiment ‐ Set of industrial case studiesMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  40. 40. Empirical Data  Experiment  106 MSc students in (TU/e)  Organized in 35 teams  Task: Model Car Navigation System  Duration: 6 weeks assignment  Three treatments were applied: 1. No modeling conventions 2. With modeling conventions 3. Tool-supported modeling conventionsMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  41. 41. Results  Experiment 40,00 35,00 30,00 Effort (hours) 25,00 Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient 20,00 15,00 Effort (hours) 10,00 Class-count .302 5,00 Sig. (2-tailed) .171 0,00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Class-count There is no significant correlation between class-count and the effort spent in modeling.  class-count is not a good measure for the effort spent on modeling?Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  42. 42. Measurement of Modeling/Design in RUP Effort Distribution modeling designingMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  43. 43. Impact of MDD on Effort Distribution as % of total project effort construction constr. elaboration transition transition elaboration architecture & code generator incep. ‘traditional’ Model-driven (avg. of 17 projects) (1 project) Leiden University. The university to discover.
  44. 44. Cost of Modeling - Summary - Size is not the issue - Large variety in cost per - Developer (expertise) - project - Purpose/use of models - Level of abstraction / target quality of models - Maintaining model-code correspondence - Common to all new technology: - training, licensing, …Michel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  45. 45. The Use of UML and Software Quality Ariadi Nugroho, Michel R. V. Chaudron: A Survey of the Practice of Design - Code Correspondence amongst Professional Software Engineers. ESEM 2007: 50.0 Reduce 45% 45.0 Somewhat Reduce Neutral 41% 40.0 Somewhat Improve Improve Percentage of the respondents 35.0 30.0 25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 Cover Correctness Modularity Testability Understandability Requirements A large number of developers indicated the use of UML improves understandability and modularityMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  46. 46. Benefits of Modeling Req. engineering Doing the right things Modeling Designing Modularity   Implementing Defects Testing Maintenance Early insight in system quality Project Management Better traceability Improved shared understandingMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  47. 47. Do Models improve understanding? Eye tracking experimentMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  48. 48. Eye tracking UML designs: gazeplotsstructure behaviour Attention is determined by taskMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  49. 49. Heatmap Person A structure behaviourMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  50. 50. Heatmap Person B There are large differences in styles of readingMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  51. 51. Overview Benefits of Modeling Improved Improved Improved Project Quality Productivity Management Reduced More Efficient rework Maintenance Reduced Reduced Fewer Improved testing maintenance Defects Communication effort effort “validation” Better Risk“verification” building the managementbuilding the right systemsystem right More Improved Improved Accurate requirements Modularity Estimating Better Understanding ModelingMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  52. 52. What is next? - Domain specific modelling (using UML) - Domain specific tooling, V&V, generation - Generation of/from UML - From requirements - Test generation based on UML - Tool integration - Synchronization between model and codeMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  53. 53. Concluding Remarks- UML modeling is being done in a variety of styles- Modelers ‘economize’ by focusing on complex and critical parts. QA needs to be risk-aware - Low hanging fruit: ‘common’ QA techniques should be applied to models (versioning, reviews, coding-conventions)- There is a payoff of modeling in: - improved modularity - seq.diagrams  code quality - communication (suspected)- Future work: maintaining Please send your projects model-code correspondence to: chaudron@liacs.nlMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  54. 54. What is next? Your ideas on research? Collaborate with us! chaudron@liacs.nl - Can we study your project? - We would like to study : - impact on maintenance, requirements - Communication in off-shored projects - UML-based test generation - Compare UML-based with MDA-based development - Measure risk exposure in iterative sw developmentMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  55. 55. How often do design issues lead to problems? 70 Never Sometimes 60 Often Very Often Percentage of the respondents 50 40 30 20 10 0 Inconsistency Understandability Inaccuracy Incompleteness Incompleteness of models was considered most often to lead to implementation problemsMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  56. 56. Opinions on Value of ModellingValue Agile MDA “Loose UML” Formal Methods 100% Panel completeness Leiden University. The university to discover.
  57. 57. Which classes are modeled? Complexity and Coupling is higher for classes that are modeled than not modeledMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  58. 58. Recommendations - Apply Quality Assurance to UML modeling - Use ‘coding conventions’ for UML: - Naming – correspond to implementation - Layout - Use of patterns/stereotypes - Version Control - Organize traceability from Use Cases to Sequence diagrams (tool/conventions) - Quality of SD’s is important when UML is used as blueprint for implementationMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  59. 59. Maintenance paradox - Maintainers of software would like better documentation - Even if UML models are created during design, these are used in maintenance. The more detailed models are, the mode quickly they become outdated. Better abstraction in reverse- / round trip- engineering is needed in the setting of incremental & iterative developmentMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university to discover.
  60. 60. Conformance - Between UML model and source code implementation - It is the degree of similarity between model and implementation - Reasons for lack of conformance - Poor model quality (therefore misunderstood in implementation) - “I know it better”-Attitude of Programmer - Evolution of implementation during maintenance - Why is conformance important? - Ensure similarity between model and implementation - Model is used for understanding the implementation in maintenance (understanding the corresponding model is easier than digging through thousands of lines of source code) - We developed methods to - Measure conformance / Identify Deviations - (Re)construct a mapping between model and implementation elements - Support in keeping Model and Implementation ‘in sync’ MRV ChaudronMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Sheet 60 Leiden University. The university to discover.
  61. 61. MetricView contributors - Johan Muskens - Christian Lange - Martijn Wijns - Dennis van Opzeeland - Ariadi Nugroho - Werner Heijstek - Maurice Vermeer - Alex Telea - Robin van den Broek MRV ChaudronMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university 61 discover. Sheet to
  62. 62. Publications- Journal Publications - Supporting task-oriented modeling using interactive UML views. PDF C.F.J. Lange, M.A.M. Wijns, M.R.V. Chaudron. Journal of Visual Languages and Computing (Elsevier), Volume 18, Issue 7, August 2007. - In Practice: UML Software Architecture and Design Description. C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron, J. Muskens. IEEE Software, Volume 23, Issue 2, March 2006.- Conference Publications - A Visualization Framework for Task-Oriented Modeling using UML. C.F.J. Lange, M.A.M. Wijns, M.R.V. Chaudron. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS07). January 2007. - An Experimental Investigation of UML Modeling Conventions. C.F.J. Lange, Bart DuBois, M.R.V. Chaudron, Serge Demeyer. Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Model-driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MoDELS 2006). October 2006. - Effects of Defects in UML Models - An Experimental Investigation. C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron. Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2006). May 2006. (acceptance rate: 9%) - Improving the Quality of UML Models in Practice. C.F.J. Lange. Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2006). May 2006. - Visual Exploration of Combined Architectural and Metric Information. M. Termeer, C.F.J. Lange, A. Telea, M.R.V. Chaudron. Proceedings of VISSOFT 2005, IEEE CS Press. September 2005. - Combining Metrics Data and the Structure of UML Models using GIS Visualisation Approaches. C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron. IEEE International Conference on Information Technology 2005. Las Vegas, April 2005. - An Exploratory Study on the Industrial Use of UML: Improving Control over Design Quality. C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron. JACQUARD Conference. February 2005. - Investigations in Applying Metrics to Multi-View Architecture Models. J. Muskens, M.R.V. Chaudron, C.F.J. Lange. In Proceedings of EUROMICRO’04, Rennes, France, September 2004. - An Empirical Assessment of Completeness in UML Design. C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron. Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Empirical Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE04). May 2004. - Konsistenz und Vollständigkeit industrieller UML Modelle. C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron. Proceedings of “Modellierung 2004“, Marburg, Germany, 24-26 March 2004. Michel Chaudron, Christian Lange, Martijn Wijns discover. Leiden University. The university to 62
  63. 63. - Workshop Publications - Towards Task-Oriented Modeling using UML. C.F.J. Lange, M.A.M. Wijns, M.R.V. Chaudron. Proceedings of the 10th QAOOSE workshop, co-located with ECOOP2006. July 2006. - Managing Model Quality in UML-based Software development. C.F.J. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron. Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Software Technology and Engineering Practice 2005 (STEP), in the "Workshop on Software Process Improvement, Quality Assurance and Measurement. September 2005. - Quantitative Techniques for the Assessment of Correspondence between UML Designs and Implementations. Dennis J.A. van Opzeeland, Christian F.J. Lange, Michel R.V. Chaudron. Proceedings of the 9th QAOOSE workshop, co-located with ECOOP2005. July 2005. - An Empirical Investigation in Quantifying Inconsistency and Incompleteness of UML Designs. C. Lange, M.R.V. Chaudron, J. Muskens, L.J. Somers, H.M. Dortmans. 2nd workshop on consistency problems in UML-based software development, October 20, 2003, in San Francisco, USA as part of the “International Conference on Unified Modeling Language 2003”. MRV ChaudronMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university 63 discover. Sheet to
  64. 64. - Journal Papers Ariadi Nugroho, "Level of detail in UML models and its impact on model comprehension: A controlled experiment", Information and Software Technology Journal (in Press). - Conference Papers Ariadi Nugroho and Michel R.V. Chaudron, "Evaluating the Impact of UML Modeling on Software Quality: An Industrial Case Study", ACM/IEEE 12th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS), Denver, Colorado - USA, 2009. - Ariadi Nugroho, Bas Flaton, and Michel R.V. Chaudron, "An Empirical Analysis of Level of Detail in UML Models and its Relation with Defect Density", ACM/IEEE 11th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems (MODELS), Toulouse - France, 2008. (received best paper awards). PDF - Ariadi Nugroho and Michel R.V. Chaudron, "A survey into the Rigor of UML Use and its Perceived Impact on Quality and Productivity", 2nd International Symposium of Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM), Kaiserslautern - Germany, 2008. PDF - Ariadi Nugroho and Michel R.V. Chaudron, "A Survey of the Practice of Design - Code Correspondence amongst Professional Software Engineers", 1st International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering & Measurement (ESEM), Madrid, 2007. PDF - Workshop Papers Ariadi Nugroho and Christian F.J. Lange, "On the Relation between Class-count and Modeling Effort", Model Size Metrics Workshop, co-located with MODELS Conference, Nashville, Tennessee, 2007. (best paper). PDF - Chapters in Books Ariadi Nugroho and Michel R.V. Chaudron, “Managing the Quality of UML Models in Practice”, in Model-Driven Software Development: Integrating Quality Assurance, Idea Group Inc., New York, 2008. More info MRV ChaudronMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university 64 discover. Sheet to
  65. 65. - W. Heijstek and Michel R. V. Chaudron (2010) The Impact of Model Driven Development on the Software Architecture Process, 36th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA 2010) Lille, France bibtex W. Heijstek, Michel R. V. Chaudron, Libing Qiu and Christian C. Schouten (2010) A Comparison of Industrial Process Descriptions for Global Custom Software Development, 5th International Conference on Global Software Engineering (ICGSE 2010) Princeton, New Jersey, USA - Pages 277-284 bibtex W. Heijstek and Michel R. V. Chaudron (2009) Empirical Investigations of Model Size, Complexity and Effort in Large Scale, Distributed Model Driven Development Processes - A Case Study, 35th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA 2009) Patras, Greece bibtex W. Heijstek and Michel R. V. Chaudron (2008) Evaluating RUP Software Development Processes Through Visualization of Effort Distribution, 34th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA 2008) Parma, Italy bibtex W. Heijstek and Michel R. V. Chaudron (2008) Exploring Effort Distribution in RUP Projects 2nd International Symposium on Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM 2008) Kaiserslautern, Germany bibtex W. Heijstek and Michel R. V. Chaudron (2007) Effort distribution in model-based development. 2nd Workshop on Model Size Metrics (MSM 2007) bibtex MRV ChaudronMichel Chaudron, Jeudi des Modeles, 31 March 2011, Nantes Leiden University. The university 65 discover. Sheet to
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