Educating in MDE
Jordi Cabot
http://modeling-languages.com
INRIA & École des Mines de Nantes,
Educating in MDE
Shouldn’t MDE also change the way we teach Software Engineering
in CS degrees?
Model-driven engineering (...
Before we start: Context
 Joint team between INRIA & Ecole des Mines de Nantes (EMN)
 ≈10 members
 Research focus on:
– MDE core technologies
• ...
Nantes
Paris
Nantes is a city
in Western France,
with 750,000 inhabitants
in the metropolitan area.
Nantes is the most
imp...
 850 engineering students
 115 doctoral students
 125 permanent faculty members + 250 part-time teaching staff
 5 rese...
Model-Driven Engineering
What is MDE?
UML
Code-Generation
DSLs
Model-driven Rev. Eng
Metamodel
M2M
OCL
M2T
Model Evolution
Model-Based Testing
MDD
...
Relationship between MDA/MDD/MDE
 MDD = Models as the primary artifact of the development process.
 MDA is the OMG's par...
Relationship between MDA/MDD/MDE
 All model-driven processes are model-based but not the other way
round.
 Most MDE tech...
Technical Spaces
MDE Grammarware
MOF
(metametamodel)
UML
(metamodel)
ABank.uml
EBNF.g
Java.g
MyProgram.java
Model-Driven Engineering in CS Faculties
Educating in MDE
Shouldn’t MDE also change the way we teach Software Engineering
is taught in CS degrees?
Model-driven eng...
 MDE is not included in core SE courses
 In SE courses, MDE reduced to teaching UML (OCL?) for software
specification (a...
 Existence of MDE courses tightly related to presence of a research
group on these topics
 Nevertheless, situation much ...
When to teach MDE?
 MDE concepts should be introduced as part of the core SE courses
 Everybody has a basic notion of SE
 It´s clear that ...
 Introduction of MDE teaching in three different steps
1. Make sure all SE courses are model-based (some SE courses are
m...
When to teach Soft. Engineering ?
 Soft. Eng. is not taught in the same order!
 Students first learn how to program (and...
 Example (UOC – Open University of Catalonia)
When to teach Soft. Engineering ?
Fundamentos
Programación
Programación
OO
...
 We tried to reverse the order (first specification and then programming)
but had to reach a consensus
When to teach Soft...
 First we introduce SE principles (like lifecycles)
 Then we explain in parallel: specification, introduction to program...
What to teach?
What to teach?
1. Make your SE courses model-based
 Usually SE core courses focus on the specification and design of
centralized (or C/S) systems
 Final technology platfor...
 Original contents. Focused on teaching distributed technologies
 M1 – Distributed Software
 Distributed environments
...
Problems with this Distributed SE course
 This view impairs the students’ ability to develop complex systems
that require...
New course: educational objectives
 To relate the DSE field with contents of previous subjects on SE
 To combine a pract...
New course: global structure (I)
 A system specification is defined as a set of independent viewpoints, each
one of these...
New course: global structure (II)
 All views have been defined at the PIM level (including the definition of
system compo...
New course: lessons learnt and results
 Better learning experience:
– It is easier to understand the different aspects th...
What to teach?
2. A Model-driven SE course
 No matter how trendy are DSLs (Domain-Specific Languages), UML is
still by far the most important modeling language nowa...
 Students should learn that textual modeling is also possible
 Not always graphical syntaxes are the best option (e.g. d...
 It´s very important to teach Object Constraint Language. Many
applications:
− Precise specification of software systems
...
 Best way to teach OCL? Introducing it together with UML during the
specification of software systems (less abstract than...
 … but the best tool you can use to teach OCL is the USE tool (model
animation tool: define your scenarios and validate y...
MDE SE Course: I’d be happy if they learn…
PIM
PSM
M2M
CREATE TABLE Participant {
Name Varchar2(20) PRIMARY KEY
…
}
M2T
 More than an MDE SE course -> An MDD SE course
 Need time to teach other SE concepts (from software processes to
design...
 IMHO, this should be included in any SE course. Trickier than it
seems (and far beyond simple conformance)
 If code is ...
What to teach?
3. A Full MDE course
 This section is based on the MDE diploma:
 1st full postgraduate program on MDE
 1 year duration
 Also, as part of a ...
 http://www.mines-nantes.fr/fr/Formations/Formation-
specialisee/MDE
 The goal of the MDE Diploma is to train engineers ...
The MDE diploma: M1
Module 1:
Current Software Development Practices (60h)
 Software Modeling with current standards: UML...
The MDE diploma: M2
Module 2:
Automatic Model Processing (60h)
 Metamodel design
 Model-to-model Transformation with ATL...
The MDE diploma: M3
Module 3:
Managing Complex Scenarios (60h)
 Model Management
 repositories, versioning/evolution
 r...
The MDE diploma: M4
Module 4:
Applications to Information Systems (60h)
 Data Engineering
 Web Engineering
 Business Ru...
The MDE diploma: M5
Module 5:
Applications to Critical Systems (60h)
 Embedded and Real-Time Systems
 Process Engineerin...
The MDE diploma: M6
Module 6:
Managing MDE Projects (60h)
 MDE and management of technology and innovations
 MDE and man...
 From 360 hours to 430 (counting only hours in class; includes personal
work in class)
 Very difficult to find people to...
How to teach MDE?
(miscellaneous)
 Focus on concepts and principles instead of focusing on notations and
tools
 Learning the UML notation is important but...
The Modeling Triangle
 And please make sure they understand UML is not a development
method. More people than you think b...
 Bigger impact than with programming languages (all IDEs compile and
run programs the same way)
 No best choice: Usabili...
 Beyond UML modeling, the safest solution is go to Eclipse and the tools
under the Eclipse Modeling Project (EMF, GMF,…)
...
 Learning MDE requires practicing with existing model elements
 We need examples of models but also metamodels, model
tr...
 Intellectual property issues -> Models (and not products) are
becoming the main assets for companies. Don’t want to shar...
 Very easy to solve your PHP problems with Google. Try to do the
same with UML
 Poor and sparse documentation:
 Most of...
Three final thoughts
Let’s explain the real situation
 Modeling will be commonplace in 3 years time – S. Mellor
– Thought he is giving the sam...
… but be optimistic
 Pains and gains of software modeling
 Collective benefit but not for some individuals in the team
 Socio-technical con...
Continuing the discussion
http://modeling-languages.com
jordi.cabot@inria.fr
@softmodeling
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Educating in MDE

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Personal opinions and lessons learnt after teaching software engineering and model-driven engineering at different levels, places and environments

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Educating in MDE

  1. 1. Educating in MDE Jordi Cabot http://modeling-languages.com INRIA & École des Mines de Nantes,
  2. 2. Educating in MDE Shouldn’t MDE also change the way we teach Software Engineering in CS degrees? Model-driven engineering (MDE) is changing the way software systems are developed, operated and evolved.  Mixing personal opinions and lessons learnt during the last years teaching SE and MDE in different places, levels and environments  No magical recipes but, hopefully, some useful ideas & discussions
  3. 3. Before we start: Context
  4. 4.  Joint team between INRIA & Ecole des Mines de Nantes (EMN)  ≈10 members  Research focus on: – MDE core technologies • metamodeling, MT, MaaS, model management, virtual models… – MDE applications • reverse engineering, tool interoperability, IS cartography,…  Commitment to Eclipse open-source projects: – ATL, MoDisco, EMF Facet, AMW, AM3, TCS  Strong links with several software development companies  Participation in both national and international research projects AtlanMod
  5. 5. Nantes Paris Nantes is a city in Western France, with 750,000 inhabitants in the metropolitan area. Nantes is the most important city of Brittany and the 6th town in France.
  6. 6.  850 engineering students  115 doctoral students  125 permanent faculty members + 250 part-time teaching staff  5 research departments  10 specializations (all students get an Engineer Diploma – 2 CS- related specializations)  150 graduates per year EMN (let´s look at the numbers)  Low number of students. Good Rate students/faculty.  Lots of support for teaching innovation  Emphasis on Technology Transfer GOOD ENVIRONMENT FOR TEACHING MDE
  7. 7. Model-Driven Engineering
  8. 8. What is MDE? UML Code-Generation DSLs Model-driven Rev. Eng Metamodel M2M OCL M2T Model Evolution Model-Based Testing MDD MDA Profiles Multi-modeling SBVR BPMN Model Quality ATL QVT
  9. 9. Relationship between MDA/MDD/MDE  MDD = Models as the primary artifact of the development process.  MDA is the OMG's particular vision of MDD  MDE = Models as primary artifacts of any Soft. Eng. activity
  10. 10. Relationship between MDA/MDD/MDE  All model-driven processes are model-based but not the other way round.  Most MDE techniques are still useful in MBE
  11. 11. Technical Spaces MDE Grammarware MOF (metametamodel) UML (metamodel) ABank.uml EBNF.g Java.g MyProgram.java
  12. 12. Model-Driven Engineering in CS Faculties
  13. 13. Educating in MDE Shouldn’t MDE also change the way we teach Software Engineering is taught in CS degrees? Model-driven engineering (MDE) is changing the way software systems are developed, operated and evolved. Is this the case?
  14. 14.  MDE is not included in core SE courses  In SE courses, MDE reduced to teaching UML (OCL?) for software specification (and design of centralized systems)  Few faculties have an (optional) course on MDE, sometimes only at the master level  When teaching MDE focus on MDD, e.g. creating a DSL + code- generation from it  Easier to find courses on formal methods for SE !!! (not that I´m saying that FM are not important but …) Looking at course syllabus in CS degrees (Spain)  Out of topic:  How many courses include version control, bug tracking, tests or even agile practices?
  15. 15.  Existence of MDE courses tightly related to presence of a research group on these topics  Nevertheless, situation much better than a couple of years ago!!  Opinion: Spain is one of the most advanced countries on this aspect (linked to high MDE research activity)  Still time to change the situation (opening of new degrees due to the new regulation) Looking at course syllabus in CS degrees (II)
  16. 16. When to teach MDE?
  17. 17.  MDE concepts should be introduced as part of the core SE courses  Everybody has a basic notion of SE  It´s clear that MDE is not something apart from (alternative to) SE  Remember: MDE is process agnostic. Fits any dev. process you follow in your SE courses  MDE-based Waterfall process  MDE-based Agile process (see Agile and Modeling / MDE : friends or foes?)  … When to teach MDE?
  18. 18.  Introduction of MDE teaching in three different steps 1. Make sure all SE courses are model-based (some SE courses are more about programming than modeling) 2. Transform (some of) them in model-driven 3. Provide one full MDE course to  Show other MDE application scenarios (beyond forward engineering)  Introduce other MDE techniques (e.g. DSLs, model management,…)  Next we will see what contents include in each scenario What to teach?  But first: when to teach MDE = When to teach SE.
  19. 19. When to teach Soft. Engineering ?  Soft. Eng. is not taught in the same order!  Students first learn how to program (and design DBs) and then learn that these programs should be part of “something” called SE
  20. 20.  Example (UOC – Open University of Catalonia) When to teach Soft. Engineering ? Fundamentos Programación Programación OO Estructura de la Información Bases de Datos I Bases de Datos II Sist. Gestión Bases de Datos Modelos Multidim. y Almacenes de Datos Ing. Software Estructurado Ing. Software Gestión organizaciones y proyectos inf. Técnicas de Desarrollo Softwqre Ing. Software OO Proceso de Ing. Software Ing. Software componentes y sistemas distribuidosInteracción Humano- Ordenador Programación Bases de Datos Ingeniería del Software Gestión de la Ingeniería del Software  UML (class diagrams) first introduced in Programming then again in BD and then again in SE!  Domain modeling seen twice: in BD and in SE  No conceptual link between SE and Programming and BD subjects
  21. 21.  We tried to reverse the order (first specification and then programming) but had to reach a consensus When to teach Soft. Engineering ?
  22. 22.  First we introduce SE principles (like lifecycles)  Then we explain in parallel: specification, introduction to programming and introduction to databases.  Once we know the “final implementation platforms” (e.g. Java + RDB) we can explain the principles of the design process  A different course teaches the design process specific to each platform When to teach SE?  Interdisciplinary: professors from different areas must reach an agreement  Too many course dependencies prevented us from being more ambitious  More info: ¿Podemos darle la vuelta a la enseñanza del desarrollo del Software? J. M.Marco-Simo et al. Novática 193
  23. 23. What to teach?
  24. 24. What to teach? 1. Make your SE courses model-based
  25. 25.  Usually SE core courses focus on the specification and design of centralized (or C/S) systems  Final technology platform: a OO program + a RDB as a persistence layer  These courses are already (UML) model-based: use cases, class, sequence diagrams,…  But this is not the case with advanced SE courses on distributed and component-based systems  Complex technology platforms (JEE, .NET)  Not obvious how to model those systems Model-based courses  We’ll see an example of transforming a DSE course from programming-only to model-based  For more info: From Programming to Modeling Our experience with a Distributed Software Engineering Course. Cabot et al. ICSE’08 Ed. Sym
  26. 26.  Original contents. Focused on teaching distributed technologies  M1 – Distributed Software  Distributed environments  Distributed object platforms: CORBA, RMI, DCOM  M2 – Component-based Software  The components model  UML for component-based systems specification  M3 – EJB: Distributed components (>50% of the time)  Introduction to the J2EE platform  Servlets and JSP  The EJB architecture  JEE beans: Entity, Session and Message beans  Transactions and JEE From programming to modeling in a Distributed SE course
  27. 27. Problems with this Distributed SE course  This view impairs the students’ ability to develop complex systems that require a more abstract view  Contents quickly became outdated (DCOM?, RMI?)  No methodological aspects about the analysis/design of distributed software systems  No software architecture concepts  No distinction between platform-independent and platform-specific concepts – Students tend to believe that the acquired knowledge is only useful for the J2EE platform
  28. 28. New course: educational objectives  To relate the DSE field with contents of previous subjects on SE  To combine a practical approach with a conceptual frame that makes it independent of the technology – A DSE course should especially emphasize its underlying principles – Students should still learn how to program with a distributed and component-based technology platform (e.g. JEE) – The course should highlight the similarities among the different technologies and motivate critical attitudes  To use well-established models and notations (e.g. international standards) for the design and development of distributed applications  To teach how to select, evaluate and adapt different approaches, methods and architectural styles
  29. 29. New course: global structure (I)  A system specification is defined as a set of independent viewpoints, each one of these viewpoints focuses on concrete aspects of the system  The Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) is used as a framework. Modeling with UML Link with previous SE courses
  30. 30. New course: global structure (II)  All views have been defined at the PIM level (including the definition of system components and their logical distribution) -> Reusability  Then, adaptation to JEE as example platform:  The main concepts and technologies of J2EE are introduced.  An UML profile for J2EE is explained  Transformations between PIMs and J2EE-specific PSMs and between PSMs and code are shown (but not formalized with any transf. lang) [30] From module 2 …From module 2 … …… to module 4to module 4
  31. 31. New course: lessons learnt and results  Better learning experience: – It is easier to understand the different aspects that should be considered in the design of distributed systems – The students have now a broader understanding of the different concepts and mechanisms of commercial component platforms – Formal polls reveal that the overall student satisfaction has not changed (even slightly increased)  But… – More contents than before ( failure rate has increased 10% ) All the programming part plus the new “modeling” concerns Ideally we should split the course in two – Broad set of previous knowledge required DBs, Java, UML 2.x, SE… – (Lab) Technical assistance highly recommended – Teachers need strong skills in both SE, MDD and JEE It is difficult to find consultants with a suitable profile to teach this course
  32. 32. What to teach? 2. A Model-driven SE course
  33. 33.  No matter how trendy are DSLs (Domain-Specific Languages), UML is still by far the most important modeling language nowadays  …with the permission of BPMN??  UML should still be the basic notation for SE courses. If there´s enough time, a small DSL for a specific system view (e.g. graphical interface) would be great  Profiles should also be part of the UML content in the SE courses  Don’t reinvent the wheel vs Don´t push profiles too much  Important: Concrete syntax vs Abstract syntax vs Semantics Don’t even think about dropping UML
  34. 34.  Students should learn that textual modeling is also possible  Not always graphical syntaxes are the best option (e.g. defining behaviour; easier version control). Textual UML <img src="http://yuml.me/diagram/scruffy/ class/[Customer]->[Billing Address]" > yUML TextUML
  35. 35.  It´s very important to teach Object Constraint Language. Many applications: − Precise specification of software systems − Patterns in transformations and model queries − Definition of new DSLs − … Importance of Teaching OCL Machine Conveyor Piece 1 * * om ic * + capacity: int im * oc * piece Integrity constraints context Conveyor inv: self.piece->size() ≤ self.capacity  OCL is not that difficult!!! - Test with students: Most of them were able to guess without training the meaning of some OCL expr
  36. 36.  Best way to teach OCL? Introducing it together with UML during the specification of software systems (less abstract than other scenarios)  Invariants  Pre and postconditions  Use a UML tool with, at least, an OCL parser (many tools store OCL constraints as simple strings)  Show the effect of those OCL expressions in the code (there are tools for automating this)  If-then-else expressions in Java methods  Triggers in SQL Object Constraint Language (II)  If it is not too much to ask make sure they understand the efficiency issues involved in the evaluation of OCL (Incremental OCL – Cabot & Teniente )
  37. 37.  … but the best tool you can use to teach OCL is the USE tool (model animation tool: define your scenarios and validate your constraints) Object Constraint Language (III) MOVA is a similar tool
  38. 38. MDE SE Course: I’d be happy if they learn… PIM PSM M2M CREATE TABLE Participant { Name Varchar2(20) PRIMARY KEY … } M2T
  39. 39.  More than an MDE SE course -> An MDD SE course  Need time to teach other SE concepts (from software processes to design patterns)  To help, we may work with already provided Java and SQL simplified metamodels and partially defined transformations  At this point, the important thing is that they see how things could be done, not so much that they actually do them. MDE SE Course: Being realistic (time constraints)
  40. 40.  IMHO, this should be included in any SE course. Trickier than it seems (and far beyond simple conformance)  If code is generated from models -> quality of code = quality of models  Again, goal: realize that this aspect must also be considered Quality of models Not Satisfiable!! Ex2. Ask your students to model a class person and the recursive relationship isParentOf. How many parents does a person have?
  41. 41. What to teach? 3. A Full MDE course
  42. 42.  This section is based on the MDE diploma:  1st full postgraduate program on MDE  1 year duration  Also, as part of a recently granted Leonardo Da Vinci project, we will  Adapt the syllabus to different scenarios  With focus on Web Engineering as application domain (M. Brambilla - Politecnico di Milano partner)  Scenarios we will consider:  Separate module in a SE course  Full course undergrad/grad level  Full master  Professional course/seminar A full MDE course  I’ll now present the MDE diploma. Build your MDE course taking a subset of the MDE diploma modules (depending on your focus)  At least include the creation of a DSL (and its editor)
  43. 43.  http://www.mines-nantes.fr/fr/Formations/Formation- specialisee/MDE  The goal of the MDE Diploma is to train engineers to manage complex projects in various IT fields with the latest cutting-edge modeling technologies  6 month full-time courses at the EMN + 6 month internship in a company developing a MDE project  More than 20 invited lecturers  1st edition to finish February 2011. 2nd to start September 2011  Contents include social and management aspects of MDE The MDE diploma
  44. 44. The MDE diploma: M1 Module 1: Current Software Development Practices (60h)  Software Modeling with current standards: UML, OCL, overview of other standards (MDA, SPEM,…)  Using an Integrated Development Environment: Eclipse EMF, GMF,…  Free and Open Source Software Development
  45. 45. The MDE diploma: M2 Module 2: Automatic Model Processing (60h)  Metamodel design  Model-to-model Transformation with ATL  Definition of Complex Transformations (HOTs, MT chains)  Alternative Transformation Languages (GT and QVT)
  46. 46. The MDE diploma: M3 Module 3: Managing Complex Scenarios (60h)  Model Management  repositories, versioning/evolution  relating models: weaving models for matching and traceability…)  Integration of Heterogeneous Technologies  Technical spaces  Textual syntaxes: TCS, Xtext, MPS  MDE and ontologies
  47. 47. The MDE diploma: M4 Module 4: Applications to Information Systems (60h)  Data Engineering  Web Engineering  Business Rules Engineering  Legacy Reverse Engineering  Graphical user interfaces  …
  48. 48. The MDE diploma: M5 Module 5: Applications to Critical Systems (60h)  Embedded and Real-Time Systems  Process Engineering  System Engineering  Security Engineering  Formal Methods  …
  49. 49. The MDE diploma: M6 Module 6: Managing MDE Projects (60h)  MDE and management of technology and innovations  MDE and management of information systems  Industrial Experience Reports
  50. 50.  From 360 hours to 430 (counting only hours in class; includes personal work in class)  Very difficult to find people to talk about management of MDE projects.  It’s nice to have invited lecturers but it’s a huge amount of work (even from a “social” perspective)  Students wanted to have a session with me each week to review what they had learnt and related it with previous lectures due to  A lot of one day sessions on a single topic.  Few ordering constraints among the modules enforced due to lecturers travel constraints  Apart from the company internship we had to prepare a small project to be done during the courses to help to put everything together Lessons learnt
  51. 51. How to teach MDE? (miscellaneous)
  52. 52.  Focus on concepts and principles instead of focusing on notations and tools  Learning the UML notation is important but it´s much more important (and difficult) learning how to model  Most students finish their SE courses without being able to draw a proper domain model for a 1-page application domain description!  E.g. knowing how to indicate static properties in UML class diagrams it is a necessary but not sufficient condition to apply this concept in practice Focus on MDE principles
  53. 53. The Modeling Triangle  And please make sure they understand UML is not a development method. More people than you think believe this  Partially our fault because we usually teach UML following an implicit method All three elements are important!
  54. 54.  Bigger impact than with programming languages (all IDEs compile and run programs the same way)  No best choice: Usability vs completeness (e.g. ternary associations,…) vs Features (code-generation,…)  At the UOC : an academic license (free) of MagicDraw.  … but projects were delivered in pdf. Students could use any tool they wanted (no support provided for those tools)  For team work, take a look at new breed of online modeling tools  Important: they must understand the difference between a modeling tool and a drawing tool (e.g. Visio) Choosing the right tool/s
  55. 55.  Beyond UML modeling, the safest solution is go to Eclipse and the tools under the Eclipse Modeling Project (EMF, GMF,…)  Better to create a bundle with what they need  Don't underestimate time for learning how to install and setup the tools  Most tools have crappy documentation; you decide how students should spend their time  Outdated manuals may be worse than no manuals at all Choosing the right tool/s (II)  MaaS (Modeling as a Service) still a long-shot but worth considering. Imagine combining modeling services from different providers to create your own MDD process
  56. 56.  Learning MDE requires practicing with existing model elements  We need examples of models but also metamodels, model transformations,…  What´s out there?  ReMoDD (Repository for Model Driven development)  Open Model Initiative  OOModels  AtlanMod zoo of metamodels (>200) and transformations  Database Answers: free library of >600 data models Lack of MDE repositories
  57. 57.  Intellectual property issues -> Models (and not products) are becoming the main assets for companies. Don’t want to share  Many kinds of models and modeling languages  Not only repositories but search engines needed on top of them (AtlanMod working on this right now)  Search by type  Search by domain  What format ? (image, xmi,…)  Models are not enough. We need the context MDE repositories (II) – Why nothing better?  Only short-term solution I see? Faculty sharing their class exercises  They may not be real-life examples but perfect for learning (we are experts on that)
  58. 58.  Very easy to solve your PHP problems with Google. Try to do the same with UML  Poor and sparse documentation:  Most of it referring only to UML  And linked to a specific (commercial) tool  The Modeling Languages portal tries to help here  But again, university courses are probably the best source of comprehensible information. Put them online!!  Check upcoming www.learnMDE.com for educational resources Lack of documentation
  59. 59. Three final thoughts
  60. 60. Let’s explain the real situation  Modeling will be commonplace in 3 years time – S. Mellor – Thought he is giving the same answer for the last 20 years  Prepare students for what they will find in the real life -> no revolution! evolution!)
  61. 61. … but be optimistic
  62. 62.  Pains and gains of software modeling  Collective benefit but not for some individuals in the team  Socio-technical congruence:  Is the company ready for MDE?  Team members can perform the activities required in a MDE process? Do they have the right skillset? Can they satisfy the new dependencies between them? Without forgetting the Social Aspects  Adopting MDE is NOT buying a code-generator!!!
  63. 63. Continuing the discussion http://modeling-languages.com jordi.cabot@inria.fr @softmodeling

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