Current power scenario Essence of IT in power sec. Need of IT Current scenario of IT in power sec. EMS,Scada GIS,DA DMS,OMS Case analysis... Future of IT Reference
Installed generation capacity has grown from 1,362 MW in 1947 to 1,80,358.12 MW as on 30th July 2011. PLF = 77.5 as on 2009-2010. Peak electricity supply fell short despite the growth. Per capita consumption of electricity equals to 704 kWh in 2008-09. MoP has launched various initiatives and has come up with UMPP. Plans to add about 78700 MW of generation capacity in 11th year plan(2007-2012). 3
AT&C losses in various states(10-20 %: Goa, Tamilnadu, Puducherry, Punjab, Himanchal P.; 30-40 %: Orissa, Haryana; 60-80 %: Jammu & Kashmir, Arunanchal Pradesh; > 80 %: Meghalaya) The various losses occurs because of poor billing, lack of consumer education , political interference and inefficient use of electricity. Annual losses incurred by SEB’s account to Rs. 67000 crore per annum. 4
IT offers a framework for an efficient power system. It can monitor, control electricity realtime with fine granularity, construct a robust self healing grid, detect outages, load congestion and shortfall, establish 2 way power exchange with a large number of renewable generators, storage devices. It can identify theft and losses, provide choices to customer, allows new pricing mechanisms such as TOD(Time Of Day), real time, enables improved transparency, structure for sophisticated billing, collection and information management. 5
Business process automation Generation automation Distribution system automation Revenue and commercial management Consumer relationship management (CRM) AT&C(Aggregate Technical and Commercial) loss reduction 7
Maximizing availability, efficiency, and safety are crucial role, monitoring, reporting, and controlling emissions
Different IT techniques used in transmission are DA,SCADA,ERP,GPS etc. ERP helps in detection and resolving of fault by remote switch. SCADA is being implemented in LDC. Energy meters(SANDS, APEX, etc) are installed, which are power measuring units. GPS are used in transmission to bring about a time synchronization of different relays in different grids. 10
Deals with tariff structure for bulk power Performance based tariff for supply based tariff System of rewards and penalties seeking to enforce day ahead pre-committed schedules (One & One-half hours in advance) Promote responsibility & accountability in power generation Paradigm shift from max power to max reliability A path to deregulated power market
Objective from maximum production to optimal production Multiple unit power plant to identify optimum loading for each unit to save on operational costs Identify units to bring online / offline to meet plant demand at minimum operating cost Dispatching least cost power in preference to more costly power
Monitor various online real-time plant parameters from different generating stations Establish a full-fledged Generation Control Room for performance diagnosis & optimization Provide suitable connectivity between each power station & Control Room
Load Dispatch CenterUNIVERSIT Y UNIVERSIT Y HQUNIVERSIT Y UNIVERSIT Y UNIVERSIT Y UNIVERSIT YUNIVERSIT Y Plant Plant UNIVERSIT Y UNIVERSIT Y UNIVERSIT Y
Power Plant Monitoring for each Unit Online Performance Monitoring & Calculation for each Unit Merit Order Despatch (MOD) at plant level Dispatch monitoring for switchyard energy meters
Open communication architecture Easy to use configuration utility Flexible tariff calculation & UI charges module Invoices in user-defined format Reports and trends Exporting reports & other data Monitoring actual generation Vs scheduled generation
Capability to handle multiple units Use of historical data to generate a best-fit cost curve for the unit Configuring individual units with historical data and operating constraints Allows users to perform simulation
Defective meters. No meter for many consumers. Meter tampering, usually with the connivance of the SEB staff. Non reading or incorrect reading of meters. Theft and unauthorised or unrecorded connections. Incomplete & inadequate consumer data base. No system which can provide dependable data on the leakages. Lack of management attention.
Over drawlsand Thefts Overloading of Equipment Frequent interruptions Poor Voltage Profile High Losses Failure of transformers
HT meter reading, new meters should be installed with remote reading facility and a communication link to the host computer at the substation. For LT meter reading A remote meter reading arrangement with a telecommunication link as proposed for HT meters will not be cost effective. Hand held computerized data- logger(CDL). Trend analysis comparison with early consumption pattern etc. would be built into the host computer program to spot any variations indicating meter tampering, illegal use of power. Help in checking the performance of meter reading squad.
AMR(AUTOMATIC METER READING) MRI (Meter reading instrument). RMR (Remote meter reading). Spot Billing. Prepaid meters.
The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas (anything from an industrial plant to a nation).A SCADA system usually consists of the following subsystems: A Human Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator monitors and controls the process. A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process and sending commands (control) to the process. Remote terminal unit (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process, converting sensor signal into digital signal and sending digital data to the supervisory system.
Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-purpose RTUs. Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the remote terminal units.
RADIOMASTER STANDBY INTERFACE DAH PRINTER Computer operatorTransformer with microcontroller chip HT SIDE LT SIDE Scada Tower
Visibility for the network operation Real-time,accurate and consistent information of the system Flexibility of operational controls Faster fault identification , Isolation & system restoration Extensive reporting & statistical data archiving Central database and history of all system parameters Improve availability of system, Optimized Load Shedding
1. Lower level of load shedding2. Improved Power Quality, Voltage Profile.3. Speedy Fault Restoration
Generation Monitoring Load Dispatch Distribution Automation Railway Traction Oil and Gas Water Utilities Facility Management Systems - Building, Laboratory Industrial Control
SCADA/EMS (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition/Energy Management System) supervises, controls, optimizes and manages generation and transmission systems. SCADA/DMS (Distribution Management System) performs the same functions for power distribution networks. Both systems enable utilities to collect, store and analyze data from hundreds of thousands of data points in national or regional networks, perform network modeling, simulate power operation, pinpoint faults, preempt outages, and participate in energy trading market.
SCADA/EMS systems are a complete solution which realize the functions of electric power system supervisory & control and data acquisition, electric power network safety & economical operation and analysis, real-time dispatch management, dispatcher training, data communication between different centers, etc. Integrated Hardware/Software Platform SCADA System Power Analysis Software: Network Topology, State Estimation, Dispatch Power Flow, Network Equivalence, Short-circuit Current Calculation, Voltage Control/Reactive Power Optimization, Static Security Assessment, Load Forecasting and so on Dispatch Information Management System (DMIS) Dispatcher Training Simulation System (DTS) Tele-Meter Reading System(TMR)
A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based system including software, hardware, people, and geographic information. A GIS can : create, edit, query, analyze, and display map information on the computer. Geographic– 80% of government data collected is associated with some location in space. Information- attributes, or the characteristics (data), can be used to symbolize and provide further insight into a given location.System – a seamless operation linking the information to the geography – which requires hardware, networks, software, data, and operational procedures .
The term distribution automation can be applied to many aspects of the electric power delivery system, from the control center to the substation, to the feeders and indeed to the customer revenue meters. As the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers defines, distribution automation (DA) is “a system that enables an electric utility to remotely monitor , coordinate and operate distribution components in a real-time mode from remote locations.” Today, the DA field encompasses all aspects of a distribution network automation scheme, from the control center-based SCADA and distribution management system on out to the substation, where RTUs, PLCs, power meters, digital relays, bay controllers and a myriad of communicating devices now help operate, monitor and control power flow and measurement in the medium-voltage ranges.
Fundamentally, there are three components of a system-wide distribution automation system. These include control center-based control and monitoring systems, including distribution SCADA or distribution management systems. The data communications infrastructure and methodology required to acquire and transmit operating data to and from various network points in addition to substations.& The various distribution automation field equipment, ranging from remote terminal units to intelligent electronic devices required to measure, monitor, control and meter power flow. Taken together, expenditures for this wide range of electric power grid distribution automation activity exceed $1 billion dollars each year.
System operators can more efficiently monitor and control power delivery functions in real time if they have field automation assistance. Field devices such as circuit breakers, reclosers, switches, capacitors , transformers and even substation batteries can all be monitored if not controlled or operated remotely. Operators can also remotely measure voltage, current, power factor, as well as overall demand and load flows. Taken together, this information provides systems operations the current conditions of the power delivery system ,when system failures occur, automation of the distribution network implies a much enhanced ability to pinpoint outage locations and causes and to restore power
RTUSCADA System M2M GatewayData Concentrator FPI Monitoring Unit
Automating the process of metering/measurement through digital communication techniques.
ELECTRO-MECHANICAL Low Accuracy Control – NILPAST Communications - Expensive Theft Detection – Poor DIGITAL SOLID STATE High Accuracy Control – LIMITED CURRENT Communications – External through Retrofit Theft Detection – Node only NEXT GEN SMART METER & IT SYSTEM Very High Accuracy Control – FULL NEXTGEN Communications – Built in (on chip / PCB) Theft Detection – High (Network level)
Remotely reads customer meters and then transfers the data into the billing system Reduce the need for meter readers to manually gather utility meter readings each month.
INPUT1. Area wise verified Network provided by GIS group .2. Data for Load Modeling in DMS provided by Network Group, Metering Group, Energy & Automation Group & GIS Group.
A Distribution Management System (DMS) comprises a base SCADA system that is equipped with additional planning and operations functions for the utilitys sub-transmission and distribution feeder systems. DMS applications are highly data intensive. This is due to the greater numbers of power system elements and spatial information to be included in displays, analysis functions and databases.
PST can view entire 11 kV network Decision can be taken for restoration of supply based on DMS application. Once Distribution Automation starts, selected RMU controlling will be done by PST from DMS.
Many of these functions rely heavily on data obtained or shared with other IT systems. Typical functions of a DMS include: Display Enhancements Asset Management Work Management On-line Monitoring and Operator Advice Analysis Tools Accounting & Reporting
Customer SubstationCustomer complaints AutomationPro-Active informationRecovery information Real-time information Disturbance records Customer Type of disturbance Service Time to recover Control Center No. of customers affected Customers affected Work order Disturbance information Work report Disturbance report Compensation Fault statistics Spares Sales Asset Management Repair and Maintenance Engineering Asset records Disturbance report Accounting
An Outage Management System (OMS) is a computer system used by operators of electric distribution systems to assist in restoration of power.
Prediction of location of fuse or breaker that opened upon failure. Prioritizing restoration efforts and managing resources based upon criteria such as locations of emergency facilities, size of outages, and duration of outages. Providing information on extent of outages and number of customers impacted to management, media and regulators. Calculation of estimation of restoration times. Management of crews assisting in restoration. Calculation of crews required for restoration.
Consumer trouble call management through SAP-ISU. Outage management using prediction logic. Crew management. Prioritization of outages through predefined logics. Planned outage management through SAP-PM. 9/03/2010 54
Reduced outage durations due to faster restoration based upon outage location predictions. Reduced outage duration averages due to prioritizing Improved customer satisfaction due to increase awareness of outage restoration progress and providing estimated restoration times. Improved media relations by providing accurate outage and restoration information. Fewer complaints to regulators due to ability to prioritize restoration of emergency facilities and other critical customers. Reduced outage frequency due to use of outage statistics for making targeted reliability improvements.
SYSTEM CONCEPT Customer callswith service request Call center generate call Enroute tickets in SAP-ISU Onsite Outage Management System Worked
•Call assignment •Trouble prediction AMI •Switching •Meter •Takes trouble calls •Dispatching status •Informs customers of information restoration status Control Centre CIS •Provides location SAP-ISU •Provides circuit data •Provides routing Outage Management•Keeps OMS apprised System – for 1.8 millionof status on Customersmonitored devices GIS •Initiates work •Tracks work status SCADA/DMS •Closes jobs WMS(SAP)
IT implementation is nothing but coordination betweenall the softwares and interfaces on real time basis.
KEPCO has opening T&D losses of 30% in the year 1961. Key measures taken by KEPCO: DA SCADA,DMS GIS,AMR Inspection teams for disconnection and reconnection only after payment on time and monitoring through online systems. Computerised Customer relationship centres. KEPCO reduced the T&D losses from 30% in 1961 to 3.9% in 2003.
NDPL distributes electricity in North & North West parts of Delhi and serves a population of 50 lakh . The company started operations on July 1, 2002 post the unbundling of erstwhile Delhi Vidyut Board. With a registered consumer base of around 12 lakh and a peak load of around 1350 MW Since privatisation, the Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C) losses in NDPL areas have been reduced a lot by constant efforts of automation and technology i.e. Use of SCADA,GIS,DA,DMS,& OMS Today they stand at 14% losses( as on March 31, 2011) which is an unprecedented reduction of over 74% from an opening loss level of 53%. They are going to be the 1st utility in India to implement Smart Grid procedures as a pilot project.
What is Smart Grid?“SMART GIRD” is a set of technologyimplementation that uses advancedsensing, metering, communication, control, computation and reporting technologies to facilitate generationand distribution of electricity moreeffectively, economically and securely to achievedesired balancing of supply and demand.Smart Grid : An evolving set of concepts and not a setof formulae 67
It is Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) 68
What is Smart Grid?It is Substation & Distribution Automation 69
What is Smart Grid?It is Distribution & Outage Management 70
What is Smart Grid?To a Design & Planning EngineerIt is Asset and Load Management 71
What is Smart Grid? To an IT EngineerIt is the challenge of bringing it all together 72
What is Smart Grid? They are all correct!If they work together smartly. 73
Url and Links Websiteshttp://energycentral.fileburst.com/S www.energybizmag.comourcebooks/gsbk0106.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SCAD www.wikepedia.comAhttp://www.pfc.gov.in www.pfc.gov.inhttp://cercind.gov.in/ www.cercind.gov.inhttp:// powermin.nic.in/ Indian www.powermin.nic.inelectricity scenario/ Final Report