Airtificial Intelligence in Power System


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Airtificial Intelligence in Power System

  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence In Power System Author Doshi Pratik H. Darakh Bharat P.
  2. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Power system has grown tremendously over a few decades. </li></ul><ul><li>As the size and complexity of the power system consisting of generators, transmission lines, power transformers, distribution transformers, etc increases the possibility of inviting faults. </li></ul><ul><li>The acquisition of data, the processing of those data for use by the operator, and control of remote devices are the fundamental building blocks of all modern utility control systems. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Need of SCADA <ul><li>In most systems there are locations where operations, must be done from time to time and under specified norms and constraints in accordance with a directed action , but the cost of providing and maintaining an operator attendance all the 24 hours in a day can’t be justified. </li></ul><ul><li>The manual process works well for small networks but consumes time, labours and efficiency in large networks & also decreases reliability levels. </li></ul><ul><li>SCADA operates as a stand alone, autonomous system, monitoring sensors, displaying data, outputting controls, activating alarms and logging information to facilitate and optimize the plant processes and on-going operations </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>SCADA is acronym for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. </li></ul>What is SCADA? <ul><li>SCADA is not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory level. </li></ul><ul><li>SCADA systems are used to monitor and control a plant or equipment in industries such as telecommunications, water and waste control, energy, oil and gas refining and transportation. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Fig: Typical SCADA system
  6. 7. Components of a SCADA system <ul><li>Multiple Remote Terminal Units (also known as RTUs or Outstations). </li></ul><ul><li>Communication infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Master Terminal Unit (MTU) or HMI computer(s) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Master Station: <ul><li>The &quot;Master Station&quot; are the servers and software responsible for communicating with the field equipment (RTUs, PLCs, etc), and to control system with the help of HMI. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual server is provided to the SCADA system hence server failure does not affect the system. </li></ul><ul><li>In larger SCADA systems, the master station may include multiple servers, distributed software applications, and disaster recovery sites. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Human Machine Interface (HMI): <ul><li>The Human-Machine Interface is a interaction among human & machine to monitor and to control multiple remote controllers, PLC’s and other control devices. </li></ul><ul><li>An HMI also linked to a database, to provide trending, diagnostic data, and management information such as scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting guides. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Remote Terminal Unit (RTU): </li></ul><ul><li>The RTU connects to physical equipment, and reads status data or analog measurement data, and send out digital commands or analog setpoints. </li></ul><ul><li>By sending signals to equipment the RTU can control equipment, such as opening or closing a switch or a setting the rate of transmission of current. </li></ul><ul><li>An important part of most SCADA implementations are ALARAMS which are digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Characteristics of RTU’s <ul><li>Data Networking, </li></ul><ul><li>Data Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Data Security </li></ul>
  11. 12. Communication infrastructure <ul><li>SCADA systems have traditionally used combinations of radio and direct serial or modem connections to meet communication requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Now Ethernet and IP over SONET is also frequently used at large sites such as railways and power stations. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Hardware Solution’s <ul><li>SCADA solutions often have Distributed Control System (DCS) components. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Smart&quot; RTUs or PLCs, which are capable of autonomously executing simple logic processes without involving the master computer, are increasingly used. </li></ul><ul><li>A functional block programming language, IEC 61131-3, is frequently used to create programs which run on these RTUs and PLCs. </li></ul><ul><li>IEC 61131-3 are easy to learn and require minimal training </li></ul>
  13. 14. Working of SCADA system <ul><li>Most of the control is performed automatically by RTUs or by PLCs. Host control functions are usually restricted to basic site overriding or supervisory level intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level (meter readings / equipment status reports) and are communicated to SCADA as required. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is compiled and formatted in such a way that using the HMI the controller can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC) controls. </li></ul><ul><li>SCADA systems include input-output signal hardware, controllers, HMI, networks, communications, databases, and software. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Fig 2: shows basic working of SCADA
  15. 17. Operational philosophy: <ul><li>Hardware for SCADA systems is generally made durable to withstand temperature, vibration, and extreme voltage, but reliability is enhanced by having redundant hardware and communication channels. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Application’s <ul><li>Detection of faults and isolation of faulty equipments from healthy equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>It not only manages the Power System Infrastructure, but also manages the Information Infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides uninterrupted power supply. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Conclusions: <ul><li>The SCADA systems established are playing a vital role in displaying the exact rate at the appropriate time, reliability level and helping a lot in reducing the risks and restoring normalcy in grid in case of occurrence of sudden disturbances. </li></ul>
  18. 20. THANK YOU