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Le rapport fournit un éclairage intéressant sur la manière dont les pays encouragent le développement du secteur du voyage et du tourisme, il offre également une vue instantanée de la santé du secteur et de son rôle moteur dans la croissance économique mondiale. D`ailleurs, les emplois dans ce secteur représentent en moyenne 1 emploi sur 11. Le rapport souligne également que le secteur s`est montré résilient pendant le ralentissement, une preuve que le secteur du voyage et du tourisme peut être un facteur clé de diversification pour les marchés émergeants en leur offrant une valeur économique plus élevé.

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  1. 1. Insight ReportThe Travel & TourismCompetitivenessReport 2013Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job CreationJennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, editors
  2. 2. Insight ReportThe Travel & TourismCompetitivenessReport 2013Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job CreationJennifer BlankeThea ChiesaEditors © 2013 World Economic Forum
  3. 3. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 World Economic Forumis published by the World Economic Forum within Genevathe framework of The Global Competitiveness andBenchmarking Network and the Industry Partnership Copyright © 2013Programme for Aviation, Travel & Tourism. by the World Economic Forum All rights reserved. No part of this publication may beProfessor Klaus Schwab reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,Executive Chairman in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise without the prior permission ofBørge Brende the World Economic Forum.Managing Director, Government Relations andConstituents Engagement ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-40-1 ISBN-10: 92-95044-40-1Robert GreenhillManaging Director, Chief Business Officer This report is printed on paper suitable for recycling andJohn Moavenzadeh made from fully managed and sustained forest sources.Senior Director, Head of Mobility Industries Printed and bound in Switzerland by SRO-Kundig. The full edition of the Report, with profiles of all 140 economies as well as an interactive data platform, isEDITORS available at Blanke, Senior Director, Lead Economist,Head of The Global Competitiveness andBenchmarking NetworkThea Chiesa, Director, Head of Aviation,Travel & TourismTHE GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS AND BENCHMARKING NETWORKBeñat Bilbao-Osorio, Associate Director,Senior EconomistCiara Browne, Associate DirectorRoberto Crotti, Quantitative EconomistMargareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Director, Senior Economist,Head of Competitiveness ResearchBrindusa Fidanza, Associate Director, EnvironmentalInitiativesThierry Geiger, Associate Director, EconomistTania Gutknecht, Community ManagerCaroline Ko, Junior EconomistCecilia Serin, Team CoordinatorWe thank Hope Steele for her excellent editing work andNeil Weinberg for his superb graphic design and layout.The terms country and nation as used in this report donot in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a stateas understood by international law and practice. Theterms cover well-defined, geographically self-containedeconomic areas that may not be states but for whichstatistical data are maintained on a separate andindependent basis. © 2013 World Economic Forum
  4. 4. ContentsPartner Institutes v 1.6 Competiveness, Jobs, and Green 71 Growth: A “Glocal” Model by Geoffrey Lipman, and VictoriaPreface xiii University Melbourne, and Terry Delacy and Paulby Børge Brende and Robert Greenhill, Whitelaw, Victoria University MelbourneWorld Economic ForumExecutive Summary xvby Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, World Economic Part 2: Country/Economy Profiles and 79Forum Data Presentation 2.1 Country/Economy Profiles 81 How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles...................................83Part 1: Selected Issues of T&T Competitiveness Index of Countries/Economies.........................................................85 Country/Economy Profiles...............................................................861.1 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness 3Index 2013: Contributing to National Growth 2.2 Data Tables 367and Employment How to Read the Data Tables........................................................369by Jennifer Blanke, Thea Chiesa, and Roberto Crotti, Index of Data Tables......................................................................371World Economic Forum Data Tables...................................................................................3731.2 How to Succeed as a Tourism 43 Technical Notes and Sources 471Destination in a Volatile Worldby Jürgen Ringbeck and Timm Pietsch, Booz & Company About the Authors 4791.3 Visa Facilitation: Stimulating Economic 49Growth and Development through Tourism Acknowledgments 481by Dirk Glaesser and John Kester, with Márcio Favilla,Sandra Carvão, Lorna Hartantyo, Birka Valentin, LisaFürbaß, Kate Holmes, Jacinta García, and Alberto G.Uceda, World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)1.4 The Economic Benefits of Aviation 57and Performance in the Travel & TourismCompetitiveness Indexby Julie Perovic, International Air Transport Association(IATA)1.5 Travel & Tourism as a Driver 63of Employment Growthby Rochelle Turner, World Travel & Tourism Council, andZachary Sears, Oxford Economics The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 | iii © 2013 World Economic Forum
  5. 5. © 2013 World Economic Forum
  6. 6. Partner InstitutesThe World Economic Forum’s Global Benchmarking Barbados Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies,Network is pleased to acknowledge and thank the University of West Indies (UWI)following organizations as its valued Partner Institutes, Judy Whitehead, Directorwithout which the realization of The Travel & Tourism BelgiumCompetitiveness Report 2013 would not have Vlerick Business Schoolbeen feasible: Priscilla Boiardi, Associate, Competence Centre Entrepreneurship, Governance and StrategyAlbania Wim Moesen, ProfessorInstitute for Contemporary Studies (ISB) Leo Sleuwaegen, Professor, Competence CentreArtan Hoxha, President Entrepreneurship, Governance and StrategyElira Jorgoni, Senior ExpertEndrit Kapaj, Expert Benin CAPOD—Conception et Analyse de Politiques deAlgeria DéveloppementCentre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée pour Epiphane Adjovi, Director le Développement (CREAD) Maria-Odile Attanasso, Deputy CoordinatorYoucef Benabdallah, Assistant Professor Fructueux Deguenonvo, ResearcherYassine Ferfera, Director Bosnia and HerzegovinaArgentina MIT Center, School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo,IAE—Universidad Austral University of SarajevoEduardo Luis Fracchia, Professor Zlatko Lagumdzija, ProfessorSantiago Novoa, Project Manager Zeljko Sain, Executive DirectorArmenia Jasmina Selimovic, Assistant DirectorEconomy and Values Research Center BotswanaManuk Hergnyan, Chairman Botswana National Productivity CentreSevak Hovhannisyan, Board Member and Senior Associate Letsogile Batsetswe, Research Consultant and StatisticianGohar Malumyan, Research Associate Baeti Molake, Executive DirectorAustralia Phumzile Thobokwe, Manager, Information and ResearchAustralian Industry Group Services DepartmentColleen Dowling, Senior Research Coordinator BrazilInnes Willox, Chief Executive Fundação Dom Cabral, Bradesco Innovation CenterAustria Carlos Arruda, International Relations Director, InnovationAustrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) and Competitiveness ProfessorKarl Aiginger, Director Daniel Berger, Bachelor Student in EconomicsGerhard Schwarz, Coordinator, Survey Department Fabiana Madsen, Economist and Associate Researcher Movimento Brasil Competitivo (MBC)Azerbaijan Carolina Aichinger, Project CoordinatorAzerbaijan Marketing Society Erik Camarano, Chief Executive OfficerFuad Aliyev, Deputy ChairmanAshraf Hajiyev, Consultant Brunei Darussalam Ministry of Industry and Primary ResourcesBahrain Pehin Dato Yahya Bakar, MinisterBahrain Economic Development Board Normah Suria Hayati Jamil Al-Sufri, Permanent SecretaryKamal Bin Ahmed, Minister of Transportation and Acting Chief Executive of the Economic Development Board BulgariaNada Azmi, Manager, Economic Planning and Development Center for Economic DevelopmentMaryam Matter, Coordinator, Economic Planning and Adriana Daganova, Expert, International Programmes and Development Projects Anelia Damianova, Senior ExpertBangladeshCentre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) Burkina FasoKhondaker Golam Moazzem, Senior Research Fellow lnstitut Supérieure des Sciences de la Population (ISSP),Kishore Kumer Basak, Research Associate University of OuagadougouMustafizur Rahman, Executive Director Baya Banza, Director The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 | v © 2013 World Economic Forum
  7. 7. Partner InstitutesBurundi CyprusUniversity Research Centre for Economic and Social The European University Development (CURDES), National University of Burundi Bambos Papageorgiou, Head of Socioeconomic andBanderembako Deo, Director Academic ResearchGilbert Niyongabo, Dean, Faculty of Economics & cdbbank—The Cyprus Development Bank Management Maria Markidou-Georgiadou, Manager, Business DevelopmentCambodia and Special ProjectsEconomic Institute of Cambodia Czech RepublicSok Hach, President CMC Graduate School of BusinessSokheng Sam, Researcher Tomas Janca, Executive DirectorCameroon DenmarkComité de Compétitivité (Competitiveness Committee) Danish Technological Institute, Center for Policy and BusinessLucien Sanzouango, Permanent Secretary DevelopmentCanada Hanne Shapiro, Center ManagerThe Conference Board of Canada EcuadorMichael R. Bloom, Vice-President, Organizational ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Escuela Superior Effectiveness & Learning Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL)Douglas Watt, Associate Director Elizabeth Arteaga, Project AssistantCape Verde Virginia Lasio, DirectorINOVE RESEARCH—Investigação e Desenvolvimento, Lda Sara Wong, ProfessorJúlio Delgado, Partner and Senior Researcher EgyptJosé Mendes, Chief Executive Officer The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies (ECES)Sara França Silva, Project Manager Iman Al-Ayouty, Senior EconomistChad Omneia Helmy, Acting Executive Director and DirectorGroupe de Recherches Alternatives et de Monitoring du Projet of Research Pétrole-Tchad-Cameroun (GRAMP-TC) EstoniaAntoine Doudjidingao, Researcher Estonian Institute of Economic ResearchGilbert Maoundonodji, Director Evelin Ahermaa, Head of Economic Research SectorCeline Nénodji Mbaipeur, Programme Officer Marje Josing, DirectorChile Estonian Development FundUniversidad Adolfo Ibáñez Kitty Kubo, Head of ForesightFernando Larrain Aninat, Director MBA Ott Pärna, Chief Executive OfficerLeonidas Montes, Dean, School of Government EthiopiaChina African Institute of Management, Development andInstitute of Economic System and Management, National Governance Development and Reform Commission Zebenay Kifle, General ManagerChen Wei, Research Fellow Tegenge Teka, Senior ExpertDong Ying, ProfessorZhou Haichun, Deputy Director and Professor FinlandChina Center for Economic Statistics Research, Tianjin ETLA—The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy Markku Kotilainen, Research DirectorUniversity of Finance and Economics Petri Rouvinen, Research DirectorBojuan Zhao, Professor Pekka Ylä-Anttila, Managing DirectorFan Yang, Professor Jian Wang, Associate ProfessorHongye Xiao, Professor FranceLu Dong, Professor HEC School of Management, Paris Bertrand Moingeon, Professor and Deputy DeanColombia Bernard Ramanantsoa, Professor and DeanNational Planning DepartmentSara Patricia Rivera, Advisor GabonJohn Rodríguez, Coordinator, Competitiveness Observatory Confédération Patronale GabonaiseJavier Villarreal, Enterprise Development Director Regis Loussou Kiki, General Secretary Gina Eyama Ondo, Assistant General SecretaryColombian Private Council on Competitiveness Henri Claude Oyima, PresidentRosario Córdoba, PresidentMarco Llinás, Vicepresident Gambia, The Gambia Economic and Social Development Research InstituteCôte d’Ivoire (GESDRI)Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Côte d’Ivoire Makaireh A. Njie, DirectorJean-Louis Billon, PresidentMamadou Sarr, Director General Georgia Business Initiative for Reforms in GeorgiaCroatia Tamara Janashia, Executive DirectorNational Competitiveness Council Giga Makharadze, Founding Member of the Board of DirectorsJadranka Gable, Advisor Mamuka Tsereteli, Founding Member of the Board of DirectorsKresimir Jurlin, Research Fellowvi | The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 © 2013 World Economic Forum
  8. 8. Partner InstitutesGermany IrelandWHU—Otto Beisheim School of Management Institute for Business Development and CompetitivenessRalf Fendel, Professor of Monetary Economics School of Economics, University College CorkMichael Frenkel, Professor, Chair of Macroeconomics and Justin Doran, Principal Associate International Economics Eleanor Doyle, Director Catherine Kavanagh, Principal AssociateGhanaAssociation of Ghana Industries (AGI) Forfás, Economic Analysis and Competitiveness DepartmentPatricia Addy, Projects Officer Adrian Devitt, ManagerNana Owusu-Afari, President Conor Hand, EconomistSeth Twum-Akwaboah, Executive Director IsraelGreece Manufacturers’ Association of Israel (MAI)SEV Hellenic Federation of Enterprises Dan Catarivas, DirectorMichael Mitsopoulos, Senior Advisor, Entrepreneurship Amir Hayek, Managing DirectorThanasis Printsipas, Economist, Entrepreneurship Zvi Oren, PresidentGuatemala ItalyFUNDESA SDA Bocconi School of ManagementFelipe Bosch G., President of the Board of Directors Secchi Carlo, Full Professor of Economic Policy, BocconiPablo Schneider, Economic Director UniversityJuan Carlos Zapata, General Manager Paola Dubini, Associate Professor, Bocconi University Francesco A. Saviozzi, SDA Professor, Strategic andGuinea Entrepreneurial Management DepartmentConfédération Patronale des Entreprises de GuinéeMohamed Bénogo Conde, Secretary-General Jamaica Mona School of Business (MSB), The University of the WestGuyana IndiesInstitute of Development Studies, University of Guyana Patricia Douce, Project AdministratorKaren Pratt, Research Associate Evan Duggan, Executive Director and ProfessorClive Thomas, Director William Lawrence, Director, Professional Services UnitHaiti JapanGroup Croissance SA Keio UniversityPierre Lenz Dominique, Coordinator, Survey Department Yoko Ishikura, Professor, Graduate School of Media DesignKesner Pharel, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman Heizo Takenaka, Director, Global Security Research Institute Jiro Tamura, Professor of Law, Keio UniversityHong Kong SARHong Kong General Chamber of Commerce Keizai Doyukai (Japan Association of Corporate Executives)David O’Rear, Chief Economist Kiyohiko Ito, Managing Director, Keizai DoyukaiFederation of Hong Kong Industries JordanAlexandra Poon, Director Ministry of Planning & International CooperationThe Chinese General Chamber of Commerce Jordan National Competitiveness Team Kawther Al-Zou’bi, Head of Competitiveness DivisionHungary Basma Arabiyat, ResearcherKOPINT-TÁRKI Economic Research Ltd. Mukhallad Omari, Director of Policies and Studies DepartmentÉva Palócz, Chief Executive OfficerPeter Vakhal, Project Manager Kazakhstan National Analytical CentreIceland Diana Tamabayeva, Project ManagerInnovation Center Iceland Vladislav Yezhov, ChairmanArdis Armannsdottir, Marketing ManagerKarl Fridriksson, Managing Director of Human Resources Kenya and Marketing Institute for Development Studies, University of NairobiThorsteinn I. Sigfusson, Director Mohamud Jama, Director and Associate Research Professor Paul Kamau, Senior Research FellowIndia Dorothy McCormick, Research ProfessorConfederation of Indian Industry (CII)Chandrajit Banerjee, Director General Korea, Republic ofMarut Sengupta, Deputy Director General College of Business School, Korea Advanced Institute ofGantakolla Srivastava, Head, Financial Services Science and Technology KAIST Byungtae Lee, Acting DeanIndonesia Soung-Hie Kim, Associate Dean and ProfessorCenter for Industry, SME & Business Competition Studies, Jinyung Cha, Assistant Director, Exchange Programme University of Trisakti Korea Development InstituteTulus Tambunan, Professor and Director Joohee Cho, Senior Research AssociateIran, Islamic Republic of Yongsoo Lee, Head, Policy Survey UnitThe Center for Economic Studies and Surveys (CESS), Iran Kuwait Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture Kuwait National Competitiveness CommitteeMohammad Janati Fard, Research Associate Adel Al-Husainan, Committee MemberHamed Nikraftar, Project Manager Fahed Al-Rashed, Committee ChairmanFarnaz Safdari, Research Associate Sayer Al-Sayer, Committee Member The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 | vii © 2013 World Economic Forum
  9. 9. Partner InstitutesKyrgyz Republic MaltaEconomic Policy Institute “Bishkek Consensus” Competitive Malta—Foundation for National CompetitivenessLola Abduhametova, Program Coordinator Margrith Lutschg-Emmenegger, Vice PresidentMarat Tazabekov, Chairman Adrian Said, Chief Coordinator Caroline Sciortino, Research CoordinatorLatviaStockholm School of Economics in Riga MauritaniaKarlis Kreslins, EMBA Programme Director Centre d’Information Mauritanien pour le DéveloppementAnders Paalzow, Rector Economique et Technique (CIMDET/CCIAM) Lô Abdoul, Consultant and AnalystLebanon Mehla Mint Ahmed, DirectorBader Young Entrepreneurs Program Habib Sy, Administrative Agent and AnalystAntoine Abou-Samra, Managing DirectorFarah Shamas, Program Coordinator Mauritius Board of Investment of MauritiusLesotho Nirmala Jeetah, Director, Planning and PolicyPrivate Sector Foundation of Lesotho Ken Poonoosamy, Managing DirectorO.S.M. Moosa, PresidentThabo Qhesi, Chief Executive Officer Joint Economic CouncilNteboheleng Thaele, Researcher Raj Makoond, DirectorLibya MexicoLibya Development Policy Center Center for Intellectual Capital and CompetitivenessYusser Al-Gayed, Project Director Erika Ruiz Manzur, Executive DirectorAhmed Jehani, Chairman René Villarreal Arrambide, President and Chief ExecutiveMohamed Wefati, Director Officer Rodrigo David Villarreal Ramos, DirectorLithuania Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad (IMCO)Statistics Lithuania Priscila Garcia, ResearcherOna Grigiene, Deputy Head, Knowledge Economy Manuel Molano, Deputy General Director and Special Surveys Statistics Division Juan E. Pardinas, General DirectorVilija Lapeniene, Director GeneralGediminas Samuolis, Head, Knowledge Economy Ministry of the Economy and Special Surveys Statistics Division Jose Antonio Torre, Undersecretary for Competitiveness and StandardizationLuxembourg Enrique Perret Erhard, Technical Secretary forLuxembourg Chamber of Commerce CompetitivenessChristel Chatelain, Research Analyst Narciso Suarez, Research Director, Technical SecretaryStephanie Musialski, Research Analyst for CompetitivenessCarlo Thelen, Chief Economist, Member of the Managing Board Moldova Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova (AESM)Macedonia, FYR Grigore Belostecinic, RectorNational Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Council (NECC) Centre for Economic Research (CER)Mirjana Apostolova, President of the Assembly Corneliu Gutu, DirectorDejan Janevski, Project Coordinator MongoliaMadagascar Open Society Forum (OSF)Centre of Economic Studies, University of Antananarivo Munkhsoyol Baatarjav, Manager of Economic PolicyRavelomanana Mamy Raoul, Director Erdenejargal Perenlei, Executive DirectorRazato Rarijaona Simon, Executive Secretary MontenegroMalawi Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses (ISSP)Malawi Confederation of Chambers of Commerce and Maja Drakic, Project Manager Industry Petar Ivanovic, Chief Executive OfficerHope Chavula, Public Private Dialogue Manager Veselin Vukotic, PresidentChancellor L. Kaferapanjira, Chief Executive Officer MoroccoMalaysia Comité National de l’Environnement des AffairesInstitute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) Seloua Benmbarek, Head of MissionJorah Ramlan, Senior Analyst, Economics MozambiqueSteven C.M. Wong, Senior Director, Economics EconPolicy Research Group, Lda.Mahani Zainal Abidin, Chief Executive Peter Coughlin, DirectorMalaysia Productivity Corporation (MPC) Donaldo Miguel Soares, ResearcherMohd Razali Hussain, Director General Ema Marta Soares, AssistantLee Saw Hoon, Senior Director NamibiaMali Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR)Groupe de Recherche en Economie Appliquée et Graham Hopwood, Executive Director Théorique (GREAT)Massa Coulibaly, Executive Directorviii | The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 © 2013 World Economic Forum
  10. 10. Partner InstitutesNepal PortugalCentre for Economic Development and Administration (CEDA) PROFORUM, Associação para o Desenvolvimento daRamesh Chandra Chitrakar, Professor, Country Coordinator Engenharia and Project Director Ilídio António de Ayala Serôdio, Vice President of the BoardMahendra Raj Joshi, Member of DirectorsHari Dhoj Pant, Officiating Executive Director, Advisor, Survey Fórum de Administradores de Empresas (FAE) project Paulo Bandeira, General DirectorNetherlands Pedro do Carmo Costa, Member of the Board of DirectorsINSCOPE: Research for Innovation, Erasmus University Esmeralda Dourado, President of the Board of Directors Rotterdam Puerto RicoFrans A. J. Van den Bosch, Professor Puerto Rico 2000, Inc.Henk W. Volberda, Director and Professor Ivan Puig, PresidentNew Zealand Instituto de Competitividad Internacional, UniversidadThe New Zealand Initiative Interamericana de Puerto RicoCatherine Harland, Research Fellow Francisco Montalvo, Project CoordinatorOliver Hartwich, Executive Director QatarNigeria Qatari Businessmen Association (QBA)Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG) Sarah Abdallah, Deputy General ManagerFrank Nweke Jr., Director General Issa Abdul Salam Abu Issa, Secretary-GeneralChris Okpoko, Associate Director, Research Social and Economic Survey Research Institute (SESRI)Foluso Phillips, Chairman Hanan Abdul Ibrahim, Associate DirectorNorway Darwish Al Emadi, DirectorBI Norwegian Business School RomaniaEskil Goldeng, Researcher SC VBD Alliance Consulting SrlTorger Reve, Professor Irina Ion, Program CoordinatorOman Rolan Orzan, General DirectorThe International Research Foundation Russian FederationSalem Ben Nasser Al-Ismaily, Chairman Bauman Innovation & Eurasia Competitiveness InstitutePublic Authority for Investment Promotion and Export Katerina Marandi, Programme Manager Development (PAIPED) Alexey Prazdnichnykh, Principal and Managing DirectorMehdi Ali Juma, Expert for Economic Research Stockholm School of Economics, RussiaPakistan Igor Dukeov, Area PrincipalMishal Pakistan Carl F. Fey, Associate Dean of ResearchPuruesh Chaudhary, Director Content RwandaAmir Jahangir, Chief Executive Officer Private Sector Federation (PSF)Paraguay Hannington Namara, Chief Executive OfficerCentro de Análisis y Difusión de Economia Paraguaya Andrew O. Rwigyema, Head of Research and Policy (CADEP) Saudi ArabiaDionisio Borda, Research Member National Competitiveness Center (NCC)Fernando Masi, Director Awwad Al-Awwad, PresidentMaría Belén Servín, Research Member Khaldon Mahasen, Vice PresidentPeru SenegalCentro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI), Sociedad Nacional Centre de Recherches Economiques Appliquées (CREA), de Industrias University of DakarNéstor Asto, Project Director Diop Ibrahima Thione, DirectorLuis Tenorio, Executive Director SerbiaPhilippines Foundation for the Advancement of Economics (FREN)Makati Business Club (MBC) Mihail Arandarenko, DirectorMichael B. Mundo, Chief Economist Aleksandar Radivojevic, Project CoordinatorMarc P. Opulencia, Deputy Director Bojan Ristic, ResearcherPeter Angelo V. Perfecto, Executive DirectorManagement Association of the Philippines (MAP) SeychellesArnold P. Salvador, Executive Director Plutus Auditing & Accounting Services Nicolas Boulle, PartnerPoland Marco L. Francis, PartnerEconomic Institute, National Bank of PolandPiotr Boguszewski, Advisor SingaporeJarosław T. Jakubik, Deputy Director Economic Development Board Anna Chan, Assistant Managing Director, Planning & Policy Cheng Wai San, Head, Research & Statistics Unit Teo Xinyu, Executive, Research & Statistics Unit Slovak Republic Business Alliance of Slovakia (PAS) Robert Kicina, Executive Director The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 | ix © 2013 World Economic Forum
  11. 11. Partner InstitutesSlovenia ThailandInstitute for Economic Research Sasin Graduate Institute of Business Administration,Peter Stanovnik, Professor Chulalongkorn UniversitySonja Uršic, Senior Research Assistant Pongsak Hoontrakul, Senior Research Fellow Narudee Kiengsiri, President of Sasin Alumni AssociationUniversity of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics Toemsakdi Krishnamra, Director of SasinMateja Drnovšek, ProfessorAleš Vahcic, Professor Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) Somchai Jitsuchon, Research DirectorSouth Africa Chalongphob Sussangkarn, Distinguished FellowBusiness Leadership South Africa Yos Vajragupta, Senior ResearcherFriede Dowie, DirectorThero Setiloane, Chief Executive Officer Timor-Leste East Timor Development Agency (ETDA)Business Unity South Africa Jose Barreto, Survey ManagerNomaxabiso Majokweni, Chief Executive Officer Palmira Pires, DirectorJoan Stott, Executive Director, Economic Policy Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Timor-LesteSpain Kathleen Fon Ha Tchong Goncalves, Vice-PresidentIESE Business School, International Center for Competitiveness Trinidad and TobagoMaría Luisa Blázquez, Research Associate Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of BusinessAntoni Subirà, Professor Miguel Carillo, Executive Director and Professor of Strategy Nirmala Harrylal, Director, Internationalisation and InstitutionalSri Lanka Relations CentreInstitute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS)Ayodya Galappattige, Research Officer The Competitiveness CompanyDilani Hirimuthugodage, Research Officer Rolph Balgobin, ChairmanSaman Kelegama, Executive Director TunisiaSuriname Institut Arabe des Chefs d’EntreprisesSuriname Trade & Industry Association (VSB) Ahmed Bouzguenda, PresidentHelen Doelwijt, Executive Secretary Majdi Hassen, Executive CounsellorRene van Essen, Director TurkeyDayenne Wielingen Verwey, Economic Policy Officer TUSIAD Sabanci University Competitiveness ForumSwaziland Izak Atiyas, DirectorFederation of Swaziland Employers and Chamber of Selcuk Karaata, Vice Director Commerce Sezen Ugurlu, Project SpecialistMduduzi Lokotfwako, Research Analyst UgandaZodwa Mabuza, Chief Executive Officer Kabano Research and Development CentreNyakwesi Motsa, Administration & Finance Manager Robert Apunyo, Program ManagerSweden Delius Asiimwe, Executive DirectorInternational University of Entrepreneurship and Technology Francis Mukuya, Research AssociateNiclas Adler, President UkraineSwitzerland CASE Ukraine, Center for Social and Economic ResearchUniversity of St. Gallen, Executive School of Management, Dmytro Boyarchuk, Executive Director Technology and Law (ES-HSG) Vladimir Dubrovskiy, Leading EconomistRubén Rodriguez Startz, Head of Project United Arab EmiratesTobias Trütsch, Communications Manager Abu Dhabi Department of Economic DevelopmentTaiwan, China H.E. Mohammed Omar Abdulla, UndersecretaryCouncil for Economic Planning and Development, Executive Dubai Economic Council Yuan H.E. Hani Al Hamly, Secretary GeneralHung, J. B., Director, Economic Research Department Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER), ZayedShieh, Chung Chung, Researcher, Economic Research University Department Mouawiya Alawad, DirectorWu, Ming-Ji, Deputy Minister Emirates Competitiveness CouncilTajikistan H.E. Abdulla Nasser Lootah, Secretary GeneralThe Center for Sociological Research “Zerkalo”Rahima Ashrapova, Assistant Researcher United KingdomQahramon Baqoev, Director LSE Enterprise Ltd, London School of Economics andGulnora Beknazarova, Researcher Political Science Adam Austerfield, Director of ProjectsTanzania Niccolo Durazzi, Project ManagerResearch on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA) Robyn Klingler Vidra, ResearcherCornel Jahari, Assistant ResearcherJohansein Rutaihwa, Commissioned Researcher UruguaySamuel Wangwe, Professor and Executive Director Universidad ORT Uruguay Isidoro Hodara, Professorx | The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 © 2013 World Economic Forum
  12. 12. Partner InstitutesVenezuelaCONAPRI—The Venezuelan Council for Investment PromotionLitsay Guerrero, Economic Affairs and Investor Services ManagerEduardo Porcarelli, Executive DirectorVietnamHo Chi Minh City Institute for Development Studies (HIDS)Nguyen Trong Hoa, Professor and PresidentDu Phuoc Tan, Head of DepartmentTrieu Thanh Son, ResearcherYemenYemeni Businessmen Club (YBC)Mohammed Esmail Hamanah, Executive ManagerFathi Abdulwasa Hayel Saeed, ChairmanMoneera Abdo Othman, Project CoordinatorMARcon Marketing ConsultingMargret Arning, Managing DirectorZambiaInstitute of Economic and Social Research (INESOR), University of ZambiaPatricia Funjika, Research FellowJolly Kamwanga, Senior Research Fellow and Project CoordinatorMubiana Macwan’gi, Director and ProfessorZimbabweGraduate School of Management, University of ZimbabweA. M. Hawkins, ProfessorBolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, PanamaINCAE Business School, Latin American Center for Competitiveness and Sustainable Development (CLACDS)Ronald Arce, ResearcherArturo Condo, RectorMarlene de Estrella, Director of External RelationsLawrence Pratt, DirectorLiberia and Sierra LeoneFJP Development and Management ConsultantsOmodele R. N. Jones, Chief Executive Officer The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 | xi © 2013 World Economic Forum
  13. 13. © 2013 World Economic Forum
  14. 14. PrefaceBØRGE BRENDE AND ROBERT GREENHILLWorld Economic ForumThe World Economic Forum has, for the past seven industry and in online travel services. Resilience hasyears, engaged key industry and thought leaders also been demonstrated in the way that some aviationthrough its Aviation, Travel & Tourism Industry companies responded to erratic fuel prices by exploringPartnership Programme, along with its Global Agenda new business models and acquiring energy assets.Council on New Models for Travel & Tourism, to carry Additionally, industry players have made commitmentsout an in-depth analysis of the T&T competitiveness to a low-carbon economy through several initiativesof economies around the world. The resulting Travel & aimed at optimizing operations, retrofitting, recycling, andTourism Competitiveness Report provides a platform for preserving the environment.multi-stakeholder dialogue to ensure the development Yet despite these many positive developments, theof strong and sustainable T&T industries capable need for greater openness remains one of the majorof contributing effectively to international economic trends impacting the T&T sector, especially with regarddevelopment. The theme of this year’s Report, to the freer movement of people. The importance of“Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and Job efforts in this area has been highlighted specificallyCreation,” reflects the importance of the sector for this by the G20 Los Cabos communiqué in June 2012, inpurpose. which the group recognized the importance of tourism Encouraging the development of the Travel & “as a vehicle for job creation, economic growth andTourism (T&T) sector is all the more important today development” and furthermore committed to “workgiven its important role in job creation, at a time when towards developing travel facilitation initiatives in supportmany countries are suffering from high unemployment. of job creation, quality work, poverty reduction andThe sector already accounts for 9 percent of GDP, a total global growth.”of US$6 trillion, and it provides 120 million direct jobs At the core of the Report is the fifth edition of theand another 125 million indirect jobs in related industries. Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI). TheThis means that the industry now accounts for one in aim of the TTCI, which covers a record 140 economieseleven jobs on the planet, a number that could even rise this year, is to provide a comprehensive strategic toolto one in ten jobs by 2022, according to the World Travel for measuring the “factors and policies that make& Tourism Council. it attractive to develop the T&T sector in different This edition of the Report comes at an uncertain countries.” By providing detailed assessments of the T&Ttime for the T&T sector. Although the global economy is environments of countries worldwide, the results can beshowing signs of fragile recovery, the world is becoming used by all stakeholders to work together to improve theincreasingly complex and interconnected. In this industry’s competitiveness in their national economies,context, it is notable that the T&T sector has remained thereby contributing to national growth and prosperity. Itremarkably resilient in a number of ways. The number also allows countries to track their progress over time inof travelers has increased consistently over the past the various areas measured.year, notwithstanding the difficult economic climate The full Report is downloadable from www.weforum.and shrinking budgets. Indeed, the UNWTO reports org/ttcr; this contains detailed profiles for each of the 140that international tourist arrivals grew by 4 percent in economies featured in the study, as well as an extensive2012, and forecasts that they will continue to increase section of data tables with global rankings coveringby 3 percent to 4 percent in 2013. Although this trend over 75 indicators included in the TTCI. In addition,is primarily driven by increasing demand from the it includes insightful contributions from a number ofemerging-market middle class, the picture has also been industry experts. These chapters explore issues such asbrightening for many developed economies. how visa facilitation can play a relevant role in stimulating The industry has responded to the changing economic growth, the importance of policymakersenvironment with a number of structural adjustments. leveraging local competitive advantages to thrive in aIndeed, 2012 witnessed a number of alliances, volatile environment, the impact of the tourism sectormergers, and strategic investments both in the aviation on employment creation, how the connectivity that the The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 | xiii © 2013 World Economic Forum
  15. 15. Prefaceaviation sector creates sustains economic development,and the essential role of green growth in enhancing theresilience of the sector. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report2013 could not have been put together without thedistinguished thinkers who have shared with ustheir knowledge and experience. We are gratefulto our Strategic Design Partner Booz & Company,and our Data Partners Deloitte, the International AirTransport Association (IATA), the International Unionfor Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the World TourismOrganization (UNWTO), and the World Travel & TourismCouncil (WTTC) for helping us to design and develop theTTCI and for providing much of the industry-relevant dataused in its calculation. We thank our Industry Partnersin this Report—namely Airbus/EADS, BAE Systems,Bahrain Economic Development Board, Bombardier,Delta, Deutsche Lufthansa/Swiss, Embraer, EtihadAirways, Jet Airways, Hilton, Lockheed Martin, Marriott,Safran, Starwood Hotels & Resorts, and VISA—for theirsupport in this important venture. We also wish to thank the editors of the Report,Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, as well as theproject manager, Roberto Crotti, for their energy andtheir commitment to the project. Appreciation goes toother members of the competitiveness team: BeñatBilbao-Osorio, Ciara Browne, Margareta DrzeniekHanouz, Thierry Geiger, Tania Gutknecht, Caroline Ko,and Cecilia Serin. Finally, we would like to convey oursincere gratitude to our network of 150 Partner Institutesworldwide, without whose hard work the annualadministration of the Executive Opinion Survey and thisReport would not be possible.xiv | The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 © 2013 World Economic Forum
  16. 16. Executive SummaryExecutive SummaryJENNIFER BLANKE AND THEA CHIESAWorld Economic ForumThe Travel & Tourism (T&T) industry has managed to Council (WTTC). We have also received importantremain relatively resilient over the recent year despite feedback from a number of key companies that arethe uncertain global economic outlook, which has Industry Partners in the effort, namely Airbus/EADS, BAEbeen characterized by fragile global economic growth, Systems, the Bahrain Economic Development Board,macroeconomic tensions, and high unemployment in Bombardier, Delta, Deutsche Lufthansa/Swiss, Embraer,many countries. Indeed, the sector has benefitted from Etihad Airways, Hilton, Jet Airways, Lockheed Martin,the continuing globalization process: travel has been Marriott, Safran, Starwood Hotels & Resorts, and VISA.increasing in mature markets and, particularly, has been The TTCI is based on three broad categories ofdriven by the rising purchasing power of the growing variables that facilitate or drive T&T competitiveness.middle class in many developing economies. These categories are summarized into the three In such a context, Travel & Tourism has continued subindexes of the Index: (1) the T&T regulatoryto be a critical sector for economic development and framework subindex; (2) the T&T business environmentfor sustaining employment, in both advanced and and infrastructure subindex; and (3) the T&T human,developing economies. A strong T&T sector contributes cultural, and natural resources subindex. The firstin many ways to development and the economy. It subindex captures those elements that are policy relatedmakes both direct contributions, by raising the national and generally under the purview of the government; theincome and improving the balance of payments, and second subindex captures elements of the businessindirect contributions, via its multiplier effect and by environment and the “hard” infrastructure of eachproviding the basis for connecting countries, through economy; and the third subindex captures the “softer”hard and soft infrastructure—attributes that are critical human, cultural, and natural elements of each country’sfor a country’s more general economic competitiveness. resource endowments. Although developing the T&T sector provides Each of these three subindexes is composed in turnmany benefits, numerous obstacles at the national level by a number of pillars of T&T competitiveness, of whichcontinue to hinder its development. For this reason, there are 14 in all. These are:seven years ago the World Economic Forum, together 1. Policy rules and regulationswith its Industry and Data Partners, embarked on a 2. Environmental sustainabilitymulti-year research effort aimed at exploring various 3. Safety and securityissues related to the T&T competitiveness of countries 4. Health and hygienearound the world. This year’s Report is published under 5. Prioritization of Travel & Tourismthe theme “Reducing Barriers to Economic Growth and 6. Air transport infrastructureJob Creation,” which reflects the forward-looking attitude 7. Ground transport infrastructureof the sector as it aims to ensure strong growth going 8. Tourism infrastructureinto the future. 9. ICT infrastructure 10. Price competitiveness in the T&T industryTHE TRAVEL & TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS 11. Human resourcesINDEX 12. Affinity for Travel & TourismThe Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) 13. Natural resourcesaims to measure the factors and policies that make it 14. Cultural resourcesattractive to develop the T&T sector in different countries.The Index was developed in close collaboration Each of the pillars is, in turn, made up of a numberwith our Strategic Design Partner Booz & Company of individual variables. The dataset includes both surveyand our Data Partners Deloitte, the International Air data from the World Economic Forum’s annual ExecutiveTransport Association (IATA), the International Union Opinion Survey (the Survey) and quantitative data fromfor Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the World Tourism publicly available sources, international organizations,Organization (UNWTO), and the World Travel & Tourism and T&T institutions and experts (for example, IATA, the The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 | xv © 2013 World Economic Forum
  17. 17. Executive SummaryTable 1: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2013 and 2011 comparison 2013 2011 2013 2011Country/Economy Rank/140 Score Rank/139 Country/Economy Rank/140 Score Rank/139Switzerland 1 5.66 1 Morocco 71 4.03 78Germany 2 5.39 2 Brunei Darussalam 72 4.01 67Austria 3 5.39 4 Peru 73 4.00 69Spain 4 5.38 8 Sri Lanka 74 3.99 81United Kingdom 5 5.38 7 Macedonia, FYR 75 3.98 76United States 6 5.32 6 Ukraine 76 3.98 85France 7 5.31 3 Albania 77 3.97 71Canada 8 5.28 9 Azerbaijan 78 3.97 83Sweden 9 5.24 5 Armenia 79 3.96 90Singapore 10 5.23 10 Vietnam 80 3.95 80Australia 11 5.17 13 Ecuador 81 3.93 87New Zealand 12 5.17 19 Philippines 82 3.93 94Netherlands 13 5.14 14 Trinidad and Tobago 83 3.93 79Japan 14 5.13 22 Colombia 84 3.90 77Hong Kong SAR 15 5.11 12 Egypt 85 3.88 75Iceland 16 5.10 11 Dominican Republic 86 3.88 72Finland 17 5.10 17 Cape Verde 87 3.87 89Belgium 18 5.04 23 Kazakhstan 88 3.82 93Ireland 19 5.01 21 Serbia 89 3.78 82Portugal 20 5.01 18 Bosnia and Herzegovina 90 3.78 97Denmark 21 4.98 16 Namibia 91 3.77 84Norway 22 4.95 20 Gambia, The 92 3.73 92Luxembourg 23 4.93 15 Honduras 93 3.72 88Malta 24 4.92 26 Botswana 94 3.71 91Korea, Rep. 25 4.91 32 Nicaragua 95 3.67 100Italy 26 4.90 27 Kenya 96 3.66 103Barbados 27 4.88 28 Guatemala 97 3.65 86United Arab Emirates 28 4.86 30 Iran, Islamic Rep. 98 3.64 114Cyprus 29 4.84 24 Mongolia 99 3.63 101Estonia 30 4.82 25 Suriname 100 3.63 n/aCzech Republic 31 4.78 31 Kuwait 101 3.61 95Greece 32 4.75 29 Moldova 102 3.60 99Taiwan, China 33 4.71 37 Guyana 103 3.60 98Malaysia 34 4.70 35 El Salvador 104 3.59 96Croatia 35 4.59 34 Rwanda 105 3.56 102Slovenia 36 4.58 33 Cambodia 106 3.56 109Panama 37 4.54 56 Senegal 107 3.49 104Seychelles 38 4.51 n/a Zambia 108 3.46 111Hungary 39 4.51 38 Tanzania 109 3.46 110Montenegro 40 4.50 36 Bolivia 110 3.46 117Qatar 41 4.49 42 Kyrgyz Republic 111 3.45 107Poland 42 4.47 49 Nepal 112 3.42 112Thailand 43 4.47 41 Venezuela 113 3.41 106Mexico 44 4.46 43 Tajikistan 114 3.41 118China 45 4.45 39 Paraguay 115 3.39 123Turkey 46 4.44 50 Uganda 116 3.39 115Costa Rica 47 4.44 44 Ghana 117 3.38 108Latvia 48 4.43 51 Zimbabwe 118 3.33 119Lithuania 49 4.39 55 Swaziland 119 3.31 116Bulgaria 50 4.38 48 Ethiopia 120 3.29 122Brazil 51 4.37 52 Cameroon 121 3.27 126Puerto Rico 52 4.36 45 Pakistan 122 3.25 125Israel 53 4.34 46 Bangladesh 123 3.24 129Slovak Republic 54 4.32 54 Malawi 124 3.22 121Bahrain 55 4.30 40 Mozambique 125 3.17 128Chile 56 4.29 57 Côte d’Ivoire 126 3.15 131Oman 57 4.29 61 Nigeria 127 3.14 130Mauritius 58 4.28 53 Burkina Faso 128 3.12 132Uruguay 59 4.23 58 Mali 129 3.11 133Jordan 60 4.18 64 Benin 130 3.09 120Argentina 61 4.17 60 Madagascar 131 3.09 127Saudi Arabia 62 4.17 62 Algeria 132 3.07 113Russian Federation 63 4.16 59 Yemen 133 2.96 n/aSouth Africa 64 4.13 66 Mauritania 134 2.91 136India 65 4.11 68 Lesotho 135 2.89 135Georgia 66 4.10 73 Guinea 136 2.88 n/aJamaica 67 4.08 65 Sierra Leone 137 2.87 n/aRomania 68 4.04 63 Burundi 138 2.82 137Lebanon 69 4.04 70 Chad 139 2.61 139Indonesia 70 4.03 74 Haiti 140 2.59 n/axvi | The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 © 2013 World Economic Forum
  18. 18. Executive SummaryIUCN, the UNWTO, WTTC, UNCTAD, and UNESCO). The also attracts tourists because of its rich and well-Survey is carried out among chief executive officers and managed natural resources. A large percentage of thetop business leaders in all economies covered by our country’s land area is protected, environmental regulationresearch; these are the people making the investment is among the most stringent (3rd), and the T&T industrydecisions in their respective economies. The Survey is considered to be developed in a sustainable wayprovides unique data on many qualitative institutional (7th). These good environmental conditions, combinedand business environment issues, as well as specific with the high safety and security of the country (2nd),issues related to the T&T industry and the quality of the contribute to its solid T&T competitiveness. Switzerlandnatural environment. is not only a strong leisure tourism destination but also The details of the composition of the TTCI are an important business travel hub, with many internationalshown in Appendix A of Chapter 1.1; detailed rankings fairs and exhibitions held in the country each year,and scores of this year’s Index are found in Appendix B driving its showing on the cultural resources pillar (6th).of that chapter. Switzerland’s strong performance in all these areas enables the country to somewhat make up for its lackTHE TRAVEL & TOURISM COMPETITIVENESS of price competitiveness (139th), which, together with aINDEX RANKINGS 2013 fairly restrained international visa policy, does indeed limitTable 1 shows the overall rankings of the 140 economies the number of arrivals.assessed in this edition TTCI, comparing this year’s Germany ranks 2nd in Europe and out of allrankings with those from the 2011 edition of the Report,. countries in the TTCI. Similar to Switzerland, itsSwitzerland maintains its top position in the rankings, infrastructure is among the best in the world: it is rankedwhich it has retained for five consecutive editions, since 6th for ground transport infrastructure and 7th for airthe very first Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report. transport infrastructure, facilitating connections bothTables 2–6 present the rankings in a regional context, within the country and internationally. Germany also hasgrouping economies into the following five regional abundant cultural resources (ranked 5th worldwide for itsgroups: Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific (including many World Heritage cultural sites) and is host to almostCentral Asia), the Middle East and North Africa, and 600 international fairs and exhibition per year (2nd), whilesub-Saharan Africa. We discuss below a selection of hotel prices are relatively competitive (55th). In addition,countries from each region to provide a sense of the Germany makes great efforts to develop in a sustainableresults and how they are interpreted at the national level. way (4th), with the world’s most stringent environmentalMore countries are discussed in detail in Chapter 1.1. regulations—which are also among the best-enforced— and the strong support of international environmentalEurope efforts, as demonstrated through its ratification of manyIn line with statistics on international tourist arrivals, international environmental treaties.Table 1 shows that Europe remains the leading region Austria ranks 3rd, improving by one position sincefor Travel & Tourism competitiveness, with all of the 2011. Its strong performance is driven by factors such astop five places taken by European countries. Likewise, tourism infrastructure, in which it ties for 1st place with13 of the top 20 countries are from the region. Table 2 Italy; a welcoming attitude toward visitors; a very safeshows the rankings for European countries only, with and secure environment (7th); and, most importantly, itsthe first column showing the rank within the region, rich cultural resources. Austria hosts nine World Heritagethe second column showing the overall rank out of all cultural sites, has excellent creative industries, and140 economies included in the Index this year, and the attracts many travelers with several fairs and exhibitionsthird column showing the score. As the table shows, organized every year. The country’s tourism industry isSwitzerland is ranked 1st out of all countries in the 2013 also being developed in a sustainable way (10th), withTTCI, a position it has held since the first edition of some of the most stringent (4th) and well-enforced (7th)this Report in 2007. Germany, Austria, Spain, and the environmental regulations in the world, driving its overallUnited Kingdom complete the top five, while France and positive performance on environmental sustainabilitySweden are among the top 10 overall. (ranked 6th). Switzerland continues to lead the rankings, Spain is the country among the top 10 that seesperforming well on almost all aspects of the Index. the most improvement since 2011: moving up fourSwitzerland’s infrastructure, especially ground transport places since the last assessment, it is now ranked 4th.(3rd), is among the best in the world. The country also Spain continues to lead in cultural resources, rankingboasts top marks for its hotels and other tourism-specific 1st this year in this area because of its extremelyfacilities, with excellent staff thanks to the availability of numerous World Heritage sites (2nd) and its largequalified labor to work in the industry (ranked 2nd)— number of international fairs and exhibitions (3rd), as wellperhaps not surprising in a country that holds many of as its significant sports stadium capacity. Its tourismthe world’s best hotel management schools. Switzerland infrastructure is another strength, with its many hotel The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 | xvii © 2013 World Economic Forum
  19. 19. Executive SummaryTable 2: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2013: Europe SUBINDEXES T&T regulatory Business environment T&T human, cultural, OVERALL INDEX framework and infrastructure and natural resources Regional OverallCountry/Economy rank rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank ScoreSwitzerland 1 1 5.66 1 5.94 1 5.42 2 5.63Germany 2 2 5.39 8 5.57 6 5.29 7 5.31Austria 3 3 5.39 2 5.80 11 5.11 9 5.24Spain 4 4 5.38 14 5.48 5 5.30 6 5.36United Kingdom 5 5 5.38 17 5.44 10 5.13 3 5.57France 6 7 5.31 9 5.56 7 5.18 11 5.20Sweden 7 9 5.24 12 5.54 23 4.89 8 5.30Netherlands 8 13 5.14 16 5.45 15 5.01 16 4.97Iceland 9 16 5.10 3 5.77 13 5.06 36 4.47Finland 10 17 5.10 5 5.74 22 4.89 24 4.65Belgium 11 18 5.04 18 5.43 26 4.78 18 4.90Ireland 12 19 5.01 7 5.68 19 4.96 40 4.41Portugal 13 20 5.01 20 5.42 27 4.78 19 4.84Denmark 14 21 4.98 25 5.31 16 4.98 26 4.64Norway 15 22 4.95 11 5.55 28 4.77 33 4.53Luxembourg 16 23 4.93 21 5.41 20 4.96 39 4.42Malta 17 24 4.92 15 5.47 14 5.06 49 4.22Italy 18 26 4.90 50 4.90 29 4.76 14 5.05Cyprus 19 29 4.84 22 5.35 21 4.89 46 4.27Estonia 20 30 4.82 10 5.55 30 4.72 51 4.19Czech Republic 21 31 4.78 28 5.24 37 4.49 28 4.61Greece 22 32 4.75 39 5.02 33 4.65 30 4.58Croatia 23 35 4.59 42 4.99 39 4.43 42 4.37Slovenia 24 36 4.58 33 5.12 35 4.52 52 4.11Hungary 25 39 4.51 26 5.29 49 4.16 54 4.08Montenegro 26 40 4.50 34 5.09 50 4.14 47 4.26Poland 27 42 4.47 49 4.92 58 3.94 32 4.56Turkey 28 46 4.44 64 4.62 52 4.08 27 4.63Latvia 29 48 4.43 35 5.08 40 4.40 77 3.81Lithuania 30 49 4.39 41 4.99 48 4.19 61 3.98Bulgaria 31 50 4.38 58 4.79 45 4.24 53 4.10Slovak Republic 32 54 4.32 43 4.96 60 3.92 55 4.06Russian Federation 33 63 4.16 92 4.24 46 4.22 58 4.02Georgia 34 66 4.10 30 5.18 80 3.46 91 3.67Romania 35 68 4.04 66 4.61 68 3.67 73 3.85Macedonia, FYR 36 75 3.98 57 4.79 74 3.58 100 3.58Ukraine 37 76 3.98 60 4.73 71 3.62 99 3.59Albania 38 77 3.97 63 4.65 90 3.31 63 3.96Armenia 39 79 3.96 51 4.88 88 3.34 94 3.65Serbia 40 89 3.78 74 4.50 81 3.40 109 3.45Bosnia and Herzegovina 41 90 3.78 75 4.47 95 3.19 92 3.66Moldova 42 102 3.60 65 4.61 97 3.16 133 3.04rooms, car rental facilities, and ATMs. Furthermore, its The United Kingdom moves up by two moreair transport infrastructure is highly developed and ranks positions since the last edition of the Report, to reachamong the top 10 worldwide. Spain has improved in a 5th place this year. The country’s T&T competitivenessfew areas since the last edition. In particular, starting is based on its excellent cultural resources (rankeda business has become less costly and onerous, 3rd), with many World Heritage cultural sites, a largeaccording to the World Bank, and hotel prices have number of international fairs, and strong creativecome down a bit. The government has also kept tourism industries (all ranked within the top 10). The countryhigh in its development agenda, making Spain a top has probably benefitted from two important events in10 economy for prioritization of the industry. Spain has 2012: the Olympic Games and the Diamond Jubilee ofnotably maintained its efforts on marketing activity and Queen Elizabeth II. Although the outcome is not yet fullyspending on the industry’s development amid difficult reflected in the data, the United Kingdom has leveragedeconomic circumstances. the preparation of these events in terms of tourism campaigns, generating interest in visiting the countryxviii | The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013 © 2013 World Economic Forum