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Forum Economique Mondial: Rapport Global sur la Competitivite 2012-13


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The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network, with its annual Global Competitiveness Reports, and other topical and regional reports, offers a structured, systematic and comprehensive approach to identifying and measuring the drivers of economic performance of more than 140 economies. The Network’s portfolio of reports provides unique insight and data to inform strategies and constructive discussions among policy-makers, business leaders and civil society, while also providing material for independent academic research.

The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network works with leading academics to ensure that the latest thinking and research on competitiveness are incorporated into its work. It collaborates with its network of more than 160 Partner Institutes to disseminate the findings of its research at national and regional levels.

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Forum Economique Mondial: Rapport Global sur la Competitivite 2012-13

  1. 1. Insight ReportThe GlobalCompetitiveness Report2012–2013Klaus Schwab, World Economic Forum
  2. 2. Insight ReportThe GlobalCompetitiveness Report2012–2013Full Data EditionProfessor Klaus SchwabWorld Economic ForumEditorProfessor Xavier Sala-i-MartínColumbia UniversityChief Advisor of The Global Benchmarking Network
  3. 3. The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–20013: World Economic ForumFull Data Edition is published by the World Economic GenevaForum within the framework of The GlobalBenchmarking Network. Copyright © 2012 by the World Economic ForumProfessor Klaus Schwab All rights reserved. No part of this publication may beExecutive Chairman reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,Professor Xavier Sala-i-Martín photocopying, or otherwise without the prior permissionChief Advisor of The Global Benchmarking Network of the World Economic Forum.Børge Brende ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-35-7Managing Director, Government Relations and ISBN-10: 92-95044-35-5Constituents Engagement This book is printed on paper suitable for recycling and made from fully managed and sustained forest sources.THE GLOBAL BENCHMARKING NETWORK Printed and bound in Switzerland by SRO-Kundig.Jennifer Blanke, Senior Director,Lead Economist, Head of The Global The Report and an interactive data platform are availableBenchmarking Network atñat Bilbao-Osorio, Associate Director,Senior EconomistCiara Browne, Associate DirectorRoberto Crotti, Quantitative EconomistMargareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Director, SeniorEconomist, Head of Competitiveness ResearchBrindusa Fidanza, Associate Director,Environmental InitiativesThierry Geiger, Associate Director, EconomistTania Gutknecht, Community ManagerCaroline Ko, Junior EconomistCecilia Serin, Team CoordinatorWe thank Hope Steele for her excellent editing work andNeil Weinberg for his superb graphic design and layout.We are grateful to Annabel Guinault for her invaluableresearch assistance.The terms country and nation as used in this report donot in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a stateas understood by international law and practice. Theterms cover well-defined, geographically self-containedeconomic areas that may not be states but for whichstatistical data are maintained on a separate andindependent basis.
  4. 4. ContentsPartner Institutes v Part 2: Data Presentation 79Preface xiii 2.1 Country/Economy Profiles 81by Klaus Schwab How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles ..................................83 Index of Countries/Economies ........................................................85 Country/Economy Profiles ..............................................................86Part 1: Measuring Competitiveness 1 2.2 Data Tables 375 How to Read the Data Tables .......................................................3771.1 The Global Competitiveness Index 3 Index of Data Tables .....................................................................3792012–2013: Strengthening Recovery by Data Tables ..................................................................................381Raising Productivityby Xavier Sala-i-Martín, Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, JenniferBlanke, Roberto Crotti, Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Technical Notes and Sources 519Thierry Geiger, and Caroline Ko About the Authors 5231.2 Assessing the Sustainable Competitiveness 49of Nations Acknowledgments 527by Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, Jennifer Blanke, Roberto Crotti,Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Brindusa Fidanza, ThierryGeiger, Caroline Ko, and Cecilia Serin1.3 The Executive Opinion Survey: The Voice 69of the Business Communityby Ciara Browne, Thierry Geiger, and Tania Gutknecht The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | iii
  5. 5. Partner InstitutesThe World Economic Forum’s Global Benchmarking Barbados Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies,Network is pleased to acknowledge and thank University of West Indies (UWI)the following organizations as its valued Partner Judy Whitehead, DirectorInstitutes, without which the realization of The Global BelgiumCompetitiveness Report 2012–2013 would not have Vlerick Business Schoolbeen feasible: Priscilla Boiardi, Associate, Competence Centre Entrepreneurship, Governance and StrategyAlbania Wim Moesen, ProfessorInstitute for Contemporary Studies (ISB) Leo Sleuwaegen, Professor, Competence CentreArtan Hoxha, President Entrepreneurship, Governance and StrategyElira Jorgoni, Senior ExpertEndrit Kapaj, Expert Benin CAPOD—Conception et Analyse de Politiques deAlgeria DéveloppementCentre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée pour Epiphane Adjovi, Director le Développement (CREAD) Maria-Odile Attanasso, Deputy CoordinatorYoucef Benabdallah, Assistant Professor Fructueux Deguenonvo, ResearcherYassine Ferfera, Director Bosnia and HerzegovinaArgentina MIT Center, School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo,IAE—Universidad Austral University of SarajevoEduardo Luis Fracchia, Professor Zlatko Lagumdzija, ProfessorSantiago Novoa, Project Manager Zeljko Sain, Executive DirectorArmenia Jasmina Selimovic, Assistant DirectorEconomy and Values Research Center BotswanaManuk Hergnyan, Chairman Botswana National Productivity CentreSevak Hovhannisyan, Board Member and Senior Associate Letsogile Batsetswe, Research Consultant and StatisticianGohar Malumyan, Research Associate Baeti Molake, Executive DirectorAustralia Phumzile Thobokwe, Manager, Information and ResearchAustralian Industry Group Services DepartmentColleen Dowling, Senior Research Coordinator BrazilInnes Willox, Chief Executive Fundação Dom Cabral, Bradesco Innovation CenterAustria Carlos Arruda, International Relations Director, InnovationAustrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) and Competitiveness ProfessorKarl Aiginger, Director Daniel Berger, Bachelor Student in EconomicsGerhard Schwarz, Coordinator, Survey Department Fabiana Madsen, Economist and Associate Researcher Movimento Brasil Competitivo (MBC)Azerbaijan Carolina Aichinger, Project CoordinatorAzerbaijan Marketing Society Erik Camarano, Chief Executive OfficerFuad Aliyev, Deputy ChairmanAshraf Hajiyev, Consultant Brunei Darussalam Ministry of Industry and Primary ResourcesBahrain Pehin Dato Yahya Bakar, MinisterBahrain Economic Development Board Normah Suria Hayati Jamil Al-Sufri, Permanent SecretaryKamal Bin Ahmed, Minister of Transportation and Acting Chief Executive of the Economic Development Board BulgariaNada Azmi, Manager, Economic Planning and Development Center for Economic DevelopmentMaryam Matter, Coordinator, Economic Planning and Adriana Daganova, Expert, International Programmes and Development Projects Anelia Damianova, Senior ExpertBangladeshCentre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) Burkina FasoKhondaker Golam Moazzem, Senior Research Fellow lnstitut Supérieure des Sciences de la Population (ISSP),Kishore Kumer Basak, Research Associate University of OuagadougouMustafizur Rahman, Executive Director Baya Banza, Director The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | v
  6. 6. Partner InstitutesBurundi CyprusUniversity Research Centre for Economic and Social The European University Development (CURDES), National University of Burundi Bambos Papageorgiou, Head of Socioeconomic andBanderembako Deo, Director Academic ResearchGilbert Niyongabo, Dean, Faculty of Economics & cdbbank—The Cyprus Development Bank Management Maria Markidou-Georgiadou, Manager, Business DevelopmentCambodia and Special ProjectsEconomic Institute of Cambodia Czech RepublicSok Hach, President CMC Graduate School of BusinessSokheng Sam, Researcher Tomas Janca, Executive DirectorCameroon DenmarkComité de Compétitivité (Competitiveness Committee) Danish Technological Institute, Center for Policy and BusinessLucien Sanzouango, Permanent Secretary DevelopmentCanada Hanne Shapiro, Center ManagerThe Conference Board of Canada EcuadorMichael R. Bloom, Vice-President, Organizational ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Escuela Superior Effectiveness & Learning Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL)Douglas Watt, Associate Director Elizabeth Arteaga, Project AssistantCape Verde Virginia Lasio, DirectorINOVE RESEARCH—Investigação e Desenvolvimento, Lda Sara Wong, ProfessorJúlio Delgado, Partner and Senior Researcher EgyptJosé Mendes, Chief Executive Officer The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies (ECES)Sara França Silva, Project Manager Iman Al-Ayouty, Senior EconomistChad Omneia Helmy, Acting Executive Director and DirectorGroupe de Recherches Alternatives et de Monitoring du Projet of Research Pétrole-Tchad-Cameroun (GRAMP-TC) EstoniaAntoine Doudjidingao, Researcher Estonian Institute of Economic ResearchGilbert Maoundonodji, Director Evelin Ahermaa, Head of Economic Research SectorCeline Nénodji Mbaipeur, Programme Officer Marje Josing, DirectorChile Estonian Development FundUniversidad Adolfo Ibáñez Kitty Kubo, Head of ForesightFernando Larrain Aninat, Director MBA Ott Pärna, Chief Executive OfficerLeonidas Montes, Dean, School of Government EthiopiaChina African Institute of Management, Development andInstitute of Economic System and Management, National Governance Development and Reform Commission Zebenay Kifle, General ManagerChen Wei, Research Fellow Tegenge Teka, Senior ExpertDong Ying, ProfessorZhou Haichun, Deputy Director and Professor FinlandChina Center for Economic Statistics Research, Tianjin ETLA—The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy Markku Kotilainen, Research DirectorUniversity of Finance and Economics Petri Rouvinen, Research DirectorBojuan Zhao, Professor Pekka Ylä-Anttila, Managing DirectorFan Yang, Professor Jian Wang, Associate ProfessorHongye Xiao, Professor FranceLu Dong, Professor HEC School of Management, Paris Bertrand Moingeon, Professor and Deputy DeanColombia Bernard Ramanantsoa, Professor and DeanNational Planning DepartmentSara Patricia Rivera, Advisor GabonJohn Rodríguez, Coordinator, Competitiveness Observatory Confédération Patronale GabonaiseJavier Villarreal, Enterprise Development Director Regis Loussou Kiki, General Secretary Gina Eyama Ondo, Assistant General SecretaryColombian Private Council on Competitiveness Henri Claude Oyima, PresidentRosario Córdoba, PresidentMarco Llinás, Vicepresident Gambia, The Gambia Economic and Social Development Research InstituteCôte d’Ivoire (GESDRI)Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Côte d’Ivoire Makaireh A. Njie, DirectorJean-Louis Billon, PresidentMamadou Sarr, Director General Georgia Business Initiative for Reforms in GeorgiaCroatia Tamara Janashia, Executive DirectorNational Competitiveness Council Giga Makharadze, Founding Member of the Board of DirectorsJadranka Gable, Advisor Mamuka Tsereteli, Founding Member of the Board of DirectorsKresimir Jurlin, Research Fellowvi | The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
  7. 7. Partner InstitutesGermany IrelandWHU—Otto Beisheim School of Management Institute for Business Development and CompetitivenessRalf Fendel, Professor of Monetary Economics School of Economics, University College CorkMichael Frenkel, Professor, Chair of Macroeconomics and Justin Doran, Principal Associate International Economics Eleanor Doyle, Director Catherine Kavanagh, Principal AssociateGhanaAssociation of Ghana Industries (AGI) Forfás, Economic Analysis and Competitiveness DepartmentPatricia Addy, Projects Officer Adrian Devitt, ManagerNana Owusu-Afari, President Conor Hand, EconomistSeth Twum-Akwaboah, Executive Director IsraelGreece Manufacturers’ Association of Israel (MAI)SEV Hellenic Federation of Enterprises Dan Catarivas, DirectorMichael Mitsopoulos, Senior Advisor, Entrepreneurship Amir Hayek, Managing DirectorThanasis Printsipas, Economist, Entrepreneurship Zvi Oren, PresidentGuatemala ItalyFUNDESA SDA Bocconi School of ManagementFelipe Bosch G., President of the Board of Directors Secchi Carlo, Full Professor of Economic Policy, BocconiPablo Schneider, Economic Director UniversityJuan Carlos Zapata, General Manager Paola Dubini, Associate Professor, Bocconi University Francesco A. Saviozzi, SDA Professor, Strategic andGuinea Entrepreneurial Management DepartmentConfédération Patronale des Entreprises de GuinéeMohamed Bénogo Conde, Secretary-General Jamaica Mona School of Business (MSB), The University of the WestGuyana IndiesInstitute of Development Studies, University of Guyana Patricia Douce, Project AdministratorKaren Pratt, Research Associate Evan Duggan, Executive Director and ProfessorClive Thomas, Director William Lawrence, Director, Professional Services UnitHaiti JapanGroup Croissance SA Keio UniversityPierre Lenz Dominique, Coordinator, Survey Department Yoko Ishikura, Professor, Graduate School of Media DesignKesner Pharel, Chief Executive Officer and Chairman Heizo Takenaka, Director, Global Security Research Institute Jiro Tamura, Professor of Law, Keio UniversityHong Kong SARHong Kong General Chamber of Commerce Keizai Doyukai (Japan Association of Corporate Executives)David O’Rear, Chief Economist Kiyohiko Ito, Managing Director, Keizai DoyukaiFederation of Hong Kong Industries JordanAlexandra Poon, Director Ministry of Planning & International CooperationThe Chinese General Chamber of Commerce Jordan National Competitiveness Team Kawther Al-Zou’bi, Head of Competitiveness DivisionHungary Basma Arabiyat, ResearcherKOPINT-TÁRKI Economic Research Ltd. Mukhallad Omari, Director of Policies and Studies DepartmentÉva Palócz, Chief Executive OfficerPeter Vakhal, Project Manager Kazakhstan National Analytical CentreIceland Diana Tamabayeva, Project ManagerInnovation Center Iceland Vladislav Yezhov, ChairmanArdis Armannsdottir, Marketing ManagerKarl Fridriksson, Managing Director of Human Resources Kenya and Marketing Institute for Development Studies, University of NairobiThorsteinn I. Sigfusson, Director Mohamud Jama, Director and Associate Research Professor Paul Kamau, Senior Research FellowIndia Dorothy McCormick, Research ProfessorConfederation of Indian Industry (CII)Chandrajit Banerjee, Director General Korea, Republic ofMarut Sengupta, Deputy Director General College of Business School, Korea Advanced Institute ofGantakolla Srivastava, Head, Financial Services Science and Technology KAIST Byungtae Lee, Acting DeanIndonesia Soung-Hie Kim, Associate Dean and ProfessorCenter for Industry, SME & Business Competition Studies, Jinyung Cha, Assistant Director, Exchange Programme University of Trisakti Korea Development InstituteTulus Tambunan, Professor and Director Joohee Cho, Senior Research AssociateIran, Islamic Republic of Yongsoo Lee, Head, Policy Survey UnitThe Center for Economic Studies and Surveys (CESS), Iran Kuwait Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture Kuwait National Competitiveness CommitteeMohammad Janati Fard, Research Associate Adel Al-Husainan, Committee MemberHamed Nikraftar, Project Manager Fahed Al-Rashed, Committee ChairmanFarnaz Safdari, Research Associate Sayer Al-Sayer, Committee Member The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | vii
  8. 8. Partner InstitutesKyrgyz Republic MaltaEconomic Policy Institute “Bishkek Consensus” Competitive Malta—Foundation for National CompetitivenessLola Abduhametova, Program Coordinator Margrith Lutschg-Emmenegger, Vice PresidentMarat Tazabekov, Chairman Adrian Said, Chief Coordinator Caroline Sciortino, Research CoordinatorLatviaStockholm School of Economics in Riga MauritaniaKarlis Kreslins, EMBA Programme Director Centre d’Information Mauritanien pour le DéveloppementAnders Paalzow, Rector Economique et Technique (CIMDET/CCIAM) Lô Abdoul, Consultant and AnalystLebanon Mehla Mint Ahmed, DirectorBader Young Entrepreneurs Program Habib Sy, Administrative Agent and AnalystAntoine Abou-Samra, Managing DirectorFarah Shamas, Program Coordinator Mauritius Board of Investment of MauritiusLesotho Nirmala Jeetah, Director, Planning and PolicyPrivate Sector Foundation of Lesotho Ken Poonoosamy, Managing DirectorO.S.M. Moosa, PresidentThabo Qhesi, Chief Executive Officer Joint Economic CouncilNteboheleng Thaele, Researcher Raj Makoond, DirectorLibya MexicoLibya Development Policy Center Center for Intellectual Capital and CompetitivenessYusser Al-Gayed, Project Director Erika Ruiz Manzur, Executive DirectorAhmed Jehani, Chairman René Villarreal Arrambide, President and Chief ExecutiveMohamed Wefati, Director Officer Rodrigo David Villarreal Ramos, DirectorLithuania Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad (IMCO)Statistics Lithuania Priscila Garcia, ResearcherOna Grigiene, Deputy Head, Knowledge Economy Manuel Molano, Deputy General Director and Special Surveys Statistics Division Juan E. Pardinas, General DirectorVilija Lapeniene, Director GeneralGediminas Samuolis, Head, Knowledge Economy Ministry of the Economy and Special Surveys Statistics Division Jose Antonio Torre, Undersecretary for Competitiveness and StandardizationLuxembourg Enrique Perret Erhard, Technical Secretary forLuxembourg Chamber of Commerce CompetitivenessChristel Chatelain, Research Analyst Narciso Suarez, Research Director, Technical SecretaryStephanie Musialski, Research Analyst for CompetitivenessCarlo Thelen, Chief Economist, Member of the Managing Board Moldova Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova (AESM)Macedonia, FYR Grigore Belostecinic, RectorNational Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Council (NECC) Centre for Economic Research (CER)Mirjana Apostolova, President of the Assembly Corneliu Gutu, DirectorDejan Janevski, Project Coordinator MongoliaMadagascar Open Society Forum (OSF)Centre of Economic Studies, University of Antananarivo Munkhsoyol Baatarjav, Manager of Economic PolicyRavelomanana Mamy Raoul, Director Erdenejargal Perenlei, Executive DirectorRazato Rarijaona Simon, Executive Secretary MontenegroMalawi Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses (ISSP)Malawi Confederation of Chambers of Commerce and Maja Drakic, Project Manager Industry Petar Ivanovic, Chief Executive OfficerHope Chavula, Public Private Dialogue Manager Veselin Vukotic, PresidentChancellor L. Kaferapanjira, Chief Executive Officer MoroccoMalaysia Comité National de l’Environnement des AffairesInstitute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) Seloua Benmbarek, Head of MissionJorah Ramlan, Senior Analyst, Economics MozambiqueSteven C.M. Wong, Senior Director, Economics EconPolicy Research Group, Lda.Mahani Zainal Abidin, Chief Executive Peter Coughlin, DirectorMalaysia Productivity Corporation (MPC) Donaldo Miguel Soares, ResearcherMohd Razali Hussain, Director General Ema Marta Soares, AssistantLee Saw Hoon, Senior Director NamibiaMali Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR)Groupe de Recherche en Economie Appliquée et Graham Hopwood, Executive Director Théorique (GREAT)Massa Coulibaly, Executive Directorviii | The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
  9. 9. Partner InstitutesNepal PortugalCentre for Economic Development and Administration (CEDA) PROFORUM, Associação para o Desenvolvimento daRamesh Chandra Chitrakar, Professor, Country Coordinator Engenharia and Project Director Ilídio António de Ayala Serôdio, Vice President of the BoardMahendra Raj Joshi, Member of DirectorsHari Dhoj Pant, Officiating Executive Director, Advisor, Survey Fórum de Administradores de Empresas (FAE) project Paulo Bandeira, General DirectorNetherlands Pedro do Carmo Costa, Member of the Board of DirectorsINSCOPE: Research for Innovation, Erasmus University Esmeralda Dourado, President of the Board of Directors Rotterdam Puerto RicoFrans A. J. Van den Bosch, Professor Puerto Rico 2000, Inc.Henk W. Volberda, Director and Professor Ivan Puig, PresidentNew Zealand Instituto de Competitividad Internacional, UniversidadThe New Zealand Initiative Interamericana de Puerto RicoCatherine Harland, Research Fellow Francisco Montalvo, Project CoordinatorOliver Hartwich, Executive Director QatarNigeria Qatari Businessmen Association (QBA)Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG) Sarah Abdallah, Deputy General ManagerFrank Nweke Jr., Director General Issa Abdul Salam Abu Issa, Secretary-GeneralChris Okpoko, Associate Director, Research Social and Economic Survey Research Institute (SESRI)Foluso Phillips, Chairman Hanan Abdul Ibrahim, Associate DirectorNorway Darwish Al Emadi, DirectorBI Norwegian Business School RomaniaEskil Goldeng, Researcher SC VBD Alliance Consulting SrlTorger Reve, Professor Irina Ion, Program CoordinatorOman Rolan Orzan, General DirectorThe International Research Foundation Russian FederationSalem Ben Nasser Al-Ismaily, Chairman Bauman Innovation & Eurasia Competitiveness InstitutePublic Authority for Investment Promotion and Export Katerina Marandi, Programme Manager Development (PAIPED) Alexey Prazdnichnykh, Principal and Managing DirectorMehdi Ali Juma, Expert for Economic Research Stockholm School of Economics, RussiaPakistan Igor Dukeov, Area PrincipalMishal Pakistan Carl F. Fey, Associate Dean of ResearchPuruesh Chaudhary, Director Content RwandaAmir Jahangir, Chief Executive Officer Private Sector Federation (PSF)Paraguay Hannington Namara, Chief Executive OfficerCentro de Análisis y Difusión de Economia Paraguaya Andrew O. Rwigyema, Head of Research and Policy (CADEP) Saudi ArabiaDionisio Borda, Research Member National Competitiveness Center (NCC)Fernando Masi, Director Awwad Al-Awwad, PresidentMaría Belén Servín, Research Member Khaldon Mahasen, Vice PresidentPeru SenegalCentro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI), Sociedad Nacional Centre de Recherches Economiques Appliquées (CREA), de Industrias University of DakarNéstor Asto, Project Director Diop Ibrahima Thione, DirectorLuis Tenorio, Executive Director SerbiaPhilippines Foundation for the Advancement of Economics (FREN)Makati Business Club (MBC) Mihail Arandarenko, DirectorMichael B. Mundo, Chief Economist Aleksandar Radivojevic, Project CoordinatorMarc P. Opulencia, Deputy Director Bojan Ristic, ResearcherPeter Angelo V. Perfecto, Executive DirectorManagement Association of the Philippines (MAP) SeychellesArnold P. Salvador, Executive Director Plutus Auditing & Accounting Services Nicolas Boulle, PartnerPoland Marco L. Francis, PartnerEconomic Institute, National Bank of PolandPiotr Boguszewski, Advisor SingaporeJarosław T. Jakubik, Deputy Director Economic Development Board Anna Chan, Assistant Managing Director, Planning & Policy Cheng Wai San, Head, Research & Statistics Unit Teo Xinyu, Executive, Research & Statistics Unit Slovak Republic Business Alliance of Slovakia (PAS) Robert Kicina, Executive Director The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | ix
  10. 10. Partner InstitutesSlovenia ThailandInstitute for Economic Research Sasin Graduate Institute of Business Administration,Peter Stanovnik, Professor Chulalongkorn UniversitySonja Uršic, Senior Research Assistant Pongsak Hoontrakul, Senior Research Fellow Narudee Kiengsiri, President of Sasin Alumni AssociationUniversity of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics Toemsakdi Krishnamra, Director of SasinMateja Drnovšek, ProfessorAleš Vahcic, Professor Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) Somchai Jitsuchon, Research DirectorSouth Africa Chalongphob Sussangkarn, Distinguished FellowBusiness Leadership South Africa Yos Vajragupta, Senior ResearcherFriede Dowie, DirectorThero Setiloane, Chief Executive Officer Timor-Leste East Timor Development Agency (ETDA)Business Unity South Africa Jose Barreto, Survey ManagerNomaxabiso Majokweni, Chief Executive Officer Palmira Pires, DirectorJoan Stott, Executive Director, Economic Policy Chambers of Commerce and Industry of Timor-LesteSpain Kathleen Fon Ha Tchong Goncalves, Vice-PresidentIESE Business School, International Center for Competitiveness Trinidad and TobagoMaría Luisa Blázquez, Research Associate Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of BusinessAntoni Subirà, Professor Miguel Carillo, Executive Director and Professor of Strategy Nirmala Harrylal, Director, Internationalisation and InstitutionalSri Lanka Relations CentreInstitute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS)Ayodya Galappattige, Research Officer The Competitiveness CompanyDilani Hirimuthugodage, Research Officer Rolph Balgobin, ChairmanSaman Kelegama, Executive Director TunisiaSuriname Institut Arabe des Chefs d’EntreprisesSuriname Trade & Industry Association (VSB) Ahmed Bouzguenda, PresidentHelen Doelwijt, Executive Secretary Majdi Hassen, Executive CounsellorRene van Essen, Director TurkeyDayenne Wielingen Verwey, Economic Policy Officer TUSIAD Sabanci University Competitiveness ForumSwaziland Izak Atiyas, DirectorFederation of Swaziland Employers and Chamber of Selcuk Karaata, Vice Director Commerce Sezen Ugurlu, Project SpecialistMduduzi Lokotfwako, Research Analyst UgandaZodwa Mabuza, Chief Executive Officer Kabano Research and Development CentreNyakwesi Motsa, Administration & Finance Manager Robert Apunyo, Program ManagerSweden Delius Asiimwe, Executive DirectorInternational University of Entrepreneurship and Technology Francis Mukuya, Research AssociateNiclas Adler, President UkraineSwitzerland CASE Ukraine, Center for Social and Economic ResearchUniversity of St. Gallen, Executive School of Management, Dmytro Boyarchuk, Executive Director Technology and Law (ES-HSG) Vladimir Dubrovskiy, Leading EconomistRubén Rodriguez Startz, Head of Project United Arab EmiratesTobias Trütsch, Communications Manager Abu Dhabi Department of Economic DevelopmentTaiwan, China H.E. Mohammed Omar Abdulla, UndersecretaryCouncil for Economic Planning and Development, Executive Dubai Economic Council Yuan H.E. Hani Al Hamly, Secretary GeneralHung, J. B., Director, Economic Research Department Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER), ZayedShieh, Chung Chung, Researcher, Economic Research University Department Mouawiya Alawad, DirectorWu, Ming-Ji, Deputy Minister Emirates Competitiveness CouncilTajikistan H.E. Abdulla Nasser Lootah, Secretary GeneralThe Center for Sociological Research “Zerkalo”Rahima Ashrapova, Assistant Researcher United KingdomQahramon Baqoev, Director LSE Enterprise Ltd, London School of Economics andGulnora Beknazarova, Researcher Political Science Adam Austerfield, Director of ProjectsTanzania Niccolo Durazzi, Project ManagerResearch on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA) Robyn Klingler Vidra, ResearcherCornel Jahari, Assistant ResearcherJohansein Rutaihwa, Commissioned Researcher UruguaySamuel Wangwe, Professor and Executive Director Universidad ORT Uruguay Isidoro Hodara, Professorx | The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
  11. 11. Partner InstitutesVenezuelaCONAPRI—The Venezuelan Council for Investment PromotionLitsay Guerrero, Economic Affairs and Investor Services ManagerEduardo Porcarelli, Executive DirectorVietnamHo Chi Minh City Institute for Development Studies (HIDS)Nguyen Trong Hoa, Professor and PresidentDu Phuoc Tan, Head of DepartmentTrieu Thanh Son, ResearcherYemenYemeni Businessmen Club (YBC)Mohammed Esmail Hamanah, Executive ManagerFathi Abdulwasa Hayel Saeed, ChairmanMoneera Abdo Othman, Project CoordinatorMARcon Marketing ConsultingMargret Arning, Managing DirectorZambiaInstitute of Economic and Social Research (INESOR), University of ZambiaPatricia Funjika, Research FellowJolly Kamwanga, Senior Research Fellow and Project CoordinatorMubiana Macwan’gi, Director and ProfessorZimbabweGraduate School of Management, University of ZimbabweA. M. Hawkins, ProfessorBolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, PanamaINCAE Business School, Latin American Center for Competitiveness and Sustainable Development (CLACDS)Ronald Arce, ResearcherArturo Condo, RectorMarlene de Estrella, Director of External RelationsLawrence Pratt, DirectorLiberia and Sierra LeoneFJP Development and Management ConsultantsOmodele R. N. Jones, Chief Executive Officer The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | xi
  12. 12. PrefaceKLAUS SCHWABExecutive Chairman, World Economic ForumThe Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 is being to recognize and encourage the qualitative as well asreleased amid a long period of economic uncertainty. the quantitative aspects of growth, integrating suchThe tentative recovery that seemed to be gaining ground concepts as social and environmental sustainabilityduring 2010 and the first half of 2011 has given way to provide a fuller picture of what is needed and whatto renewed concerns. The global economy faces a works. In this context, the Forum’s Global Benchmarkingnumber of significant and interrelated challenges that Network has continued to push forward with its researchcould hamper a genuine upturn after an economic crisis on how sustainability relates to competitiveness andhalf a decade long in much of the world, especially economic performance. To this end, Chapter 1.2 of thisin the most advanced economies. The persisting Report presents our evolving analysis of how countryfinancial difficulties in the periphery of the euro zone competitiveness can be assessed once issues ofhave led to a long-lasting and unresolved sovereign social and environmental sustainability are taken intodebt crisis that has now reached the boiling point. The account. This represents an important area for the Worldpossibility of Greece and perhaps other countries leaving Economic Forum’s research going forward.the euro is now a distinct prospect, with potentially This year’s Report features a record number ofdevastating consequences for the region and beyond. 144 economies, and thus continues to be the mostThis development is coupled with the risk of a weak comprehensive assessment of its kind. It contains arecovery in several other advanced economies outside detailed profile for each of the economies included inof Europe—notably in the United States, where political the study as well as an extensive section of data tablesgridlock on fiscal tightening could dampen the growth with global rankings covering over 100 indicators.outlook. Furthermore, given the expected slowdown in This Report remains the flagship publication within theeconomic growth in China, India, and other emerging Forum’s Global Benchmarking Network, which producesmarkets, reinforced by a potential decline in global trade a number of research studies that mirror the increasedand volatile capital flows, it is not clear which regions integration and complexity of the world economy.can drive growth and employment creation in the short The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013to medium term. could not have been put together without the thought Policymakers are struggling to find ways to leadership of Professor Xavier Sala-i-Martín at Columbiacooperate and manage the current economic challenges University, who has provided ongoing intellectualwhile preparing their economies to perform well in an support for our competitiveness research. Further,increasingly difficult and unpredictable global landscape. this Report would have not been possible without theAmid the short-term crisis management, it remains commitment and enthusiasm of our network of over 150critical for countries to establish the fundamentals Partner Institutes worldwide. The Partner Institutes arethat underpin economic growth and development for instrumental in carrying out the Executive Opinion Surveythe longer term. The World Economic Forum has, for that provides the foundation data of this Report as wellmore than three decades, played a facilitating role in as imparting the results of the Report at the nationalthis process by providing detailed assessments of the level. We would also like to convey our sincere gratitudeproductive potential of nations worldwide. The Report to all the business executives around the world who tookcontributes to an understanding of the key factors that the time to participate in our Executive Opinion Survey.determine economic growth, helps to explain why some We are also grateful to the members of our Advisorycountries are more successful than others in raising Board on Competitiveness and Sustainability, whoincome levels and opportunities for their respective have provided their valuable time and knowledge topopulations, and offers policymakers and business help us develop the framework on sustainability andleaders an important tool in the formulation of improved competitiveness presented in this Report: Jameseconomic policies and institutional reforms. Cameron, Chairman, Climate Change Capital; Dan Esty, The complexity of today’s global economic Commissioner, Connecticut Department of Energy andenvironment has made it more important than ever Environmental Protection; Edwin J. Feulner Jr, President, The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | xiii
  13. 13. PrefaceThe Heritage Foundation; Clément Gignac, Ministerof Natural Resources and Wildlife of Quebec; JeniKlugman, Director for Gender, The World Bank; Marc A.Levy, Deputy Director, CIESIN, Columbia University; JohnMcArthur, Senior Fellow, United Nations Foundation;Kevin X. Murphy, President and Chief Executive Officer,J.E. Austin Associates Inc.; Mari Elka Pangestu, Ministerof Tourism and Creative Economy of Indonesia; MarkSpelman, Global Head of Strategy, Accenture; andSimon Zadek, Senior Visiting Fellow, Global GreenGrowth Institute. Appreciation also goes to Børge Brende, ManagingDirector at the Forum, and Jennifer Blanke, Head ofThe Global Benchmarking Network, as well as teammembers Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, Ciara Browne, RobertoCrotti, Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Thierry Geiger, TaniaGutknecht, Caroline Ko, and Cecilia Serin. Finally, wewould like to thank the Africa Commission and FedEx,our partners in this Report, for their support in thisimportant publication.xiv |The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
  14. 14. Part 1Measuring Competitiveness
  15. 15. CHAPTER 1.1 At the time of releasing The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013, the outlook for the world economy is once again fragile. Global growth remains historicallyThe Global low for the second year running with major centers of economic activity—particularly large emerging economiesCompetitiveness Index and key advanced economies—expected to slow in 2012–13, confirming the belief that the global economy2012–2013: Strengthening is troubled by a slow and weak recovery. As in previous years, growth remains unequally distributed. EmergingRecovery by Raising and developing countries are growing faster than advanced economies, steadily closing the income gap.Productivity The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that, in 2012, the euro zone will have contracted byXAVIER SALA-I-MARTÍN 0.3 percent, while the United States is experiencing aBEÑAT BILBAO-OSORIO weak recovery with an uncertain future. Large emergingJENNIFER BLANKE economies such as Brazil, the Russian Federation, India,ROBERTO CROTTI China, and South Africa are growing somewhat lessMARGARETA DRZENIEK HANOUZ than they did in 2011. At the same time, other emergingTHIERRY GEIGER markets—such as developing Asia—will continue toCAROLINE KO show robust growth rates, while the Middle East andWorld Economic Forum North Africa as well as sub-Saharan African countries are gaining momentum. Recent developments—such as the danger of a property bubble in China, a decline in world trade, and volatile capital flows in emerging markets—could derail the recovery and have a lasting impact on the global economy. Arguably, this year’s deceleration to a large extent reflects the inability of leaders to address the many challenges that were already present last year. Policymakers around the world remain concerned about high unemployment and the social conditions in their countries. The political brinkmanship in the United States continues to affect the outlook for the world’s largest economy, while the sovereign debt crises and the danger of a banking system meltdown in peripheral euro zone countries remain unresolved. The high levels of public debt coupled with low growth, insufficient competitiveness, and political gridlock in some European countries stirred financial markets’ concerns about sovereign default and the very viability of the euro. Given the complexity and the urgency of the situation, European countries are facing particularly difficult economic management decisions with challenging political and social ramifications. Although European leaders do not agree on how to address the immediate challenges, there is recognition that, in the longer term, stabilizing the euro and putting Europe on a higher and more sustainable growth path will necessitate improvements to the competitiveness of the weaker member states. All these developments are highly interrelated and demand timely, decisive, and coordinated action by policymakers. In light of these uncertain global ramifications, sustained structural reforms aimed at enhancing competitiveness will be necessary for The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | 3
  16. 16. 1.1: The Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013countries to stabilize economic growth and ensure the This open-endedness is captured within the GCIrising prosperity of their populations going into the future. by including a weighted average of many different Competitive economies drive productivity components, each measuring a different aspect ofenhancements that support high incomes by ensuring competitiveness. These components are grouped into 12that the mechanisms enabling solid economic pillars of competitiveness (see Figure 1):performance are in place. For more than three decades, the World Economic First pillar: InstitutionsForum’s annual Global Competitiveness Reports The institutional environment is determined by the legalhave studied and benchmarked the many factors and administrative framework within which individuals,underpinning national competitiveness. From the onset, firms, and governments interact to generate wealth. Thethe goal has been to provide insight and stimulate the importance of a sound and fair institutional environmentdiscussion among all stakeholders on the best strategies became even more apparent during the recent economicand policies to help countries to overcome the obstacles and financial crisis and is especially crucial for furtherto improving competitiveness. In the current challenging solidifying the fragile recovery given the increasing roleeconomic environment, our work is a critical reminder of played by the state at the international level and for thethe importance of structural economic fundamentals for economies of many countries.sustained growth. The quality of institutions has a strong bearing on Since 2005, the World Economic Forum has competitiveness and growth.4 It influences investmentbased its competitiveness analysis on the Global decisions and the organization of production and playsCompetitiveness Index (GCI), a comprehensive tool that a key role in the ways in which societies distribute themeasures the microeconomic and macroeconomic benefits and bear the costs of development strategiesfoundations of national competitiveness.1 and policies. For example, owners of land, corporate We define competitiveness as the set of institutions, shares, or intellectual property are unwilling to invest inpolicies, and factors that determine the level of the improvement and upkeep of their property if theirproductivity of a country. The level of productivity, in rights as owners are not protected.5turn, sets the level of prosperity that can be earned by The role of institutions goes beyond the legalan economy. The productivity level also determines the framework. Government attitudes toward marketsrates of return obtained by investments in an economy, and freedoms and the efficiency of its operationswhich in turn are the fundamental drivers of its growth are also very important: excessive bureaucracy andrates. In other words, a more competitive economy is red tape,6 overregulation, corruption, dishonesty inone that is likely to sustain growth. dealing with public contracts, lack of transparency and The concept of competitiveness thus involves static trustworthiness, inability to provide appropriate servicesand dynamic components. Although the productivity of for the business sector, and political dependence ofa country determines its ability to sustain a high level of the judicial system impose significant economic costsincome, it is also one of the central determinants of its to businesses and slow the process of economicreturns to investment, which is one of the key factors development.explaining an economy’s growth potential. In addition, the proper management of public finances is also critical to ensuring trust in the nationalTHE 12 PILLARS OF COMPETITIVENESS business environment. Indicators capturing the qualityMany determinants drive productivity and of government management of public finances arecompetitiveness. Understanding the factors behind therefore included here to complement the measures ofthis process has occupied the minds of economists macroeconomic stability captured in pillar 3 below.for hundreds of years, engendering theories ranging Although the economic literature has focused mainlyfrom Adam Smith’s focus on specialization and the on public institutions, private institutions are also andivision of labor to neoclassical economists’ emphasis important element in the process of creating wealth.on investment in physical capital and infrastructure,2 The recent global financial crisis, along with numerousand, more recently, to interest in other mechanisms corporate scandals, have highlighted the relevance ofsuch as education and training, technological progress, accounting and reporting standards and transparencymacroeconomic stability, good governance, firm for preventing fraud and mismanagement, ensuring goodsophistication, and market efficiency, among others. governance, and maintaining investor and consumerWhile all of these factors are likely to be important for confidence. An economy is well served by businessescompetitiveness and growth, they are not mutually that are run honestly, where managers abide by strongexclusive—two or more of them can be significant at the ethical practices in their dealings with the government,same time, and in fact that is what has been shown in other firms, and the public at large.7 Private-sectorthe economic literature.3 transparency is indispensable to business, and can be brought about through the use of standards as well as4 | The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
  17. 17. 1.1: The Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013auditing and accounting practices that ensure access to It is important to note that this pillar evaluatesinformation in a timely manner.8 the stability of the macroeconomic environment, so it does not directly take into account the way in whichSecond pillar: Infrastructure public accounts are managed by the government. ThisExtensive and efficient infrastructure is critical for qualitative dimension is captured in the institutions pillarensuring the effective functioning of the economy, as described is an important factor in determining the location ofeconomic activity and the kinds of activities or sectors Fourth pillar: Health and primary educationthat can develop in a particular instance. Well-developed A healthy workforce is vital to a country’sinfrastructure reduces the effect of distance between competitiveness and productivity. Workers who areregions, integrating the national market and connecting it ill cannot function to their potential and will be lessat low cost to markets in other countries and regions. In productive. Poor health leads to significant costs toaddition, the quality and extensiveness of infrastructure business, as sick workers are often absent or operate atnetworks significantly impact economic growth and lower levels of efficiency. Investment in the provision ofreduce income inequalities and poverty in a variety of health services is thus critical for clear economic, as wellways.9 A well-developed transport and communications as moral, considerations.11infrastructure network is a prerequisite for the access of In addition to health, this pillar takes into account theless-developed communities to core economic activities quantity and quality of the basic education received byand services. the population. Basic education increases the efficiency Effective modes of transport—including quality of each individual worker. Moreover, workers who haveroads, railroads, ports, and air transport—enable received little formal education can carry out only simpleentrepreneurs to get their goods and services to manual tasks and find it much more difficult to adapt tomarket in a secure and timely manner and facilitate more advanced production processes and techniques,the movement of workers to the most suitable jobs. and therefore contribute less to come up with or executeEconomies also depend on electricity supplies that are innovations. In other words, lack of basic educationfree of interruptions and shortages so that businesses can become a constraint on business development,and factories can work unimpeded. Finally, a solid with firms finding it difficult to move up the value chainand extensive telecommunications network allows for by producing more sophisticated or value-intensivea rapid and free flow of information, which increases products with existing human resources.overall economic efficiency by helping to ensure that For the longer term, it will be essential to avoidbusinesses can communicate and decisions are made significant reductions in resource allocation to theseby economic actors taking into account all available critical areas, in spite of the fact that governmentrelevant information. budgets will need to be cut to reduce the deficits and debt burden.Third pillar: Macroeconomic environmentThe stability of the macroeconomic environment is Fifth pillar: Higher education and trainingimportant for business and, therefore, is important for Quality higher education and training is particularlythe overall competitiveness of a country.10 Although crucial for economies that want to move up the valueit is certainly true that macroeconomic stability alone chain beyond simple production processes andcannot increase the productivity of a nation, it is also products.12 In particular, today’s globalizing economyrecognized that macroeconomic instability harms the requires countries to nurture pools of well-educatedeconomy, as we have seen over the past years, notably workers who are able to perform complex tasks andin the European context. The government cannot adapt rapidly to their changing environment and theprovide services efficiently if it has to make high-interest evolving needs of the economy. This pillar measurespayments on its past debts. Running fiscal deficits limits secondary and tertiary enrollment rates as well asthe government’s future ability to react to business the quality of education as evaluated by the businesscycles and to invest in competitiveness-enhancing community. The extent of staff training is also taken intomeasures. Firms cannot operate efficiently when inflation consideration because of the importance of vocationalrates are out of hand. In sum, the economy cannot grow and continuous on-the-job training—which is neglectedin a sustainable manner unless the macro environment in many economies—for ensuring a constant upgradingis stable. Macroeconomic stability has captured the of workers’ skills.attention of the public most recently when someEuropean countries needed the support of the IMF and Sixth pillar: Goods market efficiencyother euro zone economies to prevent sovereign default, Countries with efficient goods markets are wellas their public debt reached unsustainable levels. positioned to produce the right mix of products and services given their particular supply-and-demand The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | 5
  18. 18. 1.1: The Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013conditions, as well as to ensure that these goods can Eighth pillar: Financial market developmentbe most effectively traded in the economy. Healthy The recent economic crisis has highlighted the centralmarket competition, both domestic and foreign, is role of a sound and well-functioning financial sectorimportant in driving market efficiency and thus business for economic activities. An efficient financial sectorproductivity by ensuring that the most efficient firms, allocates the resources saved by a nation’s citizens, asproducing goods demanded by the market, are those well as those entering the economy from abroad, to theirthat thrive. The best possible environment for the most productive uses. It channels resources to thoseexchange of goods requires a minimum of impediments entrepreneurial or investment projects with the highestto business activity through government intervention. For expected rates of return rather than to the politicallyexample, competitiveness is hindered by distortionary or connected. A thorough and proper assessment of risk isburdensome taxes and by restrictive and discriminatory therefore a key ingredient of a sound financial market.rules on foreign direct investment (FDI)—limiting foreign Business investment is also critical to productivity.ownership—as well as on international trade. The Therefore economies require sophisticated financialrecent economic crisis has highlighted the degree of markets that can make capital available for private-sectorinterdependence of economies worldwide and the investment from such sources as loans from a sounddegree to which growth depends on open markets. banking sector, well-regulated securities exchanges,Protectionist measures are counterproductive as they venture capital, and other financial products. In order toreduce aggregate economic activity. fulfill all those functions, the banking sector needs to be Market efficiency also depends on demand trustworthy and transparent, and—as has been madeconditions such as customer orientation and buyer so clear recently—financial markets need appropriatesophistication. For cultural or historical reasons, regulation to protect investors and other actors in thecustomers may be more demanding in some countries economy at large.than in others. This can create an important competitiveadvantage, as it forces companies to be more innovative Ninth pillar: Technological readinessand customer-oriented and thus imposes the discipline In today’s globalized world, technology is increasinglynecessary for efficiency to be achieved in the market. essential for firms to compete and prosper. The technological readiness pillar measures the agility withSeventh pillar: Labor market efficiency which an economy adopts existing technologies toThe efficiency and flexibility of the labor market are enhance the productivity of its industries, with specificcritical for ensuring that workers are allocated to their emphasis on its capacity to fully leverage informationmost effective use in the economy and provided with and communication technologies (ICT) in daily activitiesincentives to give their best effort in their jobs. Labor and production processes for increased efficiencymarkets must therefore have the flexibility to shift and enabling innovation for competitiveness.14 ICT hasworkers from one economic activity to another rapidly evolved into the “general purpose technology” of ourand at low cost, and to allow for wage fluctuations time,15 given the critical spillovers to the other economicwithout much social disruption.13 The importance of sectors and their role as industry-wide enablingwell-functioning labor markets has been dramatically infrastructure. Therefore ICT access and usage are keyhighlighted by last year’s events in Arab countries, where enablers of countries’ overall technological readiness.rigid labor markets were an important cause of high Whether the technology used has or has notyouth unemployment, sparking social unrest in Tunisia been developed within national borders is irrelevantthat then spread across the region. Youth unemployment for its ability to enhance productivity. The centralis also high in a number of European countries, where point is that the firms operating in the country needimportant barriers to entry into the labor market remain to have access to advanced products and blueprintsin place. and the ability to absorb and use them. Among the Efficient labor markets must also ensure a clear main sources of foreign technology, FDI often playsrelationship between worker incentives and their a key role, especially for countries at a lower stage ofefforts to promote meritocracy at the workplace, and technological development. It is important to note that, inthey must provide equity in the business environment this context, the level of technology available to firms inbetween women and men. Taken together these factors a country needs to be distinguished from the country’shave a positive effect on worker performance and the ability to conduct blue-sky research and develop newattractiveness of the country for talent, two aspects that technologies for innovation that expand the frontiersare growing more important as talent shortages loom on of knowledge. That is why we separate technologicalthe horizon. readiness from innovation, captured in the 12th pillar, described below.6 | The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
  19. 19. 1.1: The Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013Tenth pillar: Market size Twelfth pillar: InnovationThe size of the market affects productivity since large Innovation can emerge from new technological and non-markets allow firms to exploit economies of scale. technological knowledge. Non-technological innovationsTraditionally, the markets available to firms have are closely related to the know-how, skills, and workingbeen constrained by national borders. In the era of conditions that are embedded in organizations andglobalization, international markets can to a certain are therefore largely covered by the eleventh pillar ofextent substitute for domestic markets, especially for the GCI. The final pillar of competitiveness focuses onsmall countries. Vast empirical evidence shows that technological innovation. Although substantial gainstrade openness is positively associated with growth. can be obtained by improving institutions, buildingEven if some recent research casts doubts on the infrastructure, reducing macroeconomic instability, orrobustness of this relationship, there is a general sense improving human capital, all these factors eventuallythat trade has a positive effect on growth, especially seem to run into diminishing returns. The same is true forfor countries with small domestic markets.16 The case the efficiency of the labor, financial, and goods markets.of the European Union illustrates the importance of the In the long run, standards of living can be largelymarket size for competitiveness, as important efficiency enhanced by technological innovation. Technologicalgains were realized through closer integration. Although breakthroughs have been at the basis of many of thethe reduction of trade barriers and the harmonization of productivity gains that our economies have historicallystandards within the European Union have contributed experienced. These range from the industrial revolutionto raising exports within the region, many barriers to a in the 18th century and the invention of the steam enginetrue single market, in particular in services, remain in and the generation of electricity to the more recent digitalplace and lead to important border effects. Therefore revolution. The latter is transforming not only the waywe continue to use the size of the national domestic and things are being done, but also opening a wider rangeforeign market in the Index. of new possibilities in terms of products and services. Thus exports can be thought of as a substitute for Innovation is particularly important for economies as theydomestic demand in determining the size of the market approach the frontiers of knowledge and the possibilityfor the firms of a country.17 By including both domestic of generating more value by only integrating andand foreign markets in our measure of market size, we adapting exogenous technologies tends to disappear.18give credit to export-driven economies and geographic Although less-advanced countries can still improveareas (such as the European Union) that are divided into their productivity by adopting existing technologiesmany countries but have a single common market. or making incremental improvements in other areas, for those that have reached the innovation stage ofEleventh pillar: Business sophistication development this is no longer sufficient for increasingThere is no doubt that sophisticated business practices productivity. Firms in these countries must designare conducive to higher efficiency in the production of and develop cutting-edge products and processes togoods and services. Business sophistication concerns maintain a competitive edge and move toward higher-two elements that are intricately linked: the quality of a value-added activities. This progression requires ancountry’s overall business networks and the quality of environment that is conducive to innovative activity andindividual firms’ operations and strategies. These factors supported by both the public and the private sectors. Inare particularly important for countries at an advanced particular, it means sufficient investment in research andstage of development when, to a large extent, the development (R&D), especially by the private sector; themore basic sources of productivity improvements have presence of high-quality scientific research institutionsbeen exhausted. The quality of a country’s business that can generate the basic knowledge needed to buildnetworks and supporting industries, as measured by the new technologies; extensive collaboration in researchthe quantity and quality of local suppliers and the extent and technological developments between universitiesof their interaction, is important for a variety of reasons. and industry; and the protection of intellectual property,When companies and suppliers from a particular in addition to high levels of competition and accesssector are interconnected in geographically proximate to venture capital and financing that are analyzed ingroups, called clusters, efficiency is heightened, greater other pillars of the Index. In light of the recent sluggishopportunities for innovation in processes and products recovery and rising fiscal pressures faced by advancedare created, and barriers to entry for new firms are economies, it is important that public and private sectorsreduced. Individual firms’ advanced operations and resist pressures to cut back on the R&D spending thatstrategies (branding, marketing, distribution, advanced will be so critical for sustainable growth going into theproduction processes, and the production of unique and future.sophisticated products) spill over into the economy andlead to sophisticated and modern business processesacross the country’s business sectors. The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | 7
  20. 20. 1.1: The Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013Figure 1: The Global Competitiveness Index framework GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS INDEX Basic requirements Efficiency enhancers Innovation and sophistication subindex subindex factors subindex Pillar 1. Institutions Pillar 5. Higher education and P illar 11. Business sophistication training Pillar 2. Infrastructure Pillar 12. Innovation Pillar 6. Goods market efficiency Pillar 3. Macroeconomic environment Pillar 7. Labor market efficiency Pillar 4. Health and primary education Pillar 8. Financial market development Pillar 9. Technological readiness P illar 10. Market size Key for Key for Key for factor-driven efficiency-driven innovation-driven economies economies economiesNote: See the appendix for the detailed structure of the GCI.The interrelation of the 12 pillars best way for France to do so. This is because CambodiaWhile we report the results of the 12 pillars of and France are in different stages of development: ascompetitiveness separately, it is important to keep countries move along the development path, wages tendin mind that they are not independent: they tend to to increase and, in order to sustain this higher income,reinforce each other, and a weakness in one area often labor productivity must improve.has a negative impact in others. For example, a strong In line with the economic theory of stages ofinnovation capacity (pillar 12) will be very difficult to development, the GCI assumes that economies in theachieve without a healthy, well-educated and trained first stage are mainly factor-driven and compete basedworkforce (pillars 4 and 5) that is adept at absorbing new on their factor endowments—primarily low-skilled labortechnologies (pillar 9), and without sufficient financing and natural resources.19 Companies compete on the(pillar 8) for R&D or an efficient goods market that makes basis of price and sell basic products or commodities,it possible to take new innovations to market (pillar 6). with their low productivity reflected in low wages.Although the pillars are aggregated into a single index, Maintaining competitiveness at this stage of developmentmeasures are reported for the 12 pillars separately hinges primarily on well-functioning public and privatebecause such details provide a sense of the specific institutions (pillar 1), a well-developed infrastructureareas in which a particular country needs to improve. (pillar 2), a stable macroeconomic environment (pillar 3), The appendix describes the exact composition of and a healthy workforce that has received at least athe GCI and technical details of its construction. basic education (pillar 4). As a country becomes more competitive,STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT AND THE WEIGHTED productivity will increase and wages will rise withINDEX advancing development. Countries will then moveWhile all of the pillars described above will matter to a into the efficiency-driven stage of development, whencertain extent for all economies, it is clear that they will they must begin to develop more efficient productionaffect them in different ways: the best way for Cambodia processes and increase product quality becauseto improve its competitiveness is not the same as the wages have risen and they cannot increase prices. At8 | The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013
  21. 21. 1.1: The Global Competitiveness Index 2012–2013Table 1: Subindex weights and income thresholds for stages of development STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Stage 1: Transition from Stage 2: Transition from Stage 3: Factor-driven stage 1 to stage 2 Efficiency-driven stage 2 to stage 3 Innovation-driven GDP per capita (US$) thresholds* <2,000 2,000–2,999 3,000–8,999 9,000–17,000 >17,000 Weight for basic requirements subindex 60% 40–60% 40% 20–40% 20% Weight for efficiency enhancers subindex 35% 35–50% 50% 50% 50% Weight for innovation and sophistication factors 5% 5–10% 10% 10–30% 30%Note: See individual country/economy profiles for the exact applied weights.* For economies with a high dependency on mineral resources, GDP per capita is not the sole criterion for the determination of the stage of development. See text for details.this point, competitiveness is increasingly driven by Implementation of stages of developmenthigher education and training (pillar 5), efficient goods Two criteria are used to allocate countries into stages ofmarkets (pillar 6), well-functioning labor markets (pillar 7), development. The first is the level of GDP per capita atdeveloped financial markets (pillar 8), the ability to market exchange rates. This widely available measureharness the benefits of existing technologies (pillar 9), is used as a proxy for wages, because internationallyand a large domestic or foreign market (pillar 10). comparable data on wages are not available for all Finally, as countries move into the innovation-driven countries covered. The thresholds used are also shownstage, wages will have risen by so much that they are in Table 1. A second criterion is used to adjust forable to sustain those higher wages and the associated countries that are wealthy, but where prosperity is basedstandard of living only if their businesses are able to on the extraction of resources. This is measured by thecompete with new and/or unique products, services, share of exports of mineral goods in total exports (goodsmodels, and processes. At this stage, companies and services), and assumes that countries that exportmust compete by producing new and different goods more than 70 percent of mineral products (measuredthrough new technologies (pillar 12) and/or the most using a five-year average) are to a large extent factorsophisticated production processes or business models driven.21(pillar 11). Any countries falling in between two of the three The GCI takes the stages of development into stages are considered to be “in transition.” For theseaccount by attributing higher relative weights to those countries, the weights change smoothly as a countrypillars that are more relevant for an economy given its develops, reflecting the smooth transition from oneparticular stage of development. That is, although all stage of development to another. This allows us12 pillars matter to a certain extent for all countries, the to place increasingly more weight on those areasrelative importance of each one depends on a country’s that are becoming more important for the country’sparticular stage of development. To implement this competitiveness as the country develops, ensuring thatconcept, the pillars are organized into three subindexes, the GCI can gradually “penalize” those countries thateach critical to a particular stage of development. are not preparing for the next stage. The classification The basic requirements subindex groups those of countries into stages of development is shown inpillars most critical for countries in the factor-driven Table 2.stage. The efficiency enhancers subindex includesthose pillars critical for countries in the efficiency-driven DATA SOURCESstage. And the innovation and sophistication factors To measure these concepts, the GCI uses statisticalsubindex includes the pillars critical to countries in the data such as enrollment rates, government debt, budgetinnovation-driven stage. The three subindexes are shown deficit, and life expectancy, which are obtained fromin Figure 1. internationally recognized agencies, notably the United The weights attributed to each subindex in every Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizationstage of development are shown in Table 1. To obtain (UNESCO), the IMF, and the World Health Organizationthe weights shown in the table, a maximum likelihood (WHO). The descriptions and data sources of all theseregression of GDP per capita was run against each statistical variables are presented in the Technical Notessubindex for past years, allowing for different coefficients and Sources at the end of this Report. Furthermore,for each stage of development.20 The rounding of these the GCI uses data from the World Economic Forum’seconometric estimates led to the choice of weights annual Executive Opinion Survey (Survey) to capturedisplayed in Table 1. concepts that require a more qualitative assessment or for which internationally comparable statistical data The Global Competitiveness Report 2012–2013 | 9