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The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011


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The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness
Report 2011 is published by the World
Economic Forum within the framework of
the Centre for Global Competitiveness and
Performance and the Industry Partnership
Programme for Aviation, Travel & Tourism.

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The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011

  1. 1. The Travel & TourismCompetitiveness Report 2011Beyond the DownturnJennifer Blanke, World Economic ForumThea Chiesa, World Economic Forum
  2. 2. World Economic ForumGeneva, Switzerland 2011The Travel & TourismCompetitiveness Report 2011Beyond the DownturnJennifer Blanke, World Economic ForumThea Chiesa, World Economic ForumEditorsThe full version of the Report with Country Profiles and Data Tables is available at The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  3. 3. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness World Economic ForumReport 2011 is published by the World GenevaEconomic Forum within the framework ofthe Centre for Global Competitiveness and Copyright © 2011Performance and the Industry Partnership by the World Economic ForumProgramme for Aviation, Travel & Tourism. All rights reserved. No part of this publicationProfessor Klaus Schwab may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalExecutive Chairman system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,Robert Greenhill or otherwise without the prior permission ofChief Business Officer the World Economic Forum. ISBN-13: 978-92-95044-96-8EDITORS This book is printed on paper suitable forJennifer Blanke, Director, Lead Economist, recycling and made from fully managed andHead of the Centre for Global sustained forest sources.Competitiveness and PerformanceThea Chiesa, Associate Director, Head of Printed and bound in Switzerland by SRO-Kundig.Aviation, Travel & TourismCENTRE FOR GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS AND PERFORMANCECiara Browne, Associate DirectorRoberto Crotti, Junior QuantitativeEconomistMargareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Director,Senior EconomistThierry Geiger, Associate Director,EconomistSatu Kauhanen, CoordinatorIrene Mia, Director, Senior EconomistPearl Samandari, Community ManagerWe thank Hope Steele for her superb editingwork and Neil Weinberg for his excellentgraphic design and layout.The terms country and nation as used in thisreport do not in all cases refer to a territorialentity that is a state as understood by inter-national law and practice. The terms coverwell-defined, geographically self-containedeconomic areas that may not be states butfor which statistical data are maintained on aseparate and independent basis. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  4. 4. ContentsPartner Institutes v 1.7 Green Growth, Travelism, and the Pursuit 77 of Happiness by Geoffrey Lipman, Beyond Tourism, and Shaun Vorster,Preface xi Ministry of Tourism, South Africaby Robert Greenhill, World Economic Forum 1.8 A New Big Plan for Nature: Opportunities 81Executive Summary xiii for Travel & Tourismby Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum by Julia Marton-Lefèvre and Maria Ana Borges, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) 1.9 Assessing the Openness of Borders 89 by Thea Chiesa, Sean Doherty, and Margareta DrzeniekPart 1: Selected Issues of T&T Competitiveness 1 Hanouz, World Economic Forum1.1 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: 3Assessing Industry Drivers in the Wake of the Crisisby Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, World Economic Forum Part 2: Country/Economy Profiles and Data 101 Presentation1.2 Crisis Aftermath: Pathways to a More Resilient 35Travel & Tourism Sectorby Jürgen Ringbeck and Timm Pietsch, Booz & Company 2.1 Country/Economy Profiles 103 How to Read the Country/Economy Profiles ..............................105 by Roberto Crotti1.3 Tourism Development in Advanced and Emerging 45 List of Countries/Economies .......................................................107Economies: What Does the Travel & Tourism Country/Economy Profiles ...........................................................108Competitiveness Index Tell Us?by John Kester and Valeria Croce, World Tourism Organization(UNWTO) 2.2 Data Tables 387 How to Read the Data Tables......................................................389 Index of Data Tables ....................................................................3911.4 Premium Air Travel: An Important Market 53 Data Tables ..................................................................................393Segmentby Selim Ach and Brian Pearce, International Air TransportAssociation (IATA) Technical Notes and Sources 4871.5 Hospitality: Emerging from the Crisis 61 About the Authors 493by Alex Kyriakidis, Simon Oaten, and Jessica Jahns, Deloitte,Tourism, Hospitality & Leisure Acknowledgments 4971.6 Investment: A Key Indicator of Competitiveness 69in Travel & Tourismby Nancy Cockerell, World Travel & Tourism Council,and David Goodger, Oxford Economics The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  5. 5. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  6. 6. Partner InstitutesPartner InstitutesThe World Economic Forum’s Centre for Global Bangladesh Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD)Competitiveness and Performance is pleased to Khondaker Golam Moazzem, Senior Research Fellowacknowledge and thank the following organizations Kazi Mahmudur Rahman, Senior Research Associateas its valued Partner Institutes, without which the Mustafizur Rahman, Executive Directorrealization of The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness BarbadosReport 2011 would not have been feasible: Arthur Lewis Institute for Social and Economic Studies, University of West Indies (UWI)Albania Andrew Downes, DirectorInstitute for Contemporary Studies (ISB)Artan Hoxha, President BelgiumElira Jorgoni, Senior Expert Vlerick Leuven Gent Management SchoolEndrit Kapaj, Junior Expert Priscilla Boairdi, Associate, Competence Centre Entrepreneurship, Governance and StrategyAlgeria Wim Moesen, ProfessorCentre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée Leo Sleuwaegen, Professor, Competence Centre pour le Développement (CREAD) Entrepreneurship, Governance and StrategyYoucef Benabdallah, Assistant ProfessorYassine Ferfera, Director Benin Micro Impacts of Macroeconomic Adjustment PoliciesAngola (MIMAP) BeninMITC Investimentos Epiphane Adjovi, Business CoordinatorEstefania Jover, Senior Adviser Maria-Odile Attanasso, Deputy Coordinator vPROPETROL—Serviços Petroliferos Fructueux Deguenonvo, ResearcherArnaldo Lago de Carvalho, Managing Partner Bosnia and HerzegovinaSouth Africa-Angola Chamber of Commerce (SA-ACC) MIT Center, School of Economics and Business in Sarajevo,Roger Ballard-Tremeer, Hon Chief Executive University of Sarajevo Zlatko Lagumdzija, ProfessorArgentina Zeljko Sain, Executive DirectorIAE—Universidad Austral Jasmina Selimovic, Assistant DirectorMaría Elina Gigaglia, Project ManagerEduardo Luis Fracchia, Professor Botswana Botswana National Productivity CentreArmenia Letsogile Batsetswe, Research Consultant and StatisticianEconomy and Values Research Center Parmod Chandna, Acting Executive DirectorManuk Hergnyan, Chairman Phumzile Thobokwe, Manager, Information andSevak Hovhannisyan, Board Member and Senior Associate Research Services DepartmentGohar Malumyan, Research Associate BrazilAustralia Fundação Dom CabralAustralian Industry Group Marina Araújo, Economist and Researcher,Colleen Dowling, Senior Research Coordinator The Competitiveness and Innovation CenterNick James, Economist Carlos Arruda, Executive Director, International Board andHeather Ridout, Chief Executive Professor and Coordinator, The CompetitivenessAustria and Innovation CenterAustrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO) Arthur Kux, Economist and Research Assistant,Karl Aiginger, Director The Competitiveness and Innovation CenterGerhard Schwarz, Coordinator, Survey Department Movimento Brasil Competitivo (MBC)Azerbaijan Erik Camarano, Director PresidentAzerbaijan Marketing Society Cecília Macedo, Economist and Senior Projects CoordinatorFuad Aliyev, Project Manager Nikelma Moura, Communications AssistantZaur Veliyev, Consultant Brunei DarussalamBahrain Ministry of Industry and Primary ResourcesBahrain Competitiveness Council, Bahrain Economic Pehin Dato Yahya Bakar, Minister Development Board Dayang Hajah Suriyah Haji Umar, Permanent Secretary INada Azmi, Manager, Economic Planning and Development Dato Dr Amin Abdullah, Permanent Secretary IIJawad Habib, Senior Partner, BDO Jawad Habib BulgariaRima Al Kilani, Director, International Marketing Center for Economic Development Anelia Damianova, Senior Expert The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  7. 7. Partner Institutes Burkina Faso Croatia lnstitut Supérieure des Sciences de la Population (ISSP), National Competitiveness Council University of Ouagadougou Martina Hatlak, Research Assistant Samuel Kabore, Economist and Head of Development Strategy Kresimir Jurlin, Research Fellow and Population Research Mira Lenardic, General Secretary Burundi Cyprus University Research Centre for Economic and Social Cyprus College Research Center Development (CURDES), National University of Burundi Bambos Papageorgiou, Head of Socioeconomic Richard Ndereyahaga, Head of CURDES and Academic Research Gilbert Niyongabo, Dean, Faculty of Economics The Cyprus Development Bank & Management Maria Markidou-Georgiadou, Manager, International Cambodia Banking Services Unit and Business Development Economic Institute of Cambodia Czech Republic Sok Hach, President CMC Graduate School of Business Poch Kongchheng, Researcher Tomas Janca, Executive Director Cameroon Denmark Comité de Compétitivité (Competitiveness Committee) Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University Lucien Sanzouango, Permanent Secretary Birgitte Gregersen, Associate Professor Canada Gert Villumsen, Associate Professor Institute for Competitiveness and Prosperity Ecuador Tamer Azer, Researcher ESPAE Graduate School of Management, Roger Martin, Chairman and Dean of the Rotman Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral (ESPOL) School of Management, University of Toronto Elizabeth Arteaga, Project Assistant James Milway, Executive Director Virginia Lasio, Acting Director Cape Verde Sara Wong, Professor INOVE RESEARCH—Investigação e Desenvolvimento, Lda Egypt Rosa Brito, Senior Researcher The Egyptian Center for Economic Studies Júlio Delgado, Partner and Senior Researcher Omneia Helmy, Deputy Director of Research and Frantz Tavares, Partner and Chief Executive Officer Lead Economist Chad Magda Kandil, Executive Director and Director of Research Groupe de Recherches Alternatives et de Monitoring Malak Reda, Senior Economistvi du Projet Pétrole-Tchad-Cameroun (GRAMP-TC) Estonia Antoine Doudjidingao, Researcher Estonian Institute of Economic Research Gilbert Maoundonodji, Director Evelin Ahermaa, Head of Economic Research Sector Celine Nénodji Mbaipeur, Programme Officer Marje Josing, Director Chile Estonian Development Fund Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez Kitty Kubo, Head of Foresight Fernando Larrain Aninat, Director of the Master in Management Ott Pärna, Chief Executive Officer and Public Policy, School of Government Camila Chadwick, Project Coordinator Ethiopia Leonidas Montes, Dean, School of Government African Institute of Management, Development and Governance China Tegegne Teka, General Manager Institute of Economic System and Management National Development and Reform Commission Finland Zhou Haichun, Deputy Director and Professor ETLA—The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy Chen Wei, Research Fellow Petri Rouvinen, Research Director Dong Ying, Professor Pasi Sorjonen, Head of the Forecasting Group Pekka Ylä-Anttila, Managing Director China Center for Economic Statistics Research, Tianjin University of Finance and Economics France Lu Dong, Professor HEC School of Management, Paris Jian Wang, Associate Professor Bertrand Moingeon, Professor and Deputy Dean Hongye Xiao, Professor Bernard Ramanantsoa, Professor and Dean Bojuan Zhao, Professor Gambia, The Huazhang Zheng, Associate Professor Gambia Economic and Social Development Research Colombia Institute (GESDRI) National Planning Department Makaireh A. Njie, Director Alvaro Edgar Balcazar, Entrepreneurial Development Director Georgia Carolina Rentería Rodríguez, General Director Business Initiative for Reforms in Georgia Mauricio Torres Velásquez, Advisor Tamara Janashia, Executive Director Colombian Council of Competitiveness Giga Makharadze, Founding Member of the Board of Directors Hernando José Gomez, President Mamuka Tsereteli, Founding Member of the Board of Directors Côte d’Ivoire Germany Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie de Côte d’Ivoire WHU—Otto Beisheim School of Management, Vallendar Jean-Louis Billon, President Ralf Fendel, Professor of Monetary Economics Jean-Louis Giacometti, Technical Advisor to the President Michael Frenkel, Professor, Chair of Macroeconomics Mamadou Sarr, Director General and International Economics The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  8. 8. Partner InstitutesGhana ItalyAssociation of Ghana Industries (AGI) SDA Bocconi School of ManagementPatricia Djorbuah, Projects Officer Secchi Carlo, Full Professor of Economic Policy,Cletus Kosiba, Executive Director Bocconi UniversityNana Owusu-Afari, President Paola Dubini, Associate Professor, Bocconi University Francesco A. Saviozzi, SDA Assistant Professor,Greece Strategic and Entrepreneurial Management DepartmentSEV Hellenic Federation of EnterprisesMichael Mitsopoulos, Coordinator, Jamaica Research and Analysis Mona School of Business (MSB), The University ofThanasis Printsipas, Economist, the West Indies Research and Analysis Patricia Douce, Project Administrator Evan Duggan, Executive Director and ProfessorGuatemala William Lawrence, Director, Professional Services UnitFUNDESAEdgar A. Heinemann, President of the Board of Directors JapanPablo Schneider, Economic Director Hitotsubashi University, Graduate School of InternationalJuan Carlos Zapata, General Manager Corporate Strategy (ICS) in cooperation with Keizai Doyukai Keizai (Japan Association of Corporate Executives)Guyana Yoko Ishikura, ProfessorInstitute of Development Studies, University of Guyana Kiyohiko Ito, Managing Director, Keizai DoyukaiKaren Pratt, Research AssociateClive Thomas, Director Jordan Ministry of Planning & International CooperationHong Kong SAR Jordan National Competitiveness TeamHong Kong General Chamber of Commerce Hiba Abu Taleb, Primary ResearcherDavid O’Rear, Chief Economist Maher Al Mahrouq, Team Leader and Director of PoliciesFederation of Hong Kong Industries and Studies DepartmentAlexandra Poon, Director Kawther Al-Zou’bi, Primary ResearcherThe Chinese General Chamber of Commerce Kazakhstan JSC “National Analytical Centre of the Government andHungary the National Bank of the Republic of Kazakhstan”KOPINT-TÁRKI Economic Research Ltd. Ayana Manasova, ChairpersonÁgnes Nagy, Project Manager Aibek Baisakalov, Project ManagerÉva Palócz, Chief Executive OfficerIceland Kenya vii Institute for Development Studies, University of NairobiInnovation Center Iceland Mohamud Jama, Director and Associate ProfessorKarl Fridriksson, Managing Director of Paul Kamau, Research Fellow Human Resources and Marketing Dorothy McCormick, Associate ProfessorRosa Gisladottir, Marketing ManagerThorsteinn I. Sigfusson, Director Korea, Republic of College of Business School, Korea Advanced Institute ofIndia Science and Technology KAISTConfederation of Indian Industry (CII) Ingoo Han, Senior Associate Dean and ProfessorChandrajit Banerjee, Director General Ravi Kumar, Dean and ProfessorTarun Das, Chief Mentor Youjin Sung, Manager, Exchange ProgrammeVirendra Gupta, Head, International and Trade Fairs KuwaitIndonesia Kuwait National Competitiveness CommitteeCenter for Industry, SME & Business Adel Al-Husainan, Committee Member Competition Studies, University of Trisakti Fahed Al-Rashed, Committee ChairmanTulus Tambunan, Professor and Director Sayer Al-Sayer, Committee MemberIran, Islamic Republic of Kyrgyz RepublicThe Centre for Economic Studies and Surveys (CESS), Economic Policy Institute “Bishkek Consensus” Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries and Mines Lola Abduhametova, Program CoordinatorHammed Roohani, Director Marat Tazabekov, ChairmanIreland LatviaCompetitiveness Survey Group, Department of Economics, Institute of Economics, Latvian Academy of Sciences University College Cork Helma Jirgena, DirectorEleanor Doyle, Professor, Department of Economics Irina Curkina, ResearcherNiall O’SullivanBernadette Power LebanonNational Competitiveness Council Bader Young Entrepreneurs ProgramAdrian Devitt, Manager Antoine Abou-Samra, Managing DirectorCaoimhe Gavin, Policy Advisor Hiba Zunji, AssistantIsrael LesothoManufacturers’ Association of Israel (MAI) Mohloli Chamber of BusinessShraga Brosh, President LibyaDan Catarivas, Director National Economic Development BoardYehuda Segev, Managing Director Entisar Elbahi, Director, Relations and Supported Services Lithuania Statistics Lithuania Ona Grigiene, Head, Economical Survey Division Algirdas Šemeta, Director General The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  9. 9. Partner Institutes Luxembourg Moldova Chamber of Commerce of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova (AESM) François-Xavier Borsi, Attaché, Economic Department Grigore Belostecinic, Rector Carlo Thelen, Chief Economist, Member of the Managing Board Centre for Economic Research (CER) Marc Wagener, Attaché, Economic Department Corneliu Gutu, Director Macedonia, FYR Mongolia National Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Council (NECC) Open Society Forum (OSF) Dejan Janevski, Project Coordinator Munkhsoyol Baatarjav, Manager of Economic Policy Zoran Stavreski, President of the Managing Board Erdenejargal Perenlei, Executive Director Saso Trajkoski, Executive Director Montenegro Madagascar Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses (ISSP) Centre of Economic Studies, University of Antananarivo Maja Drakic, Project Manager Ravelomanana Mamy Raoul, Director Petar Ivanovic, Chief Executive Officer Razato Rarijaona Simon, Executive Secretary Veselin Vukotic, President Malawi Morocco Malawi Confederation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry Université Hassan II, LASAARE Chancellor L. Kaferapanjira, Chief Executive Officer Fouzi Mourji, Professor of Economics Malaysia Mozambique Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) EconPolicy Research Group, Lda. Mahani Zainal Abidin, Chief Executive Peter Coughlin, Director Steven C.M. Wong, Senior Director, Economics Donaldo Miguel Soares, Researcher Malaysia Productivity Corporation (MPC) Ema Marta Soares, Assistant Mohd Razali Hussain, Director General Namibia Lee Saw Hoon, Senior Director Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit (NEPRU) Mali Jacob Nyambe, Senior Researcher Groupe de Recherche en Economie Appliquée et Fanuel Tjingaete, Director Théorique (GREAT) Nepal Massa Coulibaly, Coordinator Centre for Economic Development and Malta Administration (CEDA) Competitive Malta—Foundation for National Competitiveness Ramesh Chandra Chitrakar, Professor andviii Margrith Lutschg-Emmenegger, Vice President Country Coordinator Adrian Said, Chief Coordinator Bharat Pokharel, Project Director and Executive Director Caroline Sciortino, Research Coordinator Mahendra Raj Joshi, Member Mauritania Netherlands Centre d’Information Mauritanien pour le Développement Erasmus Strategic Renewal Center, Economique et Technique (CIMDET/CCIAM) Erasmus University Rotterdam Khira Mint Cheikhnani, Director Frans A. J. Van den Bosch, Professor Lô Abdoul, Consultant and Analyst Henk W. Volberda, Professor Habib Sy, Analyst New Zealand Mauritius Business New Zealand Joint Economic Council of Mauritius Phil O’Reilly, Chief Executive Raj Makoond, Director The New Zealand Institute Board of Investment Lisa Bailey, Executive Assistant Kevin Bessondyal, Assistant Director, Planning and Policy Rick Boven, Director Dev Chamroo, Director, Planning and Policy Nigeria Veekram Gowd, Senior Investment Advisor, Planning Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG) and Policy Frank Nweke Jr., Director General Raju Jaddoo, Managing Director Sam Ohuabunwa, Chairman Mexico Chris Okpoko, Research Director, Research Center for Intellectual Capital and Competitiveness Norway Erika Ruiz Manzur, Executive Director BI Norwegian School of Management René Villarreal Arrambide, President and Eskil Goldeng, Researcher Chief Executive Officer Torger Reve, Professor Jesús Zurita González, General Director Instituto Mexicano para la Competitividad (IMCO) Oman Gabriela Alarcón Esteva, Economist The International Research Foundation Luis César Castañeda Valdés, Researcher Salem Ben Nasser Al-Ismaily, Chairman Manuel J. Molano Ruíz, Deputy General Director Arabian Research Bureau Roberto Newell García, General Director Gus Freeman, Managing Director Ministry of the Economy Mahir Al-Maskari, General Manager Paulo Esteban Alcaraz, Research Director, ProMéxico Pakistan Trade & Investment Competitiveness Support Fund Felipe Duarte Olvera, Undersecretary for Competitiveness Arthur Bayhan, Chief Executive Officer and Standardization Imran Naeem Ahmad, Communication Specialist Javier Prieto, Technical Secretary for Competitiveness Maryam Jawaid, Communication Specialist Jose Antonio Torre, Head of the Business Intelligence Unit, ProMéxico Trade & Investment The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  10. 10. Partner InstitutesParaguay SingaporeCentro de Análisis y Difusión de Economia Paraguaya (CADEP) Economic Development BoardDionisio Borda, Research Member Lim Hong Khiang, Director Planning 2Fernando Masi, Director Chua Kia Chee, Head, Research and Statistics UnitMaría Belén Servín, Research Member Cheng Wai San, Head, PlanningPeru Slovak RepublicCentro de Desarrollo Industrial (CDI), Sociedad Nacional Business Alliance of Slovakia (PAS)de Industrias Robert Kicina, Executive DirectorNéstor Asto, Project Director Peter Klatik, ResearcherLuis Tenorio, Executive Director Matej Tunega, ResearcherPhilippines SloveniaMakati Business Club (MBC) in association with Institute for Economic Research Management Association of the Philippines (MAP) Mateja Drnovšek, Professor, Faculty of EconomicsAlberto A. Lim, Executive Director, MBC Peter Stanovnik, ProfessorArnold P. Salvador, Executive Director, MAP Sonja Urši , Senior ResearcherMarc P. Opulencia, Deputy Director, MBC Ales Vahc ˘, Professor, Faculty of Economics ˘ ˘icMichael B. Mundo, Chief Economist, MBC South AfricaPoland Business Leadership South AfricaEconomic Institute, National Bank of Poland Friede Dowie, DirectorMateusz Pipien, General Director Michael Spicer, Chief Executive OfficerPiotr Boguszewski, Advisor Business Unity South AfricaPortugal Simi Siwisa, DirectorPROFORUM, Associação para o Desenvolvimento Jerry Vilakazi, Chief Executive Officer da Engenharia SpainIlídio António de Ayala Serôdio, Vice President of IESE Business School, International Center for Competitiveness the Board of Directors Antoni Subirà, ProfessorFórum de Administradores de Empresas (FAE) María Luisa Blázquez, Research AssociatePaulo Bandeira, General Director Sri LankaPedro do Carmo Costa, Member of the Board of Directors Institute of Policy StudiesEsmeralda Dourado, President of the Board of Directors Ayodya Galappattige, Research OfficerPuerto Rico Saman Kelegama, Executive DirectorPuerto Rico 2000, Inc. Manoj Thibbotuwawa, Research Officer ixSuzette M. Jimenez, President SwazilandFrancisco Montalvo Fiol, Project Coordinator Federation of Swaziland Employers and Chamber of CommerceQatar Zodwa Mabuza, Chief Executive OfficerQatari Businessmen Association (QBA) Sihle Fakude,Research AnalystIssa Abdul Salam Abu Issa, Secretary-General SwedenSarah Abdallah, Deputy General Manager Center for Strategy and Competitiveness,Romania Stockholm School of EconomicsGroup of Applied Economics (GEA) Christian Ketels, Senior Research FellowLiviu Voinea, Executive Director Örjan Sölvell, ProfessorIrina Zgreaban, Program Coordinator SwitzerlandRussian Federation University of St. Gallen, Executive School of Management,Bauman Innovation Technology and Law (ES-HSG)Alexei Prazdnitchnykh, Principal, Associate Professor Beat Bechtold, Communications ManagerKaterina Marandi, Consultant Alexander Jungmeister, Vice Executive Director Rubén Rodriguez Startz, Project ManagerStockholm School of Economics, RussiaIgor Dukeov, Area Principal SyriaCarl F. Fey, Associate Dean of Research Ministry of Economy and Trade Amer Housni Louitfi, Minister of Economy and TradeRwandaPrivate Sector Federation State Planning CommissionMolly Rwigamba, Acting Chief Executive Officer Tayseer Al-Ridawi, Head of State Planning CommissionEmmanuel Rutagengwa, Policy Analyst Syrian Enterprise Business Center (SEBC)Saudi Arabia Tamer Abadi, DirectorNational Competitiveness Center (NCC) Taiwan, ChinaAwwad Al-Awwad, President Council for Economic Planning and Development, Executive YuanKhaldon Mahasen, Vice President Liu, Y. Christina, MinisterSenegal Hung, J. B., Director, Economic Research DepartmentCentre de Recherches Economiques Appliquées (CREA), Shieh, Chung Chung, Researcher, Economic Research DepartmentUniversity of Dakar TajikistanDiop Ibrahima Thione, Director The Center for Sociological Research “Zerkalo”Serbia Qahramon Baqoev, DirectorCenter for Applied European Studies (CPES) Gulnora Beknazarova, ResearcherSrdjan Djurovic, Director Alikul Isoev, Sociologist and EconomistDusko Vasiljevic, Senior Researcher The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  11. 11. Partner Institutes Tanzania Vietnam Research on Poverty Alleviation (REPOA) Central Institute for Economic Management (CIEM) Joseph Semboja, Professor and Executive Director Dinh Van An, President Lucas Katera, Director, Commissioned Research Phan Thanh Ha, Deputy Director, Department of Cornel Jahari, Researcher, Commissioned Research Department Macroeconomic Management Pham Hoang Ha, Senior Researcher, Department of Thailand Macroeconomic Management Sasin Graduate Institute of Business Administration, Chulalongkorn University Institute for Development Studies in HCMC (HIDS) Pongsak Hoontrakul, Senior Research Fellow Nguyen Trong Hoa, Professor and President Toemsakdi Krishnamra, Director of Sasin Du Phuoc Tan, Head of Department Piyachart Phiromswad, Faculty of Economics Trieu Thanh Son, Researcher Thailand Development Research Institute (TDRI) Zambia Somchai Jitsuchon, Research Director Institute of Economic and Social Research (INESOR), Chalongphob Sussangkarn, Distinguished Fellow University of Zambia Yos Vajragupta, Senior Researcher Mutumba M. Bull, Director Patricia Funjika, Staff Development Fellow Timor-Leste Jolly Kamwanga, Coordinator East Timor Development Agency (ETDA) Jose Barreto Goncalves, Survey Supervisor Zimbabwe Palmira Pires, Director Graduate School of Management, University of Zimbabwe David Wilkes, Survey Field Officer A. M. Hawkins, Professor Trinidad and Tobago Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama Miguel Carillo, Executive Director INCAE Business School, Latin American Center for Harrylal Nirmala, Director, International Centre Competitiveness and Sustainable Development (CLACDS) Arturo Condo, Rector The Competitiveness Company Marlene de Estrella, Director of External Relations Rolph Balgobin, Chairman Lawrence Pratt, Director, CLACDS Tunisia Víctor Umaña, Researcher and Project Manager, CLACDS Institut Arabe des Chefs d’Entreprises Latvia, Lithuania Majdi Hassen, Executive Counsellor Stockholm School of Economics in Riga Chekib Nouira, President Karlis Kreslins, Executive MBA Programme Director x Turkey Anders Paalzow, Rector TUSIAD Sabanci University Competitiveness Forum Dilek Cetindamar, Director and Professor Funda Kalemci, Project Specialist Uganda Kabano Research and Development Centre Robert Apunyo, Program Manager Delius Asiimwe, Executive Director Catherine Ssekimpi, Research Associate Ukraine CASE Ukraine, Center for Social and Economic Research Dmytro Boyarchuk, Executive Director Vladimir Dubrovskiy, Leading Economist United Arab Emirates Dubai Economic Council Gayane Afrikian, Director, Dubai Competitiveness Centre Khawla Belqazi, Special Projects Manager Emirates Competitiveness Council Abdullah Nasser Lootah,Secretary General Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER), Zayed University Nico Vellinga, Professor United Kingdom LSE Enterprise Ltd, London School of Economics and Political Science Niccolo Durazzi, Project Administrator Robyn Klingler Vidra, Researcher Jane Lac, Project Manager Uruguay Universidad ORT Isidoro Hodara, Professor Venezuela CONAPRI—Venezuelan Council for Investment Promotion Eduardo Porcarelli, Executive Director Litsay Guerrero, Manager, Economic Affairs The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  12. 12. PrefacePrefaceROBERT GREENHILLChief Business Officer, World Economic ForumAfter two years during which the Travel & Tourism results can be used by all stakeholders to work together(T&T) sector faced a myriad of obstacles, it is now to improve the industry’s competitiveness in theiremerging from the most difficult period in its recent national economies, thereby contributing to nationalhistory. The industry has faced not only the global growth and prosperity. It also allows countries to trackeconomic crisis and volatile oil prices, but also climatic their progress over time in the various areas measured.disturbances, multiple security incidents, pandemics, and The full Report is downloadable fromstrikes among industry personnel. Following all these and contains detailed profilesshocks, the sector is now witnessing a gradual recovery, for each of the 139 economies featured in the study, aswith emerging markets leading the way. Indeed, after a well as an extensive section of data tables with globalsignificant contraction in 2009, international tourist rankings covering over 70 indicators included in thearrivals picked up again in 2010 and have returned to TTCI. In addition, it includes insightful contributionstheir pre-crisis peak level. The World Travel & Tourism from a number of industry experts. These chaptersCouncil (WTTC) estimates that, from direct and indirect explore issues such as the impact of the recent economicactivities combined, the T&T sector now accounts for a and financial crisis on the tourism industry, the oppor-remarkable 9.2 percent of global GDP, 4.8 percent of tunities for increasing the sectors competitiveness, andworld exports, and 9.2 percent of world investment. the important role to be played by Travel & Tourism in The T&T sector thus clearly remains a critical one the emerging green economy. xifor the world economy, accounting for a significant share The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011of global employment and also providing an important could not have been put together without the distin-opportunity for developing countries to move up the guished thinkers who have shared with us their knowledgevalue chain toward the production of higher-value- and experience. We are grateful to our Strategic Designadded services. In this context, an analysis of the T&T Partner Booz & Company, and our Data Partnerscompetitiveness of individual economies around the Deloitte, the International Air Transport Associationworld remains pertinent. This is the objective of this (IATA), the International Union for Conservation offourth edition of The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Nature (IUCN), the World Tourism OrganizationReport (TTCR). (UNWTO), and the World Travel & Tourism Council The World Economic Forum has for the past five (WTTC) for helping us to design and develop theyears engaged key industry and thought leaders through TTCI and for providing much of the industry-relevantits Aviation, Travel & Tourism Industry Partnership data used in its calculation. We thank our IndustryProgramme to carry out an in-depth analysis of the Partners in this Report—Airbus, Bombardier, Etihad T&T competitiveness of economies around the world. Airways, Gulf Air, Hertz, Jet Airways, Jumeirah, Rolls- The aim is to provide a platform for multi-stakeholder Royce, Silversea, SWISS, and Visa—for their support in dialogue to ensure the development of strong and sus- this important venture. tainable national T&T industries capable of contributing We also wish to thank the editors of the Report, effectively to international economic development. The Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, for their energy theme of this edition of the TTCR, “Beyond the and their commitment to the project. Appreciation Downturn,” reflects the cautiously optimistic outlook goes to the members of the competitiveness team: and many complexities still facing the industry that must Ciara Browne, Roberto Crotti, Margareta Drzeniek be overcome to ensure strong sectoral growth going Hanouz, Thierry Geiger, Satu Kauhanen, Irene Mia, into the future. and Pearl Samandari. Finally, we would like to convey At the core of this year’s Report is the fourth our sincere gratitude to our network of 150 Partner edition of the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Institutes worldwide, without whose hard work the (TTCI). The aim of the TTCI, which covers a record annual administration of the Executive Opinion Survey 139 economies this year, is to provide a comprehensive and this Report would not be possible. strategic tool for measuring “the factors and policies that make it attractive to develop the T&T sector in different countries.” By providing detailed assessments of the T&T environments in countries worldwide, the The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  13. 13. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  14. 14. Executive SummaryExecutive Summary The Travel & Tourism (T&T) industry is slowly recover- ing from the economic downturn, with the strong recovery in emerging economies compensating some-JENNIFER BLANKE what for the still weaker mature markets in Europe andTHEA CHIESA North America. In this context, this fourth edition ofWorld Economic Forum The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report is being released at a time when the industry is looking for ways to develop new market segments and attract new customers. Indeed, Travel & Tourism remains a critical eco- nomic sector worldwide, with the potential to provide economic growth and development internationally. A growing national T&T sector contributes to employment, raises national income, and can improve the balance of payments. Thus the sector is an important driver of growth and prosperity, and, particularly within develop- ing countries, it can also play a key role in poverty reduction. Although developing the T&T sector provides many benefits, numerous obstacles at the national level continue to hinder its development. In this context, five years ago the World Economic Forum, together with its Industry and Data Partners, embarked on a multi-year research effort aimed at exploring various issues related to the T&T competitiveness of countries around the world. This year’s Report is published under the theme “Beyond the Downturn,” which reflects the forward- xiii looking attitude of the sector as it aims to ensure strong growth going into the future. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Although developing the T&T sector provides many benefits, numerous obstacles at the national level continue to hinder its development. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) aims to measure the many different regulatory and business- related issues that have been identified as levers for improving T&T competitiveness in countries around the world. Through detailed analysis of each pillar and subpillar of the Index, businesses and governments can address their particular challenges to the sector’s growth. The TTCI has been developed within the context of the World Economic Forum’s Industry Partnership Programme for the Aviation, Travel & Tourism sector. The Index was developed in close collaboration with our Strategic Design Partner Booz & Company and Data Partners Deloitte, the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), and the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC). We have also received important feedback from a number of key companies that are Industry Partners in the effort, namely Airbus, Bombardier, Etihad Airways, Gulf Air, Hertz, Jet Airways, Jumeirah, Rolls-Royce, Silversea, SWISS, and Visa. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  15. 15. Executive Summary The TTCI aims to measure the factors and policies The table shows that Switzerland remains the top-ranked that make it attractive to develop the T&T sector in different country, a place it has held since the first edition of the countries. It is based on three broad categories of vari- Report. ables that facilitate or drive T&T competitiveness. These Tables 2–6 show the rankings in a regional context, categories are summarized into the three subindexes of grouping countries into the following five regional the Index: (1) the T&T regulatory framework subindex; groups: Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific (including (2) the T&T business environment and infrastructure Central Asia), the Middle East and North Africa, and subindex; and (3) the T&T human, cultural, and natural sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss here a selection of countries resources subindex. The first subindex captures those from each region to provide a sense of the results and elements that are policy related and generally under how they are interpreted at the national level. More the purview of the government; the second subindex countries are discussed in detail in Chapter 1.1. captures elements of the business environment and the “hard” infrastructure of each economy; and the third Europe subindex captures the “softer” human, cultural, and nat- Table 1 shows that many countries from Europe do very ural elements of each country’s resource endowments. well in the rankings, with all of the top 5 places taken Each of these three subindexes is composed in turn by European countries and 14 of the top 20 countries by a number of pillars of T&T competitiveness, of which hailing from the region. Table 2 shows the rankings just there are 14 in all. These are: for European countries, with the first column showing the rank within the region and the second column 1. Policy rules and regulations showing the overall rank out of all 139 economies 2. Environmental sustainability included in the Index this year. As the table shows, 3. Safety and security Switzerland is ranked 1st. Germany, France, Austria, 4. Health and hygiene Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Spain follow as the 5. Prioritization of Travel & Tourism other countries among the top 10 overall. 6. Air transport infrastructure Switzerland is a country rich in cultural and natural 7. Ground transport infrastructure resources, including an impressive number of Worldxiv 8. Tourism infrastructure Heritage cultural and natural sites for a country of its 9. ICT infrastructure size. A large percentage of the country’s land area is pro- 10. Price competitiveness in the T&T industry tected and the natural environment is assessed as being 11. Human resources among the most pristine in the world (ranked 5th). This 12. Affinity for Travel & Tourism natural heritage is buttressed by a strong national focus 13. Natural resources on environmental sustainability: Switzerland is ranked 14. Cultural resources 2nd overall on this pillar, based on strong and well- enforced environmental legislation and with a particular Each of the pillars is, in turn, made up of a number focus on developing the T&T sector sustainably. of individual variables. The dataset includes both Survey Switzerland is not only an attractive leisure tourism data from the World Economic Forum’s annual destination but is also an important business travel hub, Executive Opinion Survey, and quantitative data from with many international fairs and exhibitions held in publicly available sources, international organizations, the country each year. Staffing of the industry is facili- and T&T institutions and experts (for example, IATA, tated by the availability of qualified labor to work in IUCN, the UNWTO, WTTC, UNCTAD, and Travel & Tourism (ranked 2nd), perhaps not surprising UNESCO). The Survey is carried out among CEOs in a country with many of the best hotel management and top business leaders in all economies covered by our schools. Added to these strengths is Switzerland’s excel- research; these are the people making the investment lent ground transport infrastructure (ranked 5th), with decisions in their respective economies. The Survey top-quality roads and railroads and an excellent domes- provides unique data on many qualitative institutional tic transport network. Also well assessed is the specific and business environment issues, as well as specific issues tourism infrastructure (ranked 8th), with readily available related to the T&T industry and the quality of the hotel rooms and automated teller machines (ATMs) for natural environment. The exact methodology underlying cash withdrawals. Such high-quality infrastructure makes the construction of the TTCI is described in Chapter 1.1. a tourist’s stay in the country easy and comfortable, an experience that is reinforced by the high level of general safety and security (ranked 2nd, just behind Finland). The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index Germany is ranked 2nd out of all countries in rankings 2011 the TTCI, having moved up one place since the last Table 1 shows the overall rankings for the 139 countries assessment and overtaking Austria. The country is char- included in this year’s TTCI, comparing this year’s acterized by abundant cultural resources, ranked 6th rankings with those from the 2009 edition of the Report. worldwide for its 32 World Heritage cultural sites, 2nd The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  16. 16. Executive SummaryTable 1: Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011 and 2009 comparison 2011 2009 2011 2009Country/Economy Rank/139 Score Rank/133 Country/Economy Rank/139 Score Rank/133Switzerland 1 5.68 1 Lebanon 70 4.03 n/aGermany 2 5.50 3 Albania 71 4.01 90France 3 5.41 4 Dominican Republic 72 3.99 67Austria 4 5.41 2 Georgia 73 3.98 73Sweden 5 5.34 7 Indonesia 74 3.96 81United States 6 5.30 8 Egypt 75 3.96 64United Kingdom 7 5.30 11 Macedonia, FYR 76 3.96 80Spain 8 5.29 6 Colombia 77 3.94 72Canada 9 5.29 5 Morocco 78 3.93 75Singapore 10 5.23 10 Trinidad and Tobago 79 3.91 84Iceland 11 5.19 16 Vietnam 80 3.90 89Hong Kong SAR 12 5.19 12 Sri Lanka 81 3.87 78Australia 13 5.15 9 Serbia 82 3.85 88Netherlands 14 5.13 13 Azerbaijan 83 3.85 76Luxembourg 15 5.08 23 Namibia 84 3.84 82Denmark 16 5.05 14 Ukraine 85 3.83 77Finland 17 5.02 15 Guatemala 86 3.82 70Portugal 18 5.01 17 Ecuador 87 3.79 96New Zealand 19 5.00 20 Honduras 88 3.79 83Norway 20 4.98 19 Cape Verde 89 3.77 n/aIreland 21 4.98 18 Armenia 90 3.77 91Japan 22 4.94 25 Botswana 91 3.74 79Belgium 23 4.92 22 Gambia, The 92 3.70 87Cyprus 24 4.89 21 Kazakhstan 93 3.70 92Estonia 25 4.88 27 Philippines 94 3.69 86Malta 26 4.88 29 Kuwait 95 3.68 95Italy 27 4.87 28 El Salvador 96 3.68 94Barbados 28 4.84 30 Bosnia and Herzegovina 97 3.63 107Greece 29 4.78 24 Guyana 98 3.62 102United Arab Emirates 30 4.78 33 Moldova 99 3.60 93 xvCzech Republic 31 4.77 26 Nicaragua 100 3.56 103Korea, Rep. 32 4.71 31 Mongolia 101 3.56 105Slovenia 33 4.64 35 Rwanda 102 3.54 n/aCroatia 34 4.61 34 Kenya 103 3.51 97Malaysia 35 4.59 32 Senegal 104 3.49 101Montenegro 36 4.56 52 Syria 105 3.49 85Taiwan, China 37 4.56 43 Venezuela 106 3.46 104Hungary 38 4.54 38 Kyrgyz Republic 107 3.45 106China 39 4.47 47 Ghana 108 3.44 110Bahrain 40 4.47 41 Cambodia 109 3.44 108Thailand 41 4.47 39 Tanzania 110 3.42 98Qatar 42 4.45 37 Zambia 111 3.40 100Mexico 43 4.43 51 Nepal 112 3.37 118Costa Rica 44 4.43 42 Algeria 113 3.37 115Puerto Rico 45 4.42 53 Iran, Islamic Rep. 114 3.37 n/aIsrael 46 4.41 36 Uganda 115 3.36 111Tunisia 47 4.39 44 Swaziland 116 3.35 n/aBulgaria 48 4.39 50 Bolivia 117 3.35 114Poland 49 4.38 58 Tajikistan 118 3.34 109Turkey 50 4.37 56 Zimbabwe 119 3.31 121Latvia 51 4.36 48 Benin 120 3.30 120Brazil 52 4.36 45 Malawi 121 3.30 117Mauritius 53 4.35 40 Ethiopia 122 3.26 123Slovak Republic 54 4.35 46 Paraguay 123 3.26 122Lithuania 55 4.34 49 Libya 124 3.25 112Panama 56 4.30 55 Pakistan 125 3.24 113Chile 57 4.27 57 Cameroon 126 3.18 125Uruguay 58 4.24 63 Madagascar 127 3.18 116Russian Federation 59 4.23 59 Mozambique 128 3.18 124Argentina 60 4.20 65 Bangladesh 129 3.11 129Oman 61 4.18 68 Nigeria 130 3.09 128Saudi Arabia 62 4.17 71 Côte d’Ivoire 131 3.08 130Romania 63 4.17 66 Burkina Faso 132 3.06 126Jordan 64 4.14 54 Mali 133 3.05 119Jamaica 65 4.12 60 Timor-Leste 134 2.99 n/aSouth Africa 66 4.11 61 Lesotho 135 2.95 132Brunei Darussalam 67 4.07 69 Mauritania 136 2.85 127India 68 4.07 62 Burundi 137 2.81 131Peru 69 4.04 74 Angola 138 2.80 n/a (Cont’d.) Chad 139 2.56 133 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum
  17. 17. Executive Summary Table 2: The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2011: Europe SUBINDEXES T&T business environment T&T human, cultural, OVERALL INDEX T&T regulatory framework and infrastructure and natural resources Country/Economy Regional rank Overall rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank Score Switzerland 1 1 5.68 1 5.99 1 5.58 2 5.48 Germany 2 2 5.50 12 5.67 2 5.57 5 5.26 France 3 3 5.41 7 5.71 8 5.35 9 5.18 Austria 4 4 5.41 3 5.89 12 5.19 10 5.13 Sweden 5 5 5.34 11 5.67 15 5.15 8 5.21 United Kingdom 6 7 5.30 21 5.35 11 5.27 3 5.28 Spain 7 8 5.29 22 5.34 10 5.32 6 5.22 Iceland 8 11 5.19 2 5.90 6 5.36 41 4.31 Netherlands 9 14 5.13 16 5.50 18 5.10 16 4.78 Luxembourg 10 15 5.08 14 5.51 7 5.35 38 4.37 Denmark 11 16 5.05 15 5.51 16 5.11 26 4.53 Finland 12 17 5.02 5 5.74 30 4.75 25 4.55 Portugal 13 18 5.01 19 5.47 24 4.84 17 4.73 Norway 14 20 4.98 8 5.71 26 4.79 32 4.45 Ireland 15 21 4.98 10 5.68 23 4.88 37 4.37 Belgium 16 23 4.92 18 5.48 35 4.66 20 4.64 Cyprus 17 24 4.89 23 5.33 14 5.15 44 4.19 Estonia 18 25 4.88 17 5.50 19 5.09 50 4.06 Malta 19 26 4.88 9 5.69 22 4.93 54 4.02 Italy 20 27 4.87 45 5.00 27 4.79 15 4.83 Greece 21 29 4.78 34 5.11 29 4.75 29 4.48 Czech Republic 22 31 4.77 26 5.26 37 4.56 31 4.48 Slovenia 23 33 4.64 29 5.19 33 4.70 53 4.03 Croatia 24 34 4.61 42 5.02 36 4.58 43 4.23 Montenegro 25 36 4.56 32 5.15 49 4.15 36 4.38xvi Hungary 26 38 4.54 24 5.29 45 4.28 48 4.06 Bulgaria 27 48 4.39 54 4.79 44 4.32 51 4.05 Poland 28 49 4.38 49 4.86 65 3.81 30 4.48 Turkey 29 50 4.37 66 4.58 55 4.02 28 4.50 Latvia 30 51 4.36 38 5.07 39 4.36 83 3.66 Slovak Republic 31 54 4.35 39 5.05 57 3.96 52 4.04 Lithuania 32 55 4.34 33 5.14 46 4.21 85 3.66 Russian Federation 33 59 4.23 73 4.49 53 4.07 45 4.15 Romania 34 63 4.17 51 4.85 66 3.80 66 3.84 Albania 35 71 4.01 53 4.79 91 3.30 61 3.93 Georgia 36 73 3.98 35 5.11 94 3.21 92 3.62 Macedonia, FYR 37 76 3.96 56 4.78 78 3.49 93 3.62 Serbia 38 82 3.85 67 4.57 84 3.39 94 3.60 Ukraine 39 85 3.83 64 4.63 76 3.53 118 3.33 Armenia 40 90 3.77 58 4.75 100 3.09 107 3.47 Bosnia and Herzegovina 41 97 3.63 92 4.24 97 3.14 103 3.49 Moldova 42 99 3.60 68 4.57 98 3.11 129 3.12 for the number of international fairs and exhibitions tourists with its rich cultural heritage (ranked 4th for held in the country, and 3rd for its creative industries. the number of World Heritage cultural sites and 7th The country’s infrastructure is among the best in the for creative industries). The country also hosts many world, ranked 3rd for the quality of its ground transport international fairs and exhibitions (ranked 5th), thereby infrastructure and 7th for its air transport infrastructure. attracting business travelers as well. France’s ground In addition, Germany makes great efforts to develop the transport infrastructure is among the best in the world T&T industry in a sustainable way, with the world’s (ranked 4th), with the quality of roads and railroads most stringent and best-enforced environmental regula- particularly well assessed, as well as its air transport infra- tions and strong support of international environmental structure (ranked 6th). Ensuring that the sector is devel- efforts, as demonstrated through its ratification of many oped in a sustainable way is also a significant priority for international environmental treaties. the government, with France ranked 9th on this pillar. France moves up this year by one place to 3rd Austria drops by two positions this year, although position, also overtaking Austria. France attracts the country is still ranked a high 4th out of all 139 The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2011 © 2011 World Economic Forum