Imperialism in China Smithtown High School West A shocked mandarin in Manchu robe in the back, with Queen Victoria (UK), Wilhelm II (Germany), Nicholas II (Russia), Marianne (France), and a samurai (Japan) stabbing into a plate with Chine ("China" in French) written on it.
DO NOW: “Our dynasty's majestic virtue has penetrated unto every country under Heaven, and Kings of all nations have offered their costly tribute by land and sea. As your Ambassador can see for himself, we possess all things. I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country's manufactures.” - 1793, Qianlong to King George III
According to this quote, what was the reaction of the Chinese to possible
increased trade with Britain?
What was the attitude of the Chinese towards foreigners in the early
2. What does Lord McCartney refuse to do in China?
3. In your own words, summarize what Qianlong’s scroll stated.
I. In the early 1800s, China had little interest in trading with Western nations. A. Led by the Qing, or Manchu Dynasty B. China was _________________________________________________ a. ___________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________ C. Ethnocentric - ______________________________________________ self-sufficient healthy agricultural economy extensive mining and manufacturing industries produced silks, cottons, and fine porcelain the belief that one's own group/culture is superior
II. The only place China allowed foreigners to do business was the port of Guangzhou A. British imported millions of pounds of _______ each year from China B. Britain exported goods worth much less C. British smuggled ___________ into China for non-medical use D. Qing Emperor sent a letter to Queen Victoria about the ________ problem. tea opium opium TASK: Imagine you are the emperor of China. Write a letter to Queen Victoria of England. In your letter, explain the opium problem and also include what you would like her to do about the issue.
Letter of Advice to Queen Victoria ... Even though the barbarians may not necessarily intend to do us harm, yet in coveting profit to an extreme, they have no regard for injuring others… I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country ; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries -- how much less to China! … We have heard heretofore that your honorable ruler is kind and benevolent. Naturally you would not wish to give unto others what you yourself do not want. …Now after this communication has been dispatched and you have clearly understood the strictness of the prohibitory laws of the Celestial Court, certainly you will not let your subjects dare again to violate the law. … He who sells opium shall receive the death penalty and he who smokes it also get the death penalty. Now consider this: if the barbarians do not bring opium, then how can the Chinese people resell it, and how can they smoke it? …Therefore in the new regulations, in regard to those barbarians who bring opium to China, the penalty is fixed at decapitation or strangulation . This is what is called getting rid a harmful thing on behalf of mankind. After receiving this dispatch will you immediately give us a prompt reply regarding the details and circumstances of your cutting off the opium traffic. Be sure not to put this off . The above is what has to be communicated.
Letter of Advice to Queen Victoria … We find your country is sixty or seventy thousand li [three li make one mile, ordinarily] from China Yet there are barbarian ships that strive to come here for trade for the purpose of making a great profit. The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians. That is to say, the great profit made by barbarians is all taken from the rightful share of China. By what right do they then in return use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people? Even though the barbarians may not necessarily intend to do us harm, yet in coveting profit to an extreme, they have no regard for injuring others. Let us ask, where is your conscience? I have heard that the smoking of opium is very strictly forbidden by your country; that is because the harm caused by opium is clearly understood. Since it is not permitted to do harm to your own country, then even less should you let it be passed on to the harm of other countries -- how much less to China! Of all that China exports to foreign countries, there is not a single thing which is not beneficial to people: they are of benefit when eaten, or of benefit when used, or of benefit when resold: all are beneficial…If China cuts off these benefits with no sympathy for those who are to suffer, then what can the barbarians rely upon to keep themselves alive?...On the other hand, articles coming from the outside to China can only be used as toys. We can take them or get along without them. Since they are not needed by China, what difficulty would there be if we closed our the frontier and stopped the trade?... Suppose there were people from another country who carried opium for sale to England and seduced your people into buying and smoking it; certainly your honorable ruler would deeply hate it and be bitterly aroused. We have heard heretofore that your honorable ruler is kind and benevolent. Naturally you would not wish to give unto others what you yourself do not want. We have also heard that the ships coming to Canton have all had regulations promulgated and given to them in which it is stated that it is not permitted to carry contraband goods. This indicates that the administrative orders of your honorable rule have been originally strict and clear. Only because the trading ships are numerous, heretofore perhaps they have not been examined with care. Now after this communication has been dispatched and you have clearly understood the strictness of the prohibitory laws of the Celestial Court, certainly you will not let your subjects dare again to violate the law. As for the barbarian merchants who come to China, their food and drink and habitation, all received by the gracious favor of our Celestial Court. Their accumulated wealth is all benefit given with pleasure by our Celestial Court… Suppose a man of another country comes to England to trade, he still has to obey the English laws; how much more should he obey in China the laws of the Celestial Dynasty? Now we have set up regulations governing the Chinese people. He who sells opium shall receive the death penalty and he who smokes it also the death penalty. Now consider this: if the barbarians do not bring opium, then how can the Chinese people resell it, and how can they smoke it? The fact is that the wicked barbarians beguile the Chinese people into a death trap. How then can we grant life only to these barbarians? He who takes the life of even one person still has to atone for it with his own life; yet is the harm done by opium limited to the taking of one life only? Therefore in the new regulations, in regard to those barbarians who bring opium to China, the penalty is fixed at decapitation or strangulation. This is what is called getting rid a harmful thing on behalf of mankind. After receiving this dispatch will you immediately give us a prompt reply regarding the details and circumstances of your cutting off the opium traffic. Be sure not to put this off. The above is what has to be communicated.
Britain’s Response to the Letter E. Britain _______________ did not respond Predict: What do you think will happen next?
DO NOW: 1. Identify which ship(s) belong to the British, and which belong to the Chinese. 2. Which ships do you think would be victorious in battle? Why? A. B.
III. Opium War (1839) A. Battle took place mostly at sea B. China’s outdated ships versus Britain’s steam-powered strong navy C. China loses and signs _______________ in 1842 D. ________________: 1. _______________________________________________ 2. ________________ given to U.S. and other foreign citizens in 1844 (meaning foreign residents are excused from the laws of a country) 3. Opium trade continued Treaty of Nanjing Ceded the island of Hong Kong to the British Treaty of Nanjing Extraterritorial rights
Questions: 1. What was handed over to Western control? 2. The clip states that the “emperors were powerless to stop” the opium trade. Why?
The Treaty of Nanjing, August 1842 Article I There shall henceforth be Peace and Friendship between ...(England and China) and between their respective Subjects, who shall enjoy full security and protection for their persons and property within the Dominions of the other. Article II His Majesty the Emperor of China agrees that British Subjects,…, shall be allowed to reside, for the purpose of carrying on their commercial pursuits, without molestation or restraint at the Cities and Towns of Canton, Amoy, Foochow-fu, Ningpo, and Shanghai, and Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., will appoint Superintendents…to reside at each of the above-named Cities…, to be the medium of communication between the Chinese Authorities and the said Merchants, and to see that the just Duties and other Dues of the Chinese Government as hereafter provided for, are duly discharged by Her Britannic Majesty's Subjects. Article III It being obviously necessary and desirable, that British Subjects should have some Port whereat they may careen and refit their Ships, when required, and keep Stores for that purpose, His Majesty the Emperor of China cedes to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., the Island of Hong-Kong, to be possessed in perpetuity by her Britannic Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, and to be governed by such Laws and Regulations as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc., shall see fit to direct. Article V The Government of China having compelled the British Merchants trading at Canton to deal exclusively with certain Chinese Merchants called Hong merchants (or Cohong)…, the Emperor of China agrees to abolish that practice in future at all Ports where British Merchants may reside, and to permit them to carry on their mercantile transactions with whatever persons they please, and His Imperial Majesty further agrees to pay to the British Government the sum of Three Millions of Dollars, on account of Debts due to British Subjects by some of the said Hong Merchants (or Cohong) who have become insolvent, and who owe very large sums of money to Subjects of Her Britannic Majesty. Article VII It is agreed that the Total amount of Twenty-one Millions of Dollars,…, shall be paid Article IX The Emperor of China agrees to publish and promulgate, under his Imperial Sign Manual and Seal, a full and entire amnesty and act of indemnity, to all Subjects of China on account of their having resided under, or having had dealings and intercourse with, or having entered the Service of Her Britannic Majesty, or of Her Majesty's Officers, and His Imperial Majesty further engages to release all Chinese Subjects who may be at this moment in confinement for similar reasons. Article X His Majesty the Emperor of China agrees to establish all the Ports which are by the 2nd Article of this Treaty to be thrown open for the resort of British Merchants, a fair and regular Tariff of Export and Import Customs and other Dues, which Tariff shall be publicly notified and promulgated for general information, and the Emperor further engages, that when British Merchandise shall have once paid at any of the said Ports the regulated Customs and Dues agreeable to the Tariff, to be hereafter fixed, such Merchandise may be conveyed by Chinese Merchants, to any Province or City in the interior of the Empire of China on paying further amount as Transit Duties which shall not exceed ___ percent on the tariff value of such goods.
A. In what article do you find the transfer of the island of Hong Kong?
B. Why do the British claim this is necessary?
2. Compare the Treaty of Nanjing with the Chinese emperor's reply to Lord Macartney. What sort of rights did the Chinese give to the British that they previously would have refused to give?
3. Write a newspaper headline for a Chinese paper about the signing of the Treaty of Nanjing.
4. Write a newspaper headline for a British paper about the signing of the Treaty of Nanjing.
IV. Internal Problems A. Population in China was rising faster than ___________________ B. Chinese government was corrupt C. Opium addiction was rising steadily agricultural production The population had grown to 430 million by 1850 – a 30% gain in only 60 years.
V. Taiping Rebellion (1850-1862) (Taiping means “great peace”) A. Led by ____________________________ B. Influenced by________________________ C. He wanted an end to poverty D. Organized an army of peasants from southern China (1 million strong by 1853) E. 1853 - captured the city of ________ and declared it his capital F. The Qing regain control in 1864 Results: 1. ________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________ Hong Xiuquan over 20 million lives were lost Christian missionaries Nanjing much fertile farmland was destroyed
The Taiping Plan for Reorganizing Chinese Society From "The Land System of the Heavenly Dynasty" The division of land must be according to the number of individuals, whether male or female; calculating upon the number of individuals in a household, if they be numerous, then the amount of land will be larger, and if few smaller; and it shall be a mixture of the nine classes…All the fields in the empire are to be cultivated by all the people alike…thus, all the people in the empire may together enjoy the abundant happiness of the Heavenly Father, Supreme Lord and Great God. There being fields, let all cultivate them; there being food, let all eat; there being clothes, let all be dressed; there being money, let all use it, so that nowhere does inequality exist, and no man is not well fed and clothed. … At the time of the harvest, every sergeant shall direct the corporals to see to it that of the twenty-five families under his charge each individual has a sufficient supply of food, and aside from the new grain each may receive, the remainder must be deposited in the public granary. Of wheat, pulse, hemp, flax, cloth, silk, fowls, dogs, etc., and money, the same is true; for the whole empire is the universal family of our Heavenly Father, the Supreme Lord and Great God. When all the people in the empire will not take anything as their own but submit all things to the Supreme Lord, then the Lord will make use of them, and in the universal family of the empire, every place will be equal and every individual well fed and clothed. This is the intent of our Heavenly Father, the Supreme Lord and Great God, in specially commanding the true Sovereign of Taiping to save the world. Reprinted with permission from Mason Gentzler, Changing China. (New York: Praeger Publishers) c1977 pp.54-60.
How do these beliefs reflect traditional Chinese ideas? Western ideas?
Why do you think they were so powerful? To whom do you think they would appeal most in Chinese society: rulers, the educated, peasants, or merchants? Why?
VI. Rule of Dowager Empress Cixi A. Rules China from 1861-1908 B. Committed to traditional Chinese values
What did the secret society, known as the “Fists of Righteous Harmony” want to do?
What do you believe was the main motivation of the foreign troops for putting down the rebellion?
VIII. Boxer Rebellion (1900) A. Secret society formed called the ________________________ - resented special privileges granted to foreigners and Chinese Christians B. Surrounded European section of Beijing shouting ____________________ C. Defeated by soldiers from Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Russia, Japan, and U.S.
Boxer Protocol was signed in 1901 (China to pay reparations)
Nationalism increased in China
Realization that reforms were needed in order to survive
Society of Harmonious Fists “ Death to the foreign devils ”