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Opium wars


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Opium wars

  1. 1. <ul><li>The Opium Years </li></ul><ul><li>The Original War on Drugs </li></ul><ul><li>And Rebellion in China </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ The use of opium is not a curse, but a comfort and benefit to the hardworking Chinese.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jardine, Matheson, & Company </li></ul><ul><li> (largest British importer of Opium), 1858 </li></ul><ul><li>“ I am in dread of the judgment of God upon England for our national iniquity towards China” </li></ul><ul><li>- William Gladstone, 1842 </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ Like the triangle trade, the India-China trade…provided a foundation…[for] worldwide circulation of commodities and capital…economic historian A.J.H. Latham, </li></ul><ul><li>‘ The sale of [Indian] opium to China was a great link in the chain of commerce with which Britain had surrounded the world. The chain worked like this: The United Kingdom paid the United States for cotton by bills upon the Bank of England. The Americans took those bills to [Guangzhou] and swapped them for tea. The Chinese exchanged the bills for Indian opium…’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Early 19 th Century <ul><li>What is Qing foreign policy? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the Qing approach trade with the Europeans? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the British react to these political and economic policies? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Change/Continuity Snapshot <ul><li>1740 CE </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul><ul><li>1840 CE </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Britain </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li> Patna, </li></ul><ul><li> India </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects of Opium Sales in China <ul><li>Corroded the morals and health of millions of Chinese throughout all levels of society </li></ul><ul><li>Serious economic repercussions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Economic Impact <ul><li>Drop in demand for consumer goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorer classes already had limited purchasing power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British gained a favorable balance of trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silver began to flow out of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of all Chinese silver in circulation left the country between 1821 and 1840 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in value of silver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One Whip System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult to pay taxes </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What to do? <ul><li>Debate within the imperial court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legalize the drug, therefore control and tax it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen anti-drug laws and punishments </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Pressure to Change <ul><li>Lin Zexu </li></ul><ul><li>Arrives in Guangzhou in 1839 </li></ul><ul><li>Study Problem: He realizes virtually all foreigners were involved in the trade </li></ul><ul><li>Action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close port of Guangzhou </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All must turn in opium stocks, sign agreement to end trading, and would not be prosecuted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writes letter to monarch of England </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Opium in England <ul><li>Purchase, sale, and use of opium was illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Many condemned its use as immoral </li></ul><ul><li>However, Parliament declared in 1832 that it was “inadvisable to abandon so important a [source of] revenue”. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Smuggling to War <ul><li>English merchants ignored new Chinese decrees and the actions of Lin </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese believed the British would not risk losing Chinese trade (in the past the British would not have risked this) </li></ul><ul><li>After several months of small, violent events the British crown had enough the First Opium War began in 1839 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Results of the War <ul><li>The first in a series of unequal treaties, the Treaty of Nanjing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cession of Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over $25 million (in silver) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening of five ports for trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed tariff that could only be changed with British consent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraterritoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ most favored nation” status </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Result in the Forbidden City <ul><li>“ In fact you have been as if your arms were tied, without knowing what to do. It appears that you are no better than a wooden image.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor’s justification for firing Lin Zexu </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Why didn’t the Chinese admit to themselves that their civilization was not superior? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the imperial court believe to be the biggest threat to China? </li></ul><ul><li>Why would the mighty imperial Chinese court be concerned with this? </li></ul>