Introduction Tanzania (Ralph)Presentation Transcript
Introduction to Women’s Collective Action in Tanzania WCA Project Team Meeting, Bamako, 7 th April 2011
Poverty in Tanzania
Tanzania still remains one of the poorest countries in the world, because agricultural growth barely keeps pace with the population growth rate of 2.8% per annum. An estimated 36% of the population was still living below one US dollar a day in 2003.
At the current rate of poverty reduction (3% in ten years), it would take 120 years for poverty to be eliminated.
Some farming facts
Less than 20% of the farmers use any sort of inputs at all, including farmyard manure.
Only about 4% of the land with potential for irrigation is under irrigation.
Access to internal and external markets is limited by
physical isolation from markets
poor organization among rural smallholder farmers and producers.
absence of truly people owned cooperatives,
where membership, of women is very low being (9%) for Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives (AMCOS) and Savings and (30%) for Credit Cooperatives in Shinyanga region.
Cooperatives are also characterised by a very low capital base and poor leadership
Gender in agriculture
In Shinyanga region only 26% of female household heads can read and write, compared to 65% for their male counterparts.
Despite the country’s legislation, legal protection for women remains little and traditional, mostly strongly discriminatory views on gender roles, remain the widespread norm, resulting in a large share of poverty deprivations burdened by women.
Access to land for women
the government acknowledges customary and Islamic law, which encompasses tolerating their discriminatory practices, e.g. traditional inheritance to only male heirs are granted legal.
Credit and inputs
Women HH have low access to inputs and credit because:
not familiar with the credit providers
don't know about the possible credit options
have little bargaining power in the market
don't know where to sell the crop
Local Chicken Value Chain
The local chicken value chain provides good sources of access to production and control of benefits to women.
Vegetable collection centre
Many women are involved in vegetable production in Tanga Region. Women are know to produce and deliver high quality vegetables.
Sisal value chain
Oxfam has brought sisal as a cash crop from the coast to Shinyanga region.
Hand processing of sisal
Women and children are traditionally involved in fibre and rope making.
Old sisal processing machine
New raspadoras have been issued on loan to modernise and add vale to fibre processing
Rice value chain
Transplanting of rice seedlings is one of the innovations that contributes to higher production
Irrigation channel with silt trap
Irrigation structures are build through ‘Cash for Work’ approach
Land rights and small ruminant production for markets are the new focus of the pastoralist project.
Value chain approach in EJ programme Land & property rights Natural environment & resources Gender roles & behaviours Social norms & informal networks Governance, commercial law & enforcement Infrastructure Trade rules & competition policy Consumer trends Competition Quality standards & regulations Transport Alternative livelihood strategies Primary Producers
Exporters / Importers Processors Inputs Retailers Traders Finance Credit Insurance Savings Production Accreditation Extension Financial Management Business Development Quality Assurance Business Management Brand Development Market Information Trade Facilitation
Value chain gender focal areas Value chain Market chain Services Environment Local chicken Women producers Collection centres Traders Inputs: feeds Regional markets Functional literacy Business development: market information systems; business management skills SACCOS Vaccination Gender roles and behaviour: livestock ownership and benefits Trade policies and licenses Rice Women producer groups Rice schemes Processors : millers and traders Domestic and export markets Inputs: fertilisers, irrigation Functional literacy Business development: market information systems; business management skills SACCOS Post harvest quality Gender roles and behaviour Warehouse receipt systems Public expenditure tracking Multi-stakeholder platforms Sisal Nursery operators Women producers Processors: raspadoras, brushing machine, rope making Domestic market Functional literacy Business development: market information systems; business management skills Production: extension services through district and NGOs Gender roles and behaviour: labour and benefits; intra-household benefits; intra-household financial management Public expenditure tracking Trade rules: Multi-stakeholder platforms, by-laws; codes of business conduct
Value chain focal areas Value chain Market chain Services Environment Vegetable Input dealers Women producers Collection centres Traders Transport DSM and local markets Functional literacy Business development SACCOS Extension Gender roles and behaviour Access to irrigation Pastoralist livestock Women pastoralists Goat collection centres Cooperative factories Supermarkets Collective cattle marketing Functional literacy Business development Vaccination Gender roles and behaviour : livestock ownership and benefits Land and property rights Natural resources
Current gender research activities
Women’s Collective Action for Market Access (BMGF)
MSc study on ‘ Women’s Access to Secure Land Tenure’
MSc study on ‘Indigenous knowledge and decision-making processes in risk resilience amongst female small-holder farmers’